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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#1
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078995/sphingolipids-in-genetic-and-acquired-forms-of-chronic-kidney-diseases
#2
Norishi Ueda
Sphingolipids (SLs) regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. SLs, including ceramide, glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and gangliosides) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of genetic (lysosomal storage disease, congenital nephrotic syndrome and polycystic kidney disease) and non-genetic forms of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). SLs metabolism defects promote complications (cardiovascular events, etc.) via oxidant stress in CKDs...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052632/impact-of-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy-on-metabolism-and-public-health
#3
REVIEW
Mitchell L Shiffman, Nadege T Gunn
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hepatic steatosis in many patients. These metabolic complications of HCV have been shown to accelerate the progression of fibrosis to cirrhosis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The metabolic syndrome is a common disorder that also includes IR, T2DM and hepatic steatosis. Approximately 20%-30% of patients with chronic HCV also have co-existent metabolic syndrome. The cause of steatosis in patients with the features of both the metabolic syndrome and chronic HCV is sometime difficult to determine...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049280/new-therapeutic-agents-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#4
REVIEW
Yaeni Kim, Cheol Whee Park
Studies investigating diabetic nephropathy (DN) have mostly focused on interpreting the pathologic molecular mechanisms of DN, which may provide valuable tools for early diagnosis and prevention of disease onset and progression. Currently, there are few therapeutic drugs for DN, which mainly consist of antihypertensive and antiproteinuric measures that arise from strict renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inactivation. However, these traditional therapies are suboptimal and there is a clear, unmet need for treatments that offer effective schemes beyond glucose control...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036114/does-statins-promote-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Zhimin Chen, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Paolo Parini, Eva Hurt-Camejo, Jonaz Ripsweden, Torkel B Brismar, Peter Barany, Armand Jaminon, Leon J Schurgers, Olof Heimburger, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
BACKGROUND: In end-stage renal disease (ESRD), coronary artery calcification (CAC) and inflammation contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins do not improve survival in ESRD patients and their effect on vascular calcification is unclear. We explored associations between CAC, inflammatory biomarkers, statins and mortality in ESRD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 240 ESRD patients (63% males; median age 56 years) from cohorts including 86 recipients of living donor kidney transplant (LD-Rtx), 96 incident dialysis patients and 58 prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients, associations of CAC score (Agatston Units, AUs), interleukin-6 (IL-6) with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), use of statins and all-cause mortality were analysed...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025032/the-metabolic-syndrome-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Xin Zhang, Lilach O Lerman
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which may also foster development of chronic kidney disease. The mechanisms of MetS-induced kidney disease are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent discoveries regarding the impact of MetS on the kidney, particularly on the renal microvasculature and cellular mitochondria. Fundamental manifestations of MetS include IR and adipose tissue expansion, the latter promoting chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that exacerbate IR...
December 9, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977314/diabetes-and-kidney-disease-the-role-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt-2-and-sglt-2-inhibitors-in-modifying-disease-outcomes
#7
Christian W Mende
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) often have coexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, healthy renal function is crucial in maintaining glucose homeostasis, assuring that almost all of the filtered glucose is reabsorbed by the sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) SGLT-1 and SGLT-2. In diabetes, an increased amount of glucose is filtered by the kidneys and SGLT-2 is upregulated, leading to increased glucose absorption and worsening hyperglycemia. Prolonged hyperglycemia contributes to the development of CKD by inducing metabolic and hemodynamic changes in the kidneys...
January 4, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965087/ship-a-novel-factor-to-ameliorate-extracellular-matrix-accumulation-via-suppressing-pi3k-akt-ctgf-signaling-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#8
Fan Li, Lisha Li, Meijuan Cheng, Xiumin Wang, Jun Hao, Shuxia Liu, Huijun Duan
Tubular interstitial extracellular matrix accumulation, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), is believed to be mediated by activation of PI3K/Akt signal pathway. However, it is still not clear whether SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase (SHIP), known as a negative regulator of PI3K/Akt pathway is also involved in extracellular matrix metabolism of diabetic kidney. In the present study, decreased SHIP and increased phospho-Akt (Ser 473, Thr 308) were found in renal tubular cells of diabetic mice accompanied by overexpression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and extracellular matrix deposition versus normal mice...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903991/role-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-factors-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#9
Esmat Aghadavod, Samaneh Khodadadi, Azar Baradaran, Parto Nasri, Mahmood Bahmani, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus, and its prevalence has been increasing in developed countries. Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common single cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation factors are hypothesized to play a role in the development of late diabetes complications. Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, significantly modifies the structure and function of proteins and lipids, and induces glycoxidation and peroxidation...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886849/prevalence-and-burden-of-comorbidities-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
REVIEW
Alexandru Corlateanu, Serghei Covantev, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Victor Botnaru, Nikolaos Siafakas
The classical definition of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as a lung condition characterized by irreversible airway obstruction is outdated. The systemic involvement in patients with COPD, as well as the interactions between COPD and its comorbidities, justify the description of chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome. The pathogenesis of COPD is closely linked with aging, as well as with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, renal, and gastrointestinal pathologies, decreasing the quality of life of patients with COPD and, furthermore, complicating the management of the disease...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876008/physical-activity-and-metabolic-health-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Wilson Bowlby, Leila R Zelnick, Connor Henry, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Steven E Kahn, Bryan Kestenbaum, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Kristina M Utzschneider, Ian H de Boer
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of progression to end stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. Physical activity may reduce these risks by improving metabolic health. We tested associations of physical activity with central components of metabolic health among people with moderate-severe non-diabetic CKD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 47 people with CKD (estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and 29 healthy control subjects...
November 22, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873229/subclinical-kidney-damage-in-hypertensive-patients-a-renal-window-opened-on-the-cardiovascular-system-focus-on-microalbuminuria
#12
Giuseppe Mulè, Antonella Castiglia, Claudia Cusumano, Emilia Scaduto, Giulio Geraci, Dario Altieri, Epifanio Di Natale, Onofrio Cacciatore, Giovanni Cerasola, Santina Cottone
The kidney is one of the major target organs of hypertension.Kidney damage represents a frequent event in the course of hypertension and arterial hypertension is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).ESRD has long been recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. However, over the past 20 years a large and consistent body of evidence has been produced suggesting that CV risk progressively increases as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) declines and is already significantly elevated even in the earliest stages of renal damage...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849555/role-of-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-mrna-stability-in-renal-pathophysiology-focus-on-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Eva Feigerlová, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents an important public health problem. Its progression to end-stage renal disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The determinants of renal function decline are not fully understood. Recent progress in the understanding of post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA stability has helped the identification of both the trans- and cis-acting elements of mRNA as potential markers and therapeutic targets for difficult-to-diagnose and -treat diseases, including CKDs such as diabetic nephropathy...
November 14, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847255/fgf23-%C3%AE-klotho-as-a-paradigm-for-a-kidney-bone-network
#14
REVIEW
Makoto Kuro-O, Orson W Moe
The vertebrate endoskeleton is not a mere frame for muscle attachment to facilitate locomotion, but is a massive organ integrated with many physiologic functions including mineral and energy metabolism. Mineral balance is maintained by tightly controlled ion fluxes that are external (intestine and kidney) and internal (between bone and other organs), and are regulated and coordinated by many endocrine signals between these organs. The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and Klotho gene families are complex systems that co-evolved with the endoskeleton...
November 12, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835692/uric-acid-as-a-marker-of-mortality-and-morbidity-in-fabry-disease
#15
Daniel Rob, Josef Marek, Gabriela Dostálová, Lubor Goláň, Aleš Linhart
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (UA) elevation is common in patients with cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases. However, no study to date has analysed the role of UA in Fabry disease (FD). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between serum UA levels and mortality and morbidity in FD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a prospectively followed-up cohort of 124 patients with genetically proven FD. Serum UA levels were acquired at baseline; clinical events and mortality were assessed during regular visits every 6 to 12 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833378/cardiovascular-risk-after-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-a-review-of-the-literature-and-preliminary-results-of-a-prospective-study
#16
REVIEW
Giuseppina Pisano, Anna L Fracanzani, Lucio Caccamo, Maria F Donato, Silvia Fargion
Improved surgical techniques and greater efficacy of new anti-rejection drugs have significantly improved the survival of patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This has led to an increased incidence of metabolic disorders as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases as causes of morbidity and mortality in OLT patients. In the last decade, several studies have examined which predisposing factors lead to increased cardiovascular risk (i.e., age, ethnicity, diabetes, NASH, atrial fibrillation, and some echocardiographic parameters) as well as which factors after OLT (i...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823902/pth-levels-and-not-serum-phosphorus-levels-are-a-predictor-of-the-progression-of-kidney-disease-in-elderly-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Néstor Gabriel Toapanta Gaibor, Nathasha Carolina Nava Pérez, Yeleine Martínez Echevers, Rafael Montes Delgado, María Ángeles Guerrero Riscos
BACKGROUND: At present, there is a high incidence of elderly patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is important to know the long term progression and the factors that influence it. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the progression of advanced CKD in elderly patients and the influence of bone-mineral metabolism. METHODS: Retrospective study of 125 patients ≥70years of age with CKD stages 4-5 who started follow-up from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008, showing the progression of CKD (measured by the slope of the regression line of the estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] by MDRD-4) over 5years...
November 4, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809453/long-term-study-of-the-association-of-adipokines-and-glucose-variability-with-diabetic-complications
#18
Jin Joo Cha, Hye Sook Min, Kitae Kim, Mi Jin Lee, Mi Hwa Lee, Jung Eun Kim, Hye Kyoung Song, Dae Ryong Cha, Young Sun Kang
Background/Aims: Recent studies have suggested an important role of adipokines in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. The clinical relevance of adipokines on long-term outcomes in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify a predictable factor in patients with long-term diabetic complications. Methods: A total of 161 diabetic individuals were followed-up from 2002 to 2013. Circulating plasma levels of adiponectin, glypican-4, irisin, visfatin, and visit-to-visit glucose variability were measured in diabetic patients...
November 4, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771702/role-of-the-renal-microcirculation-in-progression-of-chronic-kidney-injury-in-obesity
#19
Alejandro R Chade, John E Hall
Obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Current strategies to prevent and treat obesity and its consequences have been insufficient to reverse the ongoing trends. Lifestyle modification or pharmacological therapies often produce modest weight loss which is not sustained and recurrence of obesity is frequently observed, leading to progression of target organ damage in many obese subjects. Therefore, research efforts have focused not only on the factors that regulate energy balance, but also on understanding mechanisms of target organ injury in obesity...
2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754285/me-04-3-epidemiology-and-consequences-of-early-vascular-aging
#20
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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