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metabolic factors and progression of renal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760771/diabetic-nephropathy-is-this-an-immune-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Greg H Tesch
Chronic diabetes is associated with metabolic and haemodynamic stresses which can facilitate modifications to DNA, proteins and lipids, induce cellular dysfunction and damage, and stimulate inflammatory and fibrotic responses which lead to various types of renal injury. Approximately 30-40% of patients with diabetes develop nephropathy and this renal injury normally progresses in about a third of patients. Due to the growing incidence of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy is now the main cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682561/-immunosuppression-in-kidney-transplantation-a-way-between-efficacy-and-toxicity
#2
Costanza Casati, Alberto Menegotto, Maria Luisa Querques, Federica Ravera, Giacomo Colussi
Renal transplantation is the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Over the last decades, the introduction of new immunosuppressive agents resulted into the reduction of the incidence of acute rejection and early graft loss. Despite this progress, there has been little improvement in the average life of the transplant. The main reasons of late failure are patient's death due to several complications (e.g. cancer, infectious or metabolic), and progressive deterioration of renal function caused by immunological and non-immunological factors...
April 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676189/changes-in-renal-function-after-discontinuation-of-vitamin-d-analogues-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Francisco Caravaca, Fernando Caravaca-Fontán, Lilia Azevedo, Enrique Luna
BACKGROUND: In routine clinical practice, the prescription of vitamin D analogues (VDA) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with a decline of the estimated renal function. The reason for this is not fully understood. AIMS: To analyse the effects of VDA discontinuation in advanced CKD and to determine the factors associated with changes in renal function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of adult patients with advanced CKD...
July 1, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614819/osteoprotegerin-is-the-strongest-predictor-for-progression-of-arterial-calcification-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#4
Marcela Avila, Carmen Mora, María Del Carmen Prado, Miriam Zavala, Ramón Paniagua
BACKGROUND: Arterial calcification (AC) is frequent in patients with end stage renal disease and is also considered a risk factor for later morbidity and mortality. However, long-term factors associated with the process are not well known. We analyzed the trends over time of biomarkers related with development and progression of AC in incident patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS: We performed a prospective study with 186 patients on PD followed up for 1 year...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611350/fgf23-is-synthesised-locally-by-renal-tubules-and-activates-injury-primed-fibroblasts
#5
Edward R Smith, Sven-Jean Tan, Stephen G Holt, Tim D Hewitson
In kidney disease, higher circulating levels of the mineral-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 are predictive of disease progression but direct pathogenic effects on the kidney are unknown. We sought evidence of local renal synthesis in response to unilateral ureteric obstruction in the mouse, and pro-fibrotic actions of FGF23 on the fibroblast in vitro. Acute tubulointerstitial injury due to unilateral ureteric obstruction stimulated renal FGF23 synthesis by tubules, and downregulated inactivating proprotein convertases, without effects on systemic mineral metabolism...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535521/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-mineral-metabolism-and-beyond
#6
Alexander Grabner, Sandro Mazzaferro, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Stefanie Krick, Irene Capelli, Silverio Rotondi, Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna, Christian Faul
Patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a high risk of cardiovascular mortality that is poorly explained by traditional risk factors. There is a growing awareness about the role of derangement of mineral metabolism that is currently accepted as a trigger and sustainer of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients. The synthetic definition of CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) split the concept that the indexes of mineral metabolism extend their effects beyond the bone until the vascular wall and metabolic milieu of CKD patients through complex pathways...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480805/a-review-of-chemical-therapies-for-treating-diabetic-hypertension
#7
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Maria Eleni Alexandrou, Luis M Ruilope
Hypertension and diabetes are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular and renal disease. The majority of patients with diabetes also have high blood pressure (BP) and the presence of hypertension in these patients dramatically increases cardiovascular and renal risk. Areas covered: This article will discuss chemical therapies for hypertension in patients with diabetes, based on currently available evidence on the effects of antihypertensive treatment on metabolic profile and renal endpoints that are the factors mostly influencing drug choice...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465788/type-2-diabetes-and-quality-of-life
#8
REVIEW
Aikaterini Trikkalinou, Athanasia K Papazafiropoulou, Andreas Melidonis
It is true that a primary goal of diabetes early diagnosis and treatment is quality of life (QoL). The term QoL is still confusing but it is agreed that it composes of four components: The physical component, mental, cogitative component, psychological and social component. Many articles have been written addressing those four components. During the last five years 15500 articles and reviews have been written addressing diabetes and coronary arterial disease, 16100 addressing diabetes and renal function, 28900 addressing diabetes and retinopathy, 16800 addressing diabetic foot ulcers and other 26300 addressing diabetic neuropathy...
April 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442280/kidney-disease-in-patients-with-obesity-it-is-not-always-obesity-related-glomerulopathy-alone
#9
Steven P Salvatore, James M Chevalier, Sheng F Kuo, Pat F Audia, Surya V Seshan
OBJECTIVE: Patients with obesity are at risk for chronic kidney disease. The aim is to characterize the spectrum of kidney disease in these patients, which may be related to obesity, termed obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG), or may have other diseases secondary to associated or unassociated medical conditions. METHODS: Native kidney biopsies from 2000 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed from all patients with body mass index >30kg/m(2). Glomerular diameter was measured using a standard micrometer and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed...
April 22, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436957/pyruvate-kinase-m2-activation-may-protect-against-the-progression-of-diabetic-glomerular-pathology-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#10
Weier Qi, Hillary A Keenan, Qian Li, Atsushi Ishikado, Aimo Kannt, Thorsten Sadowski, Mark A Yorek, I-Hsien Wu, Samuel Lockhart, Lawrence J Coppey, Anja Pfenninger, Chong Wee Liew, Guifen Qiang, Alison M Burkart, Stephanie Hastings, David Pober, Christopher Cahill, Monika A Niewczas, William J Israelsen, Liane Tinsley, Isaac E Stillman, Peter S Amenta, Edward P Feener, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Robert C Stanton, George L King
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease, and therapeutic options for preventing its progression are limited. To identify novel therapeutic strategies, we studied protective factors for DN using proteomics on glomeruli from individuals with extreme duration of diabetes (ł50 years) without DN and those with histologic signs of DN. Enzymes in the glycolytic, sorbitol, methylglyoxal and mitochondrial pathways were elevated in individuals without DN. In particular, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) expression and activity were upregulated...
June 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431667/the-potential-and-pitfalls-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-for-renal-protection-in-type-2-diabetes
#11
Merlin C Thomas
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) offer substantial benefits for the management of glucose levels in type 2 diabetes. In addition, recent data from clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) are also able to reduce new onset macroalbuminuria. These benefits may be consistent with the known effects of GLP-1 RA on traditional risk factors for progressive kidney disease including glucose lowering, blood pressure lowering, reduced insulin levels and weight reduction...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403850/rationale-and-design-of-a-multicenter-placebo-controlled-double-blind-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-empagliflozin-on-endothelial-function-the-emblem-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Atsushi Tanaka, Michio Shimabukuro, Yosuke Okada, Isao Taguchi, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo, Hirofumi Tomiyama, Hiroki Teragawa, Seigo Sugiyama, Hisako Yoshida, Yasunori Sato, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Yumi Ikehara, Noritaka Machii, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Kosuke R Shima, Toshinari Takamura, Yasushi Matsuzawa, Kazuo Kimura, Masashi Sakuma, Jun-Ichi Oyama, Teruo Inoue, Yukihito Higashi, Shinichiro Ueda, Koichi Node
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by systemic metabolic abnormalities and the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, resulting in a shortened life expectancy. A recent cardiovascular (CV) safety trial, the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, showed that empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, markedly reduced CV death and all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with T2DM and established CV disease (CVD)...
April 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403789/metaflammation-tissue-specific-alterations-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-platform
#13
Raffaella Mastrocola, Manuela Aragno, Giuseppe Alloatti, Massimo Collino, Claudia Penna, Pasquale Pagliaro
In the last decades, the extension of life expectancy and the increased consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and added sugars have exposed the general population to emerging health problems. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), composed of a cluster of factors as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, is rapidly increasing in industrialized and developing countries leading to precocious onset of age-related diseases. Indeed, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts, and a chronic low-grade inflammation are common features of MS and physiological ageing...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397867/oxidative-stress-causes-hypertension-and-activation-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-after-high-fructose-and-salt-treatments
#14
Waleska C Dornas, Leonardo M Cardoso, Maísa Silva, Natália L S Machado, Deoclécio A Chianca-Jr, Andréia C Alzamora, Wanderson G Lima, Vincent Lagente, Marcelo E Silva
There is evidence that diets rich in salt or simple sugars as fructose are associated with abnormalities in blood pressure regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of salt- and fructose-induced kidney damage and/or consequent hypertension yet remain largely unexplored. Here, we tested the role of oxidative state as an essential factor along with high salt and fructose treatment in causing hypertension. Fischer male rats were supplemented with a high-fructose diet (20% in water) for 20 weeks and maintained on high-salt diet (8%) associate in the last 10 weeks...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390948/relationship-of-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-ace-and-bradykinin-b2-receptor-bdkrb2-polymorphism-with-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Honghong Zou, Guoqing Wu, Jinlei Lv, Gaosi Xu
PURPOSE: To determine whether ACE(2) I/D and BDKRB2(3) +9/-9 polymorphism causatively affect diabetic nephropathy progression RESULTS: STZ-induced metabolic disorder, as well as inflammatory responses, was significantly aggravated in ACE II-B2R(4)+9bp, ACE DD-B2R+9bp, or ACE DD-B2R-9bp diabetic mice but not ACE II-B2R-9bp, indicating the genetic susceptibility of ACE DD or B2R+9bp to diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, ACE II-B2R+9bp, ACE DD-B2R+9bp, or ACE DD-B2R-9bp rather than ACE II-B2R-9bp, worsened renal performance and enhanced pathological alterations induced by STZ...
April 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346348/vitamin-d-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dialysis-patients
#16
REVIEW
Guillaume Jean, Jean Claude Souberbielle, Charles Chazot
Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/mL) are common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or undergoing dialysis. In addition to nutritional and sunlight exposure deficits, factors that affect vitamin D deficiency include race, sex, age, obesity and impaired vitamin D synthesis and metabolism. Serum 1,25(OH)₂D levels also decrease progressively because of 25(OH)D deficiency, together with impaired availability of 25(OH)D by renal proximal tubular cells, high fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and decreased functional renal tissue...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339034/the-sirt1-activator-srt1720-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-ctgf-and-oxidative-stress
#17
Yunzhuo Ren, Chunyang Du, Yonghong Shi, Jingying Wei, Haijiang Wu, Huixian Cui
The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic kidney disease. Oxidative stress is also involved in TGF-β1 signalling. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) exerts a number of pleiotropic effects, protecting against renal disease, including inhibiting fibrosis and oxidative metabolism. In this study, we investigated the role of the Sirt1 activator, SRT1720, in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis and aimed to determine whether this role depends on the inhibition of oxidative stress and the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway...
May 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298360/stimulation-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-by-metabolic-acidosis-requires-osteoblastic-intracellular-calcium-signaling-and-prostaglandin-synthesis
#18
Nancy S Krieger, David A Bushinsky
Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increases progressively in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with increased mortality. FGF23 is synthesized in osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the factors regulating its production are not clear. Patients with CKD have decreased renal acid excretion leading to metabolic acidosis (MET). During MET, acid is buffered by bone with release of mineral calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P). MET increases intracellular Ca signaling and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-induced prostaglandin production in the osteoblast leading to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296920/prevalence-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-risk-factors-for-its-progression-a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-indians-living-in-indian-versus-u-s-cities
#19
Shuchi Anand, Dimple Kondal, Maria Montez-Rath, Yuanchao Zheng, Roopa Shivashankar, Kalpana Singh, Priti Gupta, Ruby Gupta, Vamadevan S Ajay, Viswanathan Mohan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Nikhil Tandon, Mohammed K Ali, K M Venkat Narayan, Glenn M Chertow, Namratha Kandula, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Alka M Kanaya
BACKGROUND: While data from the latter part of the twentieth century consistently showed that immigrants to high-income countries faced higher cardio-metabolic risk than their counterparts in low- and middle-income countries, urbanization and associated lifestyle changes may be changing these patterns, even for conditions considered to be advanced manifestations of cardio-metabolic disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease [CKD]). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using cross-sectional data from the Center for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS, n = 5294) and Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n = 748) studies, we investigated whether prevalence of CKD is similar among Indians living in Indian and U...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258533/current-therapeutic-approaches-in-the-management-of-hyperglycemia-in-chronic-renal-disease
#20
REVIEW
Vishnu Garla, Licy Yanes-Cardozo, Lillian F Lien
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are intricately intertwined. DM is the most common cause of CKD. Adequate control of DM is necessary for prevention of progression of CKD, while careful management of the metabolic abnormalities in CKD will assist in achieving better control of DM. Two of the key organs involved in glucose production are the kidney and the liver. Furthermore, the kidney also plays a role in glucose filtration and reabsorption. In CKD, monitoring of glycemic control using traditional methods such as Hemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) must be done with caution secondary to associated hematological abnormalities in CKD...
March 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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