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Rashi Singhal, Sheetal Chawla, Harish Batra, Sameer Gupta, Amrita Ojha, Deepak K Rathore, Tulika Seth, Prasenjit Guchhait
The distinct response shown by different phenotypes of macrophages and monocytes under various clinical conditions have put the heterogeneity of these cells into focus of investigation for several diseases. Recently we have described that after engulfing Hb-activated platelets, classical monocytes differentiated into pro-inflammatory phenotypes, which were abundant in the circulation of PNH and SCD patients. Our current study shows that upon engulfment of Hb-activated platelets, monocytes differentiate into M1-macrophages under M1-polarization stimulus (GM-CSF, IFN-γ+LPS)...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Satheesh Chonat, Morgan L McLemore, Silvia T Bunting, Shannon Nortman, Kejian Zhang, Theodosia A Kalfa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Amarkumar Dhirajlal Rajgor, Navid Akhtar Hakim, Sanah Ali, Adnan Darr
Background. Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS) is the acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms following group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. The aetiology remains elusive. However, with group A streptococcus being the most common bacterial cause of tonsillitis, surgical intervention in the form of tonsillectomy has often been considered as a potential therapy. Methods. A MEDLINE® search was undertaken using keywords "PANDAS" or "paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus" combined with "tonsillectomy"...
2018: International Journal of Otolaryngology
Jolie Lawrence, Amanda Gwee, Catherine Quinlan
OBJECTIVE: Pneumococcal infection is a leading cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and is potentially vaccine preventable. Published data suggest high mortality and poor renal outcomes. The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has seen the emergence of disease caused by non-vaccine strains, particularly 19A. We sought to describe serotype prevalence and outcomes, particularly after the introduction of the 13-valent PCV. DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a retrospective chart review, using hospital medical records to identify cases of HUS in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Australia over a 20-year period (January 1997-December 2016)...
April 19, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Judith Recht, Elizabeth A Ashley, Nicholas J White
Primaquine is the only available antimalarial drug that kills dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malarias and therefore prevents their relapse ('radical cure'). It is also the only generally available antimalarial that rapidly sterilises mature P. falciparum gametocytes. Radical cure requires extended courses of primaquine (usually 14 days; total dose 3.5-7 mg/kg), whereas transmissibility reduction in falciparum malaria requires a single dose (formerly 0.75 mg/kg, now a single low dose [SLD] of 0...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hira Shaikh, Nour Daboul, Mary Albrethsen, Salman Fazal
With growing use of nivolumab, rare but serious side effects have surfaced in some patients. We present a case of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia that developed after 39 cycles of nivolumab. A 78-year-old man with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy was switched to nivolumab. After around 2 years of stable course on nivolumab, he developed transfusion-dependent anaemia with haemoglobin of 8.6 g/dL. Nivolumab was held immediately. Bone marrow biopsy findings were inconclusive of myelodysplastic syndrome...
April 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Luani Barge, Gail Pahn, Nicholas Weber
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen which may cause haematological manifestations including haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopaenia. Severe neutropaenia is rare with very few cases reported in the literature. An 85-year-old man was transferred to our facility with agranulocytosis in the context of an infective exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with positive serological testing for M. pneumoniae. No alternative infective, autoimmune or lymphoproliferative cause of the neutropaenia was identified...
April 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Arwa Z Al-Riyami, Mouza Al-Salmani, Sabria N Al-Hashami, Sabah Al-Mahrooqi, Ali Al-Marhoobi, Sumaiya Al-Hinai, Saif Al-Hosni, Sathiya M Panchatcharam, Zainab A Al-Arimi
Objectives: Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) causes hydrops fetalis . The successful treatment of HDFN has been reported with intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT). This study aimed to describe the initial experience with IUT procedures in Oman. Methods: This retrospective observational study took place at the Royal Hospital and Sultan Qaboos University Hospital Blood Bank, Muscat, Oman, and included all women who underwent IUT procedures in Oman between March 2012 and March 2016...
February 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Shyam Narayan, Chandreshwar Prasad Thakur, Shiv Bahadur, Meenakshi Thakur, Shashi Nath Pandey, Ajit Kumar Thakur, Dipendra K Mitra, Pulok K Mukherjee
Background & objectives: The existing antileishmanial drugs for complete cure of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) are limited. The available drugs are either toxic or less effective leading to disease relapse or conversion to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Several herbal extracts have been shown to have antileishmanial activity, but a herbal drug may not always be safe. In the present study, the extract of Cedrus deodara leaves has been standardized and tested for immunomodulatory antileishmanial activities...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Atsushi Shibuya, Hiroaki Kawashima, Masato Tanaka
OBJECTIVES: In order to investigate the pathophysiology of erythrocyte membrane proteins, 10 patients (6 pre- and 4 post-splenectomy) with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and other patients with haemolytic anaemia were examined. METHODS: The membrane proteins were analysed by biochemical and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Reductions in the extracellular membrane of band 3 protein by eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test were greater in patients with pre-splenectomy HS than in patients with post-splenectomy HS, other types of haemolytic anaemia, and controls...
April 6, 2018: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Kazumasa Oya, Rei Watanabe, Sae Inoue, Naoshi Obara, Yusuke Kiyoki, Mamiko Sakata-Yanagimoto, Shigeru Chiba, Chie Saito, Yutaka Matsumura, Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Yosuke Ishitsuka, Hiroshi Maruyama, Naoko Okiyama, Yasuhiro Fujisawa, Manabu Fujimoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
J John Melbin Jose, Kootallur N Brahmadathan, Vinod J Abraham, Chiung-Yu Huang, David Morens, Nancy P Hoe, Dean A Follmann, Richard M Krause
Diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis in children on the basis of clinical appearance and throat culture is complicated by high colonisation rates and by the ability of other pathogens to cause clinically similar disease. To characterise the epidemiology of Lancefield Group A, C and G β-haemolytic streptococcus (GAS, GCS and GGS, respectively) in children, we conducted a 2-year prospective study of 307 school children between 7 and 11 years old. GGS and GAS were commonly identified organisms both for silent streptococcal colonisation and symptomatic sore throat, while GCS was uncommonly found...
April 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
A Bahi, F A Guardiola, M A Esteban
Clove oil is used as an anaesthetic for many species of fish worldwide; however, relatively few studies have assessed its effects on the innate immune response on these species. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of clove oil-eugenol derived anaesthetic on some humoral and cellular immune response in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). To compare with an unexposed control group, fish were exposed to 55 ppm clove oil for 5 min, before being sampled at 1, 24 and 48 h post-exposure. Serum glucose level was also measured to obtain information on the fish physiological response after clove oil anaesthesia...
March 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Natalia L Kozlovskaya, Yulia V Korotchaeva, Larisa A Bobrova
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case series is to raise awareness of obstetric-related atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) amongst obstetricians and gynaecologists. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 20 consecutive patients, aged 19-38, with obstetric-aHUS manifestation during or immediately after pregnancy are reported. Patients were diagnosed and treatment was initiated between 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: Presentation of aHUS was mainly preceded by preeclampsia and/or haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome, other obstetric complications, or by diarrhoea...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Paulina Sicińska
Phthalates have been extensively used as plasticizers in various fields, including food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industry. Those compounds do not form covalent bonds to substances they are being added to, and thus they may migrate easily and penetrate various products used every day. They may reach organisms with air, food, or by a direct skin contact. Significant levels of phthalates and their metabolites are found in urine, breast milk, blood serum, venous blood, and cord blood. The purpose of this study was to assess the simple toxicity (haemolysis) and programmed death (eryptosis) caused by following phthalates: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and their metabolites: mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) in vitro in human RBCs...
March 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Vadim V Kumeiko, Yulia N Sokolnikova, Andrei V Grinchenko, Maria S Mokrina, Marina I Kniazkina
Quantitative analysis of the histopathological and immune parameters of bivalve Modiolus kurilensis collected from water areas with different level of ecotoxicological stress was performed. Significant differences between samples from polluted and non-polluted sites were revealed for total haemocyte count; percentage of agranulocytes; size and internal complexity of agranulocytes and granulocytes; phagocytic activity; percentage of NBT-positive cells; haemolytic activity and plasma protein concentration; percentage of the optical density of haemolymph major polypeptide bands at 55kDa, 78kDa, and 124kDa; concretion coverage area in the kidney tubules; thickness of the tubular basement membrane; nephrocyte shape; and karyopyknosis of the kidneys; and hypervacuolisation; necrosis; karyopyknosis; haemocyte infiltration; fibrosis; and invasion of the digestive gland...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Marieke Haalboom, Miriam H E Blokhuis-Arkes, Roland J Beuk, Rob Klont, Georg Guebitz, Andrea Heinzle, Job van der Palen
The question remains whether wound swabs yield similar culture results to the traditional gold standard, biopsies. Swabs are not invasive and easy to perform. However, they are believed to capture microorganisms from the surface rather than microorganisms that have invaded tissue. Several studies compared swabs and biopsies using different populations and sampling methods, complicating the ability to draw conclusions for clinical practice. This study aimed to compare swab and biopsy in clinical practice, by including a variety of wounds and using standard sampling and culture procedures...
March 30, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Devarajan Rathish, Sisira Siribaddana
Background: Tuberculosis induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is a rare entity. The aim of this study was to explore its common presentations, investigation findings and treatment options through a systematic review of published reports. Methods: PubMed, Trip, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Open-Grey, Grey literature report and the reference lists of the selected articles were searched for case reports in English on tuberculosis induced auto-immune haemolytic anaemia...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Naveen Kumar, Deepanjali Surendran, Chanaveerappa Bammigatti
A young female in her early 20s presented with low-grade fever for 1 month, puffiness of face and abdominal distension for 15 days. Evaluation revealed pancytopenia with normocellular marrow, hypocomplementaemia and Coomb's positive haemolytic anaemia. She had angioedema with laryngospasm and worsening facial oedema which had dramatic response to steroids. Further workup lead to a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric involvement. Treatment with pulse steroids and cyclophosphamide resulted in dramatic improvement of her symptoms with no recurrence of angioedema during her follow-up visits...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Abdul Rehman, Mohanad Shehadeh, Diala Khirfan, Akhnuwhkh Jones
Methaemoglobin is a form of haemoglobin in which the ferrous (Fe2+ ) ion contained in the iron-porphyrin complex of haem is oxidised to its ferric (Fe3+ ) state. Methaemoglobinaemia, the presence of methaemoglobin in the blood, is most commonly treated with methylene blue. However, methylene blue cannot be used in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency as it is ineffective in such patients and it can worsen G6PD deficiency haemolysis. We report the case of a 30-year-old man who presented with clinical features of G6PD deficiency-associated haemolysis and was found to have severe methaemoglobinaemia (35%)...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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