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Hepatitis C virus lipids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339489/human-subtilisin-kexin-isozyme-1-ski-1-site-1-protease-s1p-regulates-cytoplasmic-lipid-droplet-abundance-a-potential-target-for-indirect-acting-anti-dengue-virus-agents
#1
Anastasia Hyrina, Fanrui Meng, Steven J McArthur, Sharlene Eivemark, Ivan R Nabi, François Jean
Viral hijacking and manipulation of host-cell biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses are shared molecular events essential for the viral lifecycle. For Flaviviridae members such as hepatitis C virus and dengue virus (DENV), one of the key subsets of cellular pathways that undergo manipulation is the lipid metabolic pathways, underlining the importance of cellular lipids and, in particular, lipid droplets (LDs) in viral infection. Here, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes that act as key regulators of lipid homeostasis and LD formation could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with all DENV serotypes (1-4) circulating around the world...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336560/lipoprotein-a-and-hiv-allele-specific-apolipoprotein-a-levels-predict-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hiv-infected-young-women-in-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#2
Enkhmaa Byambaa, Anuurad Erdembileg, Wei Zhang, Chin-Shang Li, Robert Kaplan, Jason Lazar, Dan Merenstein, Roksana Karim, Brad Aouizerat, Mardge Cohen, Kenneth Butler, Savita Pahwa, Igho Ofotokun, Adaora A Adimora, Elizabeth Golub, Lars Berglund
OBJECTIVE: In the general population, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been established as an independent causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) levels are to a major extent regulated by a size polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] gene. The roles of Lp(a)/apo(a) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related elevated cardiovascular disease risk remain unclear. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The associations between total plasma Lp(a) level, allele-specific apo(a) level, an Lp(a) level carried by individual apo(a) alleles, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were assessed in 150 HIV-infected and 100 HIV-uninfected women in the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study)...
March 23, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336330/requirement-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-gamma-in-lipid-droplet-formation
#3
Xi Su, Shuhui Liu, Xianwen Zhang, Sin Man Lam, Xue Hu, Yuan Zhou, Jizheng Chen, Yun Wang, Chunchen Wu, Guanghou Shui, Mengji Lu, Rongjuan Pei, Xinwen Chen
Lipid droplet (LD) accumulation in hepatocytes is a typical character of steatosis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, one of the risk factors related to steatosis, induced LD accumulation in cultured cells. However, the mechanisms of which HCV induce LD formation are not fully revealed. Previously we identified cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma (PLA2G4C) as a host factor upregulated by HCV infection and involved in HCV replication. Here we further revealed that PLA2G4C plays an important role in LD biogenesis and refined the functional analysis of PLA2G4C in LD biogenesis and HCV assembly...
March 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249699/detection-of-high-biliary-and-fecal-viral-loads-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#4
Hugo Monrroy, Jenniffer Angulo, Karla Pino, Pilar Labbé, Juan Francisco Miquel, Marcelo López-Lastra, Alejandro Soza
BACKGROUND: The life cycle of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is closely associated with lipid metabolism. Recently, NPC1L1 (a cholesterol transporter) has been reported to function as an HCV receptor. This receptor is expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and in the intestine; serving as a key transporter for the cholesterol enterohepatic cycle. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that HCV might have a similar cycle, so we aimed to study the presence of HCV in bile and stools of infected patients...
February 26, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242560/viral-rewiring-of-cellular-lipid-metabolism-to-create-membranous-replication-compartments
#5
REVIEW
Jeroen Rpm Strating, Frank Jm van Kuppeveld
Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses (e.g. poliovirus, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, SARS-coronavirus) remodel cellular membranes to form so-called viral replication compartments (VRCs), which are the sites where viral RNA genome replication takes place. To induce VRC formation, these viruses extensively rewire lipid metabolism. Disparate viruses have many commonalities as well as disparities in their interactions with the host lipidome and accumulate specific sets of lipids (sterols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids) at their VRCs...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223719/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-pruritus-etiopathogenesis-and-therapeutic-strategies
#6
EDITORIAL
Youssef Alhmada, Denis Selimovic, Fadi Murad, Sarah-Lilly Hassan, Youssef Haikel, Mossaad Megahed, Matthias Hannig, Mohamed Hassan
In addition to its contributing role in the development of chronic liver diseases, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic manifestations, particularly, cutaneous-based disorders including those with pruritus as a symptom. Pruritus is frequently associated with the development of chronic liver diseases such as cholestasis and chronic viral infection, and the accumulation of bile acids in patients' sera and tissues as a consequence of liver damage is considered the main cause of pruritus...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198443/serum-lipid-alterations-identified-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-cirrhosis-and-carcinoma-patients
#7
Tao Wu, Xiaojiao Zheng, Ming Yang, Aihua Zhao, Meng Li, Tianlu Chen, Jun Panee, Wei Jia, Guang Ji
The incidences of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated cirrhosis and HBV-associated carcinoma are high and increasing. This study was designed to evaluate serum lipid metabolite changes that are associated with the progression from CHB to HBV-associated cirrhosis and ultimately to HBV-associated HCC. A targeted metabolomic assay was performed in fasting sera from 136 CHB patients, 104 HBV-associated cirrhosis, and 95 HBV-associated HCC using ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193659/oligonucleotide-lipid-conjugates-forming-g-quadruplex-structures-are-potent-and-pangenotypic-hepatitis-c-virus-entry-inhibitors-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#8
George Koutsoudakis, Alexia Paris de León, Carolina Herrera, Marcus Dorner, Gemma Pérez-Vilaró, Sébastien Lyonnais, Santiago Grijalvo, Ramon Eritja, Andreas Meyerhans, Gilles Mirambeau, Juana Díez
An HCV epidemic affecting HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is expanding worldwide. Albeit the improved cure rates obtained with the new direct-acting antiviral drug (DAA) combinations, the high rate of reinfection within this population calls urgently for novel preventive interventions. Here we show in cell culture and ex vivo experiments with human colorectal tissue that lipoquads, G-quadruplex DNA structures fused to cholesterol, are efficient HCV pangenotypic entry and cell-to-cell transmission inhibitors...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182619/contribution-of-common-infections-to-cardiovascular-risk-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#9
Victoria Berquist, Jennifer F Hoy, Janine M Trevillyan
HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to complex interactions between the increased incidence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and HIV and antiretroviral-associated inflammation and dyslipidemia. Increasing evidence suggests that a number of important co-pathogens, including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus, and periodontal disease, are likely to also be contributing. Mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and modification of lipids play a role; however, induction of systemic inflammation is the likely key pathogenic link by which this occurs...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152568/apolipoprotein-a-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-entry-through-interaction-with-infectious-particles
#10
Catarina Oliveira, Carole Fournier, Véronique Descamps, Virginie Morel, Corey A Scipione, Rocco Romagnuolo, Marlys L Koschinsky, Agnès Boullier, Paulo Marcelo, Jean-Marc Domon, Etienne Brochot, Gilles Duverlie, Catherine Francois, Sandrine Castelain, Francois Helle
The development of different cell culture models has greatly contributed to improve the knowledge of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle. However, it is still challenging to grow HCV clinical isolates in cell culture. This would open new perspectives to study HCV biology, including drug resistant variants emerging with new antiviral therapies. In this study we hypothesized that this hurdle could be due to the presence of inhibitory factors in patient serum. Combining polyethylene glycol precipitation, iodixanol gradient and size-exclusion chromatography, we obtained a purified fraction enriched in inhibitory factors from HCV seronegative sera...
February 2, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148799/computational-prediction-of-the-heterodimeric-and-higher-order-structure-of-gpe1-gpe2-envelope-glycoproteins-encoded-by-the-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv
#11
Holly Freedman, Michael R Logan, Darren Hockman, Julia Koehler Leman, John Lok Man Law, Michael Houghton
Despite the recent success of newly developed direct acting antivirals against Hepatitis C, the disease continues to be a global health threat due to lack of diagnosis of most carriers and the high cost of treatment. The heterodimer formed by the glycoproteins E1 and E2 within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) lipid envelope is a potential vaccine candidate and antiviral target. While the structure of E1/E2 has not yet been resolved, partial crystal structures of the E1 and E2 ectodomains have been determined. The unresolved parts of the structure are within the realm of what can be modeled with current computational modeling tools...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126468/autotaxin-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-signalling-regulates-hepatitis-c-virus-replication
#12
Michelle J Farquhar, Isla S Humphreys, Simon A Rudge, Garrick K Wilson, Bishnupriya Bhattacharya, Maria Ciaccia, Ke Hu, Qifeng Zhang, Laurent Mailly, Gary M Reynolds, Margaret Aschcroft, Peter Balfe, Thomas F Baumert, Stephanie Roessler, Michael J O Wakelam, Jane A McKeating
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem with an estimated 170 million HCV infected individuals at risk of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Autotaxin (ATX) is a phospholipase with diverse roles in physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and oncogenesis. Clinical studies have reported increased ATX expression in chronic hepatitis C, however, the pathways regulating ATX and its role in the viral life cycle are not well understood...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125040/silymarin-silybin-and-chronic-liver-disease-a-marriage-of-many-years
#13
REVIEW
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Carmelina Loguercio
Silymarin is the extract of Silybum marianum, or milk thistle, and its major active compound is silybin, which has a remarkable biological effect. It is used in different liver disorders, particularly chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic power. Indeed, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin is oriented towards the reduction of virus-related liver damages through inflammatory cascade softening and immune system modulation...
January 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112725/erratum-tuning-a-cellular-lipid-kinase-activity-adapts-hepatitis-c-virus-to-replication-in-cell-culture
#14
Christian Harak, Max Meyrath, Inés Romero-Brey, Christian Schenk, Claire Gondeau, Philipp Schult, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Mohsan Saeed, Petra Neddermann, Paul Schnitzler, Daniel Gotthardt, Sofia Perez-Del-Pulgar, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Robert Thimme, Philip Meuleman, W R Vondran Florian, Raffaele De Francesco, Charles M Rice, Ralf Bartenschlager, Volker Lohmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105255/pi3k-ship2-pten-pathway-in-cell-polarity-and-hepatitis-c-virus-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Aline Awad, Ama Gassama-Diagne
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects hepatocytes, polarized cells in the liver. Chronic HCV infection often leads to steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and it has been identified as the leading cause of liver transplantation worldwide. The HCV replication cycle is dependent on lipid metabolism and particularly an accumulation of lipid droplets in host cells. Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor phospholipids enriched in different membranes and their levels are tightly regulated by specific PI kinases and phosphatases...
January 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097097/mir-29a-promotes-lipid-droplet-and-triglyceride-formation-in-hcv-infection-by-inducing-expression-of-srebp-1c-and-cav1
#16
Mennatallah Mamdouh Mahdy, Nada Magdy El-Ekiaby, Rana Mahmoud Hashish, Radwa Ayman Salah, Rasha Sayed Hanafi, Hassan Mohamed Azzazy, Ahmed Ihab Abdelaziz
Aims: To examine the regulation of SREBP-1c and CAV1 by microRNA-29a (miR-29a) in cells infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in an attempt to control HCV-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods: In order to examine the manipulation of SREBP-1c and CAV1 by miR-29a, oleic acid (OA)-treated JFH-I-infected Huh-7 cells were used. OA was added 24 h post-transfection and gene expression was investigated by qRT-PCR at 48 h post treatment. The functional impact of the observed alteration in SREBP-1c and CAV1 expression was analyzed by examining lipid droplet (LD) and triglyceride (TG) content at 72 h post-OA treatment using light microscopy and spectrophotometry, respectively...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088354/uncovering-oxysterol-binding-protein-osbp-as-a-target-of-the-anti-enteroviral-compound-ttp-8307
#17
Lucian Albulescu, Joëlle Bigay, Bishyajit Biswas, Marion Weber-Boyvat, Cristina M Dorobantu, Leen Delang, Hilde M van der Schaar, Young-Sik Jung, Johan Neyts, Vesa M Olkkonen, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Jeroen R P M Strating
The genus Enterovirus (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus) of the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes many important pathogens linked to a range of acute and chronic diseases for which no approved antiviral therapy is available. Targeting a step in the life cycle that is highly conserved provides an attractive strategy for developing broad-range inhibitors of enterovirus infection. A step that is currently explored as a target for the development of antivirals is the formation of replication organelles, which support replication of the viral genome...
April 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077274/the-role-and-regulation-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-human-liver
#18
REVIEW
Sander Kersten, Rinke Stienstra
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver...
January 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073421/-research-advances-in-the-role-of-sphingolipids-in-hcv-and-hbv-life-cycles
#19
J Y Zhang, Z P Duan, J L Zhang, S J Zheng
Sphingolipids and their metabolites are not only important structural molecules of the cell membrane, but also involved in all phases of viral life cycle, including cell adhesion, membrane fusion, viral replication, viral assembly, intracellular transport, protein sorting, and exocytosis. In recent years, sphingolipids have become one of the focuses of lipid research. This article reviews the role of sphingolipids in the life cycles of hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus with reference to recent research achievements in China and foreign countries...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056752/inhibiting-the-secretion-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-to-treat-hepatitis-b-infection-a-review
#20
Simon D Baugh
Chronic Hepatitis B is a major global health issue, and has no known cure. Currently there are over 240 million people infected with the disease, and it leads to the death of over 686,000 people each year. A total of seven treatments which help to control the disease are currently available: interferon-based treatments (pegasys, and interferon alpha), and nucleoside and nucleotide analogs (Viread, Baraclude, Tyzeka, Hepsera, Epivir-HBV), but all require continuing treatment to maintain control of the disease...
January 4, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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