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Hepatitis b vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317886/systems-pharmacology-based-strategy-to-screen-new-adjuvant-for-hepatitis-b-vaccine-from-traditional-chinese-medicine-ophiocordyceps-sinensis
#1
Jingbo Wang, Rui Liu, Baoxiu Liu, Yan Yang, Jun Xie, Naishuo Zhu
Adjuvants are common component for many vaccines but there are still few licensed for human use due to low efficiency or side effects. The present work adopted Systems Pharmacology analysis as a new strategy to screen adjuvants from traditional Chinese medicine. Ophiocordyceps sinensis has been used for many years in China and other Asian countries with many biological properties, but the pharmacological mechanism has not been fully elucidated. First in this study, 190 putative targets for 17 active compounds in Ophiocordyceps sinensis were retrieved and a systems pharmacology-based approach was applied to provide new insights into the pharmacological actions of the drug...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302934/hepatitis-b-vaccination-status-among-japanese-travelers
#2
Kenichiro Yaita, Koji Yahara, Yoshiro Sakai, Jun Iwahashi, Kenji Masunaga, Nobuyuki Hamada, Hiroshi Watanabe
This study clarified the characteristics of travelers who received hepatitis B vaccinations. Subjects were 233 Japanese travelers who visited our clinic prior to travel. We summarized the characteristics of the clients and performed two comparative studies: first, we compared a hepatitis B-vaccinated group with an unvaccinated group; second, we compared a group that had completed the hepatitis B vaccine series with a group that did not complete the series. The hepatitis B vaccine was administered to 152 clients...
March 15, 2017: Kurume Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302512/seroepidemiology-of-hepatitis-a-hepatitis-b-and-varicella-virus-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-ireland
#3
Corinna Sadlier, Anna O'Rourke, Alison Carr, Colm Bergin
Epidemiological studies investigating seroprevalence of vaccine preventable infections at both individual and population level are important in guiding screening and vaccination practices. Data on seroprevalence of common vaccine preventable infections in HIV-infected individuals is lacking. We carried out a retrospective cohort study to investigate serological immunity and factors associated with immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and varicalla virus (VZV) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals attending a large ambulatory HIV specialist centre in Ireland...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301738/active-immunization-against-transforming-growth-factor-beta1-prevents-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-rat-model-of-liver-disease
#4
Hong Ji, Gerald Y Minuk, Zhikang Peng, Yongping Chen, Chenwei Pan, Yuewen Gong
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) plays an important role in hepatic fibrogenesis. To document the effects of active immunization against TGF-β1 on hepatic fibrosis in an animal model of chronic liver disease. BALB/c mice were immunized against three different peptides of TGF-β1 ligated into hepatitis B virus core protein (HBVc). Titers of TGF-β1 antibodies were documented by enzyme linked immunoassays and antibody activity by cell membrane receptor binding and proliferation assays. The most immunogenic recombinant HBVc+TGF-β1 peptide (HBVc+C) then served as a vaccine in Sprague-Dawley rats with dimethylnitrosamine-induced chronic liver disease...
March 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301394/effects-on-the-anti-abo-titers-of-military-blood-donors-from-a-predeployment-vaccination-program
#5
Olle Berséus
BACKGROUND: The use of blood group O as "universal blood" for emergency whole blood transfusions carries the risk for a hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by incompatible A-/B-antibodies. This risk can be minimized by assuring that the donor has a low titer of anti-A and anti-B. The level of these naturally occurring antibodies have been shown to be increased by vaccination with most biologically derived vaccines. This boostering effect has been investigated for the new generation of vaccines...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301282/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-high-dose-hepatitis-b-vaccine-among-drug-users-a-randomized-open-labeled-blank-controlled-trial
#6
Yongliang Feng, Jing Shi, Linying Gao, Tian Yao, Dan Feng, Dan Luo, Zhansheng Li, Yawei Zhang, Fuzhen Wang, Fuqiang Cui, Li Li, Xiaofeng Liang, Suping Wang
Due to the low uptake, adherence, and completion of vaccination among drug users, and their compromised immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination, the current practice of hepatitis B vaccination may not provide optimal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of 60 µg and 20 µg hepatitis B vaccines among drug users. A randomized, open-labeled, blank-controlled trial was conducted among drug users at 2 drug rehabilitation centers in China. The eligible participants were drug users who were serologically negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs)...
March 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301267/hypotonic-hyporesponsive-episodes-after-administration-of-hexavalent-dtp-based-combination-vaccine-a-description-of-12-cases
#7
Alessandro Vigo, Giulia Costagliola, Elisa Ferrero, Silvia Noce
Hypotonic-hyporesponsive (HHE) episodes are known and recognized phenomena, which typically occur within 48 hours of immunisation..Our aim is to describe 12 cases of HHE brought to the Center of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, with attention to the clinical features of the episode and their follow-up. Medical charts of infants visited between 2005-2015 were reviewed. Twelve infants showed a HHE using HHE using Brighton Collaboration Criteria. All infants received a Hexavalent diphtheria -tetanus -pertussis acellular component -hepatitis B-,inactivated poliovirus- Haemophilus influenzae type-b conjugate vaccine...
February 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299162/sero-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-amongst-pregnant-women-attending-an-antenatal-clinic-volta-region-ghana
#8
Arnold Luuse, Sylvester Dassah, Sylvester Lokpo, Louise Ameke, Mark Noagbe, Peter Adatara, Oheneba Hagan, Fred Binka
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. HBV prevalence in Ghana is not well documented, but vary regionally from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in pregnant women. This puts Ghana among the high endemic countries in Africa. The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. Two hundred and eigh participants (pregnant women), attending Ho Municipal antenatal clinic were enrolled into the study...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299157/low-coverage-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-and-determinants-among-health-professionals-working-in-amhara-regional-state-hospitals-ethiopia
#9
Berhanu Elfu Feleke
More than two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 360 million have chronic infection and 600,000 die each year from HBV-related liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma. Each year more than 66,000 health professionals are infected by hepatitis b virus and vaccination against hepatitis B saves the life's of these health professionals. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of hepatitis B vaccine coverage in a resource limited settings. A cross sectional study design was conducted...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295453/low-hepatitis-b-virus-specific-t-cell-response-in-males-correlates-with-high-regulatory-t-cell-numbers-in-murine-models
#10
Anna D Kosinska, Leila Pishraft-Sabet, Weimin Wu, Zhong Fang, Marzena Lenart, Jieliang Chen, Kirsten K Dietze, Cong Wang, Thekla Kemper, Yong Lin, Shiou-Hwei Yeh, Jia Liu, Ulf Dittmer, Zhenghong Yuan, Michael Roggendorf, Mengji Lu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection shows significant gender-related differences in pathogenesis, disease progression, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The gender-associated differences in HBV replication and viral protein levels may be associated with distinct HBV-specific immune responses in the host. In the present study, we examined the impact of gender on HBV-specific immune responses in two different mouse models representing transient and persistent hepadnaviral infection; hydrodynamic injection (HI) with the HBV genome mimicked acute HBV infection, whereas the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination was studied in the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) transgenic (Tg) mouse model...
March 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293244/efficient-transient-expression-of-recombinant-proteins-in-plants-by-the-novel-peff-vector-based-on-the-genome-of-potato-virus-x
#11
Eugenia S Mardanova, Elena A Blokhina, Liudmila M Tsybalova, Hadrien Peyret, George P Lomonossoff, Nikolai V Ravin
Agroinfiltration of plant leaves with binary vectors carrying a gene of interest within a plant viral vector is a rapid and efficient method for protein production in plants. Previously, we constructed a self-replicating vector, pA7248AMV, based on the genetic elements of potato virus X (PVX), and have shown that this vector can be used for the expression of recombinant proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, this vector is almost 18 kb long and therefore not convenient for genetic manipulation. Furthermore, for efficient expression of the target protein it should be co-agroinfiltrated with an additional binary vector expressing a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292309/elimination-of-hepatitis-b-is-it-a-mission-possible
#12
REVIEW
Tai-Chung Tseng, Jia-Horng Kao
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. Although the disease cannot be cured effectively, disease management has been improved over the past decade. The introduction of potent nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) to suppress viral replication represented a giant leap in the control of this disease. It has been shown that tenofovir treatment, a potent NA, complements current immunoprophylaxis to diminish mother-to-infant transmission in pregnant women with a high viral load. For patients with chronic HBV infection, quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen is a useful tool to define inactive carriers and to guide antiviral therapy...
March 15, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285495/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-c-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Maria Kalafateli, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood...
March 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285330/hepatitis-b-vaccination-status-in-an-at-risk-adult-population-long-term-immunity-but-insufficient-coverage
#14
S Hustache, L Moyroud, L Goirand, O Epaulard
In France, hepatitis B (HB) vaccine has been offered to all infants since 1994, and was proposed to all children aged 11 years from 1994 to 1998. Nevertheless, HB vaccine hesitancy may result in low vaccination coverage in present-day at-risk adults. We aimed to determine HB vaccination coverage in adults attending a free testing center for sexually transmitted infections (STI). As part of routine care, three classes of data were anonymously collected from attendees over a 3-month period: results of HB serologic tests; date and number of past anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization(s) (if any) according to health records; and the risk of STI and blood-transmitted infections (BTI)...
March 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281907/persistence-of-antibodies-20%C3%A2-y-after-vaccination-with-a-combined-hepatitis-a-and-b-vaccine
#15
Pierre Van Damme, Geert Leroux-Roels, P Suryakiran, Nicolas Folschweiller, Olivier Van Der Meeren
Vaccination is the most effective and well-tolerated method of conferring long-term protection against hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV; HBV). Long-term studies are required to characterize the duration of protection and need for boosters. Following primary immunization of 150 and 157 healthy adults with 3-doses of combined hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (HAB; Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 0-1-6 months in 2 separate studies, we measured vaccine-induced antibody persistence against HAV and HBV annually for 20 y (Study A: NCT01000324; Study B: NCT01037114)...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277217/towards-elimination-of-hepatitis-b-and-c-in-european-union-and-european-economic-area-countries-monitoring-the-world-health-organization-s-global-health-sector-strategy-core-indicators-and-scaling-up-key-interventions
#16
Erika F Duffell, Dagmar Hedrich, Otilia Mardh, Antons Mozalevskis
The World Health Organization 'Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-2021' aimed at the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat provides a significant opportunity to increase efforts for tackling the epidemics of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections across Europe. To support the implementation and monitoring of this strategy, core epidemiological and programmatic indicators have been proposed necessitating specific surveys, the systematic collection of programmatic data and the establishment of monitoring across the care pathway...
March 2, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277091/inequality-in-the-hepatitis-b-awareness-level-in-rural-residents-from-7-provinces-in-china
#17
Juan Zheng, Quan Li, Jian Wang, Guojie Zhang, Knut R Wangen
The hepatitis B (HB) awareness level is an important factor affecting the rates of HB virus vaccination. To better understand income-related inequalities in the HB awareness level, it is imperative to identify the sources of inequalities and assess the contribution rates of these influential factors. This study analyzed the unequal distribution of the HB awareness level and the contributions of various influential factors. We performed a cross-sectional household survey with questionnaire-based, face-to-face interviews in 7 Chinese provinces...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277087/long-term-persistence-of-immunity-after-hepatitis-b-vaccination-is-this-substantiated-by-the-literature
#18
Terence T Lao
Hepatitis B vaccination is held to provide life-long protection against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but evidence for this notion remains wanting, since no studies have assessed the vaccinees in their fourth decade of life. Indeed, there are several reports indicating that despite vaccination in infancy, the prevalence of HBV infection still increased with age in the vaccinees, and that both anti-HBs titer and anamnestic response declined with age. Clearly it is time to clarify the long-term protection conferred by vaccination in infancy, and to implement remedial measures such as booster doses of vaccine in subjects without immunoprotection...
March 1, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276802/no-response-to-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-infants-born-to-hbsag-mothers-is-associated-to-the-transplacental-transfer-of-hbsag
#19
Jing Wang, Yingli He, Dongfang Jin, Jinfeng Liu, Jie Zheng, Ningxia Yuan, Yun Bai, Taotao Yan, Yuan Yang, Yong Liu, Shulin Zhang, Yingren Zhao, Tianyan Chen
BACKGROUND: No or low hepatitis B (HB) vaccine response is more frequent in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers than those from HBsAg(-). Our previous study found temporary positivity of HBsAg in infants from HBsAg(+) mothers. In this study, we hypothesized that HBsAg in infant blunt immune response to standard hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: A total of 328 consecutive HBsAg(+) mothers and their offspring were enrolled. Blood samples were taken from mothers and their infants and quantified for HBsAg, anti-HBs titer and HBV DNA load concentration; Placenta samples were collected to stain for HBsAg...
February 19, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272974/persistence-of-immunity-18-19%C3%A2-years-after-vaccination-against-hepatitis-b-in-2-cohorts-of-vaccinees-primed-as-infants-or-as-adolescents-in-italy
#20
Luisa Romanò, Cristina Galli, Catia Tagliacarne, Maria Elena Tosti, Claudio Velati, Laura Fomiatti, Maria Chironna, Rosa Cristina Coppola, Mario Cuccia, Rossana Mangione, Fosca Marrone, Francesco Saverio Negrone, Antonino Parlato, Carla Maria Zotti, Alfonso Mele, Alessandro Remo Zanetti
This study was aimed at assessing the anti-HBs persistence and immune memory 18-19 y after vaccination against hepatitis B in healthy individuals primed as infants or adolescents. We enrolled 405 teenagers (Group A) vaccinated as infants, and 409 young adults (Group B) vaccinated as adolescents. All vaccinees were tested for anti-HBs and anti-HBc antibodies; those found anti-HBc positive were further tested for HBsAg and HBV DNA. Eight individuals belonging to Group B were positive for anti-HBc alone, and were excluded from analysis...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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