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Ravinder Kaur, Jareth Wischmeyer, Matthew Morris, Michael E Pichichero
OBJECTIVE: We compared the recovery of potential respiratory bacterial pathogens and normal flora from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from children during health and at the onset of acute otitis media (AOM) by selective direct-plating and overnight broth-enrichment. METHODS: Overall, 3442 nasal wash (NW) samples collected from young children were analysed from a 10-year prospective study. NWs were cultured by (1) direct-plating to TSAII/5 % sheep blood agar and chocolate agar plates and (2) overnight broth-enrichment in BacT/ALERT SA-broth followed by plating...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Rune Micha Pedersen, Marc Trunjer Kusk Nielsen, Sören Möller, Steen Ethelberg, Marianne Nielsine Skov, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Flemming Scheutz, Hanne Marie Holt, Flemming Schønning Rosenvinge
OBJECTIVES: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhoeal disease, bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of STEC and the clinical features of STEC patients from a well-defined Danish population in which all fecal samples of patients with suspected infective gastroenteritis were analysed for STEC. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, all stool samples referred to two clinical microbiology laboratories, were screened for STEC by culture and/or PCR...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
R Larsen, N Sandhu, N H H Heegaard, H Ullum, J H von Stemann, E Sørensen, D S Nellemann, M B Hansen
It would be desirable to be able to distinguish fever as a result of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) from other febrile conditions. To further characterize the inflammatory feature of FNHTR, we measured a large panel of inflammatory markers in pre- and posttransfusion plasma samples from patients with and without FNHTR following the transfusion of leucoreduced red blood cells. As FNHTR patients only displayed a significant increase in IL-6, we conclude that changes in plasma cytokine levels during FNHTR are unlikely to be used diagnostically...
October 11, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
Patricia Lynn Shewmaker, Anne M Whitney, Christopher A Gulvik, Neil S Lipman
Three isolates of a previously reported novel catalase-negative, Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, alpha-haemolytic, Streptococcus species that were associated with meningoencephalitis in naïve weanling mice were further evaluated to confirm their taxonomic status and to determine additional phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed nearly identical intra-species sequence similarity (≥99.9 %), and revealed the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptococcus acidominimus and Streptococcus cuniculi, with 97...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
K E Lawrence, S F Forsyth, B Vaatstra, A M J McFadden, D Pulford, K Govindaraju, W Pomroy
AIMS: To present the haematology and biochemistry profiles for cattle in New Zealand naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type and investigate if the results differed between adult dairy cattle and calves aged <6 months. METHODS: Haematology and biochemistry results were obtained from blood samples from cattle which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type by PCR, that were submitted to veterinary laboratories in New Zealand between October 2012 and November 2014...
October 11, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Lili Duse, Shashank Reddy Pinnapireddy, Boris Strehlow, Jarmila Jedelská, Udo Bakowsky
Oncological use of photodynamic therapy is an evolving field in cancer therapeutics. Photosensitisers are prone to accumulation inside healthy tissues causing undesirable effects. To avoid this, we have developed tetraether lipid liposomal formulations containing curcumin which is a naturally occurring anti-cancer substance and deemed to be safe towards healthy cells. Upon excitation with light at a specific wavelength, curcumin produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in presence of oxygen, thereby exhibiting a cytotoxic effect towards the surrounding tissues, giving a total control on the onset of therapy...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Pengyang Xin, Yonghui Sun, Huiyuan Kong, Yaodong Wang, Si Tan, Jingjing Guo, Tao Jiang, Wenpei Dong, Chang-Po Chen
Five unimolecular channels with different lengths are presented. The varying length of these channels has significant impact on their transmembrane transport properties, which are directly correlated with their antimicrobial activity and inversely correlated with their haemolytic toxicity. By further structural optimization, these new channels could reach high antimicrobial activity and very low haemolytic toxicity, with the potential to serve as systemic antibiotics.
October 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
J Clement, A P K Lee, G A Verpooten, L Laenen, V Vergote, H De Samblanx, Z N Berneman, M Van Ranst, P Maes
The European prototype of hantavirus, Puumala virus (PUUV), isolated from a common wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), causes nephropathia epidemica (NE). NE can perfectly mimic haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), progressing from an aspecific flu-like syndrome to acute kidney injury with thrombocytopaenia, and presenting with some signs of haemolytic anaemia and/or coagulopathy. Moreover, both NE and HUS can occur in local outbreaks. We report an isolated case of NE, initially referred for plasmapheresis for suspected HUS, although signs of overt haemolysis were lacking...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
I Castro-Ferreira, Rute Carmo, Sérgio Estrela Silva, Otília Corrêa, Susana Fernandes, Susana Sampaio, Rodrigues-Pereira Pedro, Augusta Praça, João Paulo Oliveira
Familial lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (FLD) is a rare recessive disorder of cholesterol metabolism, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the human LCAT gene, leading to alterations in the lipid/lipoprotein profile, with extremely low HDL levels.The classical FLD phenotype is characterized by diffuse corneal opacification, haemolytic anaemia and proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD); an incomplete form, only affecting the corneas, has been reported in a few families worldwide.We describe an intermediate phenotype of LCAT deficiency, with CKD preceding the development of corneal clouding, in two Portuguese brothers apparently homozygous for a novel missense LCAT gene mutation...
October 6, 2017: JIMD Reports
Maxime Mahu, Filip Boyen, Stefano Canessa, Jackeline Zavala Marchan, Freddy Haesebrouck, An Martel, Frank Pasmans
Swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, results in substantial economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide. Although a number of different vaccine approaches have been explored with regard to this disease, they show limitations and none of them have reached the market. We here determine the vaccine potential of a weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain. The virulence of this strain was assessed in experimental infection trials and its protection against swine dysentery was quantified in a vaccination-challenge experiment using a seeder infection model...
October 5, 2017: Veterinary Research
Elisa Serra-Casas, Paulo Manrique, Xavier C Ding, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Freddy Alava, Anthony Gave, Hugo Rodriguez, Juan Contreras-Mancilla, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Niko Speybroeck, Iveth J González, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Dionicia Gamboa
BACKGROUND: Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) methodology offers an opportunity for point-of-care (POC) molecular detection of asymptomatic malaria infections. However, there is still little evidence on the feasibility of implementing this technique for population screenings in isolated field settings. METHODS: Overall, we recruited 1167 individuals from terrestrial ('road') and hydric ('riverine') communities of the Peruvian Amazon for a cross-sectional survey to detect asymptomatic malaria infections...
2017: PloS One
Vicky Brocklebank, David Kavanagh
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), characterized by organ injury occurring consequent to severe endothelial damage, can manifest in a diverse range of diseases. In complement-mediated atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) a primary defect in complement, such as a mutation or autoantibody leading to over activation of the alternative pathway, predisposes to the development of disease, usually following exposure to an environmental trigger. The elucidation of the pathogenesis of aHUS resulted in the successful introduction of the complement inhibitor eculizumab into clinical practice...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
Samarth Virmani, Rama Bhat, Raghavendra Rao, Ruchee Khanna, Lipisha Agarwal
Patients living with HIV are commonly diagnosed with anaemia which can have various aetiologies. However, one of the rare causes of anaemia in such patients is Auto Immune Haemolytic Anaemia (AIHA), which is difficult to diagnose due to the absence of reticulocytosis in HIV patients. Such patients can be treated with corticosteroids which can gradually be tapered off over a period of time. The following is a case of a 52-year-old male living with HIV who was diagnosed to have AIHA and was successfully treated with steroids...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Rina Raibhan Wasnik, Nilkanth Ramji Akarte
INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell anaemia is a condition characterized by haemolytic and vaso-occlusive crisis. Previous studies in different part of the world have reported deficiency of zinc, vitamin C and E but the role of their supplementation in sickle cell disease remains question. Nutritional factors may contribute to clinical manifestation in rural population of developing countries specially in adolescent age group. Thus, the present study was designed in rural population of Wardha district of Maharashtra in adolescent sickle cell homozygous patients in view to evaluate serum zinc and antioxidant vitamins C and E...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Laura Bricio-Moreno, Chinelo Ebruke, Chrispin Chaguza, Jennifer Cornick, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Marie Yang, Grant Mackenzie, Brendan W Wren, Dean Everett, Martin Antonio, Aras Kadioglu
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 is one of the leading causes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in West Africa, with ST618 being the dominant cause of IPD in The Gambia. Recently however, a rare example of clonal replacement was observed, where the ST3081 clone of serotype 1 replaced the predominant ST618 clone as the main cause of IPD. In this study, we seek to find the reasons for this unusual replacement event. Using whole genome sequence analysis and clinically relevant models of in vivo infection, we identify distinct genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the emerging ST3081 clone...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
A Loniewska-Lwowska, K Koza, E Mendek-Czajkowska, P Wieszczy, A Adamowicz-Salach, K Branicka, I Witos, A Sapala-Smoczynska, T Jackowska, J Fabijanska-Mitek
INTRODUCTION: Hereditary haemolytic anaemias (HHA) encompass a heterogeneous group of anaemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of red blood cell (RBC) surface molecules known or previously proposed to participate in preventing premature RBC clearance, analysing erythrocytes from patients with two types of HHA: hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and microcytosis. MATERIAL/METHODS: Relative binding of five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), anti-CD55, anti-CD59, anti-CD44, anti-CD47 and anti-CD58, was evaluated in erythrocytes of patients with HS and hereditary microcytosis, using flow cytometry...
September 30, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Naiem Ahmad Wani, Gurpreet Singh, Sudha Shankar, Arushi Sharma, Meenu Katoch, Rajkishor Rai
The peptides containing β- and γ-amino acids, LA-Lys(Z)-PEA, P1; LA-Lys(Z)-β(3,3)-Ac6c-PEA, P2; LA-Orn(Z)-β(3,3)-Ac6c-PEA, P3; LA-Lys(Z)-Gpn-PEA, P4; LA-Orn(Z)-Gpn-PEA, P5; LA-Lys(Z)-γ(4)-Phe-PEA, P6, LA-γ(4)-Leu-Lys(Z)-PEA, P7 and LA-β(3,3)-Pip(Ac)-Lys(Z)-PEA, P8 were synthesized, characterized and evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Among all, peptides P2, P3, P4 and P5 exhibited potent activity (MIC 6.25μM) against S. aureus MTCC 737 and P. aeruginosa MTCC 424. In order to understand the efficacy of peptides and mechanism of action, time kill kinetics and fluorescence microscopic studies were performed against S...
September 28, 2017: Peptides
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer M Streit, Patricia A Hogan, Robert K Flamm
Objectives: To report the linezolid in vitro activity obtained during the 2015 ZAAPS Program. Methods: In total, 7587 organisms causing documented infections were consecutively collected in 65 centres in 32 ex-USA countries. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed. Isolates displaying linezolid MIC results of ≥ 4 mg/L were molecularly characterized. Results: Linezolid inhibited >99.9% of Staphylococcus aureus at ≤ 2 mg/L, with MIC 50 results of 1 mg/L, regardless of methicillin resistance...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Thilo Bartolmäs, Beate Mayer, Abdelwahab H Balola, Abdulgabar Salama
OBJECTIVE: Haemolysis and anaemia related to autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) of warm type (wAIHA) and of cold type (cAIHA) are believed to be solely due to antibody and/or complement-mediated destruction and clearance of red blood cells (RBCs). There is evidence that RBCs of affected patients may also undergo eryptosis, the suicidal death of RBCs. METHOD: RBCs from 24 patients with wAIHA, 7 patients with chronic cAIHA, and one patient with AIHA of mixed-type were analysed for exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) by treatment with phycoerythrin (PE)-labelled Annexin V and cell-associated fluorescence was measured using a MACSQuant flow cytometer...
September 27, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
N H P Glijn, D van der Linde, E Ertekin, P L M van Burg, Y A M Grimbergen, E J Libourel
We present a case of non-immune haemolytic anaemia with leukopenia and acute severe neurological impairments, as a result of severe vitamin B12 deficiency due to recreational use of nitrous oxide.
September 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
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