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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327320/phylogenetic-analysis-and-biological-evaluation-of-marine-endophytic-fungi-derived-from-red-sea-sponge-hyrtios-erectus
#1
Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy, Shaymaa M M Yahya, Ahmed R Hamed, Maha M Soltan, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly
Forty-four endophytic fungal isolates obtained from marine sponge, Hyrtios erectus, were evaluated and screened for their hydrolase activities. Most of the isolates were found to be prolific producers of hydrolytic enzymes. Only 11 isolates exhibited maximum cellular contents of lipids, rhamnolipids, and protein in the fungal isolates under the isolation numbers MERVA5, MERVA22, MERVA25, MERVA29, MERVA32, MERVA34, MERV36, MERVA39, MERVA42, MERVA43, and MERVA44. These isolate extracts exhibit the highest reducing activities against carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes including α-amylase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and tyrosinase...
January 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283331/mechanism-of-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Hina Khalid
The hepatitis C virus (HCV), the most predominant cause of liver failure worldwide, is associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance (IR), both in vivo and in vitro. DM and IR aggravate the rate of fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most studies have revealed that patients with HCV are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), compared with controls or patients with hepatitis B. In the same way, patients with T2D are highly prone to severe HCV clinical outcomes and increased progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis, ultimately leading to HCC...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273334/fusogenic-properties-of-the-ectodomain-of-hcv-e2-envelope-protein
#3
Mar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Daniel Tello, Julián Gómez-Gutiérrez, Darrell L Peterson, Francisco Gavilanes, Belén Yélamos
The steps leading from hepatitis C virus (HCV) attachment to the hepatocytes to the fusion of viral and cellular membranes remain uncharacterized. In this regard, we have studied the mechanism underlying the HCV fusion process using liposomes and a truncated form of E2 protein lacking the transmembrane region, E2661 (amino acids 384-661). E2661 has been previously obtained by using the baculovirus expression system and shown to behave as an independent folding domain (M. Rodriguez-Rodriguez, D. Tello, B. Yelamos, J...
December 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235977/proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-through-interacting-with-ns5a
#4
Zhubing Li, Qiang Liu
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease actively involved in regulating lipid homeostasis. Although PCSK9 has been shown to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry and replication, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly characterized. Moreover, whether PCSK9 regulates HCV translation and assembly/secretion has not been determined. We therefore further studied the effects of PCSK9 on the HCV life cycle. We showed that PCSK9 did not affect HCV translation or assembly/secretion...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234310/modulation-of-lipid-droplet-metabolism-a-potential-target-for-therapeutic-intervention-in-flaviviridae-infections
#5
REVIEW
Jingshu Zhang, Yun Lan, Sumana Sanyal
Lipid droplets (LDs) are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related dynamic organelles that store and regulate fatty acids and neutral lipids. They play a central role in cellular energy storage, lipid metabolism and cellular homeostasis. It has become evident that viruses have co-evolved in order to exploit host lipid metabolic pathways. This is especially characteristic of the Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) and several flaviviruses. Devoid of an appropriate lipid biosynthetic machinery of their own, these single-strand positive-sense RNA viruses can induce dramatic changes in host metabolic pathways to establish a favorable environment for viral multiplication and acquire essential components to facilitate their assembly and traffic...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212314/rapid-changes-in-serum-lipid-profiles-during-combination-therapy-with-daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b
#6
Takeshi Chida, Kazuhito Kawata, Kazuyoshi Ohta, Erika Matsunaga, Jun Ito, Shin Shimoyama, Satoru Yamazaki, Hidenao Noritake, Tetsuro Suzuki, Takafumi Suda, Yoshimasa Kobayashi
Background/Aims: Changes in lipid profiles in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during direct-acting antiviral therapy have been reported in recent years. However, the clinical aspects of disturbed lipid metabolism in chronic HCV infection have not been fully elucidated. Methods: Dynamic changes in serum total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein levels in patients infected with HCV genotype 1b were examined during combination therapy with daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV)...
December 8, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182758/microrna-122-targets-genes-related-to-goose-fatty-liver
#7
Jun Zhang, Qian Wang, Xing Zhao, Laidi Wang, Xingguo Wang, Jian Wang, Biao Dong, Daoqing Gong
MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a completely conserved, liver-specific miRNA in vertebrates, is essential for the maintenance of liver homeostasis. This 22-nucleotide-length RNA regulates diverse functions such as cholesterol, glucose, and lipid metabolism as well as iron homeostasis and infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Landes goose, which has a good, fatty liver, has important significance for us in studying miR-122 function in goose fatty liver. In the current study, we identified miR-122 in goose liver and its expression pattern and target genes...
November 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162867/broad-spectrum-antiviral-agents-secreted-phospholipase-a2-targets-viral-envelope-lipid-bilayers-derived-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-membrane
#8
Ming Chen, Chie Aoki-Utsubo, Masanori Kameoka, Lin Deng, Yutaka Terada, Wataru Kamitani, Kei Sato, Yoshio Koyanagi, Makoto Hijikata, Keiko Shindo, Takeshi Noda, Michinori Kohara, Hak Hotta
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belong to the family Flaviviridae. Their viral particles have the envelope composed of viral proteins and a lipid bilayer acquired from budding through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The phospholipid content of the ER membrane differs from that of the plasma membrane (PM). The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily consists of a large number of members that specifically catalyse the hydrolysis of phospholipids at a particular position...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161418/no-improvement-in-hemoglobin-a1c-following-hepatitis-c-viral-clearance-in-patients-with-and-without-hiv
#9
Chloe S Chaudhury, Julia Sheehan, Cheryl Chairez, Elizabeth Akoth, Chloe Gross, Rachel Silk, Sarah Kattakuzhy, Elana Rosenthal, Shyam Kottilil, Henry Masur, Colleen Hadigan
Hepatitis C clearance with directly acting antivirals (DAAs) may be associated with acute decreases in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We prospectively evaluated 251 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects (31% human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive) pre- and post-DAA therapy (median follow-up 28 months). Changes in HbA1c and glucose were minimal and did not differ by sustained virologic response (SVR), HIV, diabetes, or fibrosis. Following SVR, mean change in HbA1c was -0.022 ± 0.53%; however, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135056/a-systematic-review-of-the-associations-between-hiv-hcv-coinfection-and-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Olatokunbo Osibogun, Oluseye Ogunmoroti, Erin D Michos, Erica S Spatz, Babatunde Olubajo, Khurram Nasir, Wasim Maziak
The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection has been increasing with over 10 million people affected globally. The role biomarkers play as predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among coinfected individuals is not well defined. We aimed to systematically review current evidence describing CVD biomarkers among individuals with HIV/HCV coinfection. We searched EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science from inception to June 2017. MeSH terms and keywords were used to identify studies with information on HIV/HCV coinfection and CVD biomarkers (structural, functional, and serological) such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), endothelial markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, and lipids...
November 14, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133317/association-between-visceral-obesity-and-hepatitis-c-infection-stratified-by-gender-a-cross-sectional-study-in-taiwan
#11
Yu-Chung Tsao, Jau-Yuan Chen, Wei-Chung Yeh, Yun-Shing Peng, Wen-Cheng Li
OBJECTIVES: The global prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is approximately 2%-3%, and the prevalence of the positive anti-HCV antibody has been increasing. Several studies have evaluated regional adipose tissue distribution and metabolism over the past decades. However, no study has focused on the gender difference in visceral obesity among patients with HCV infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: We reviewed the medical records of patients who visited a hospital in Southern Taiwan for health check-up from 2013 to 2015...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118118/n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-1-restricts-hepatitis-c-virus-propagation-by-regulating-lipid-droplet-biogenesis-and-viral-assembly
#12
Cameron J Schweitzer, Fang Zhang, Audrey Boyer, Kristin Valdez, Maggie Cam, T Jake Liang
Host cells harbor various intrinsic mechanisms to restrict viral infections as a first line of antiviral defense. Viruses have evolved various countermeasures against these antiviral mechanisms. Here we show that N-Myc Downstream-Reguated Gene 1 (NDRG1) limits productive HCV infection by inhibiting viral assembly. Interestingly, HCV infection down-regulates NDRG1 protein and mRNA expression. Loss of NDRG1 increases the size and number of lipid droplets, which are the sites of HCV assembly. HCV suppresses NDRG1 expression by up-regulating MYC, which directly inhibits the transcription of NDRG1 Up-regulation of MYC also leads to reduced expression of NDRG1-specific kinase SGK1, resulting in markedly diminished phosphorylation of NDRG1...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104462/association-of-ifnl3-genotype-with-hepatic-steatosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-patients-treated-with-peginterferon-and-ribavirin-combination-therapy
#13
Shingo Nakamoto, Fumio Imazeki, Tatsuo Kanda, Shuang Wu, Masato Nakamura, Shin Yasui, Akinobu Tawada, Rintaro Mikata, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Makoto Arai, Osamu Yokosuka, Hiroshi Shirasawa
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation near the interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3) is known to be associated with response to pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which is often accompanied by hepatic steatosis. AIMS: We examined whether this genetic variation is associated with host lipids and treatment response. METHODS: A total of 101 Japanese patients who had underwent liver biopsy before treatment with pegIFN and ribavirin for HCV genotype 1b infection were retrospectively analyzed for association between IFNL3 genotypes (rs8099917) and clinical factors including histopathological features of the liver...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089195/superior-immunogenicity-of-hcv-envelope-glycoproteins-when-adjuvanted-with-cyclic-di-amp-a-sting-activator-or-archaeosomes
#14
A Landi, J Law, D Hockman, M Logan, K Crawford, C Chen, J Kundu, T Ebensen, C A Guzman, L Deschatelets, L Krishnan, D L J Tyrrell, M Houghton
Three decades after the discovery, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is still the leading cause of liver transplantation and poses a major threat to global health. In spite of recent advances in the development of direct acting antivirals, there is still a need for a prophylactic vaccine to limit the virus spread and protect at-risk populations, especially in developing countries, where the cost of the new treatments may severely limit access. The use of recombinant HCV glycoproteins E1E2 (rE1E2) in combination with the MF59, an oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant, has previously been shown to reduce the rate of chronicity in chimpanzees and to induce production of cross-neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses in human volunteers...
October 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074218/avasimibe-a-novel-hepatitis-c-virus-inhibitor-that-targets-the-assembly-of-infectious-viral-particles
#15
Longbo Hu, Jinqian Li, Hua Cai, Wenxia Yao, Jing Xiao, Yi-Ping Li, Xiu Qiu, Huimin Xia, Tao Peng
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins, have exhibited impressive efficacy in the management of chronic hepatitis C. However, the concerns regarding high costs, drug resistance mutations and subsequent unexpected side effects still call for the development of host-targeting agents (HTAs) that target host factors involved in the viral life cycle and exhibit pan-genotypic antiviral activity. Given the close relationship between lipid metabolism and the HCV life cycle, we investigated the anti-HCV activity of a series of lipid-lowering drugs that have been approved by government administrations or proven safety in clinical trials...
October 23, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046459/hepatitis-c-virus-replication-depends-on-endosomal-cholesterol-homeostasis
#16
Ina Karen Stoeck, Ji-Young Lee, Keisuke Tabata, Inés Romero-Brey, David Paul, Philipp Schult, Volker Lohmann, Lars Kaderali, Ralf Bartenschlager
Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes massive rearrangements of intracellular membranes, resulting in a membranous web (MW) composed of predominantly double membrane vesicles (DMVs), the presumed sites of RNA replication. DMVs are enriched for cholesterol, but mechanistic details on the source and recruitment of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle are only partially known. Here we focused on selected lipid transfer proteins implicated in direct lipid transfer at various endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - membrane contact sites...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969178/association-of-serum-lipids-with-hepatic-steatosis-stage-of-liver-fibrosis-and-viral-load-in-chronic-hepatitis-c
#17
Ivan Valkov, Radina Ivanova, Assen Alexiev, Krasimir Antonov, Lyudmila Mateva
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) relies on host lipids for its life cycle contributing to lipid abnormalities and hepatic steatosis. Disease progression is influenced by viral factors interacting with host immune and metabolic pathways. The significance of serum lipids for Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) assessment is not clearly established yet. AIM: Our aim was to investigate serum lipids' association with stage of liver fibrosis, steatosis and genotypes in patients with CHC...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956816/qualitative-and-quantitative-evaluation-of-dietary-intake-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Giuseppe Gerardo Caprio, Antonietta Gerarda Gravina, Desiree Picascia, Mario Masarone, Marcello Persico, Carmela Loguercio
There are very few reports about the intake of nutrients for the development or progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to identify the dietary habits and the nutrient intake in patients with NASH, in comparison to chronic hepatitis C (HCV)-related patients. We prospectively evaluated the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients in 124 NAFLD and 162 HCV patients, compared to 2326 subjects as a control group. We noticed major differences in macro- and micronutrients intakes in NASH and HCV patients compared to controls...
September 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883690/direct-acting-antiviral-agents-against-hepatitis-c-virus-and-lipid-metabolism
#19
EDITORIAL
Tatsuo Kanda, Mitsuhiko Moriyama
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces steatosis and is accompanied by multiple metabolic alterations including hyperuricemia, reversible hypocholesterolemia and insulin resistance. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels are increased by peginterferon and ribavirin combination therapy when a sustained virologic response (SVR) is achieved in patients with HCV. Steatosis is significantly more common in patients with HCV genotype 3 but interferon-free regimens are not always effective for treating HCV genotype 3 infections...
August 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864162/treatment-induced-viral-cure-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients-involves-a-dynamic-interplay-among-three-important-molecular-players-in-lipid-homeostasis-circulating-microrna-mir-24-mir-223-and-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9
#20
Anastasia Hyrina, Andrea D Olmstead, Paul Steven, Mel Krajden, Edward Tam, François Jean
In patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, viral hijacking of the host-cell biosynthetic pathways is associated with altered lipid metabolism, which contributes to disease progression and may influence antiviral response. We investigated the molecular interplay among four key regulators of lipid homeostasis [microRNA (miR)-122, miR-24, miR-223, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)] in HCV-infected patients (n=72) who achieved a treatment-based viral cure after interferon-based therapy with first-generation direct-acting antivirals...
September 2017: EBioMedicine
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