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Hepatitis b vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773321/evaluating-scenarios-of-locations-and-capacities-for-vaccine-storage-in-nigeria
#1
Dor Hirsh Bar Gai, Zachary Graybill, Paule Voevodsky, Ekundayo Shittu
Many developing countries still face the prevalence of preventable childhood diseases because their vaccine supply chain systems are inadequate by design or structure to meet the needs of their populations. Currently, Nigeria is evaluating options in the redesign of the country's vaccine supply chain. Using Nigeria as a case study, the objective is to evaluate different regional supply chain scenarios to identify the cost minimizing optimal hub locations and storage capacities for doses of different vaccines to achieve a 100% fill rate...
May 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773122/cost-effectiveness-of-the-controlled-temperature-chain-for-the-hepatitis-b-virus-birth-dose-vaccine-in-various-global-settings-a-modelling-study
#2
Nick Scott, Anna Palmer, Christopher Morgan, Olufunmilayo Lesi, C Wendy Spearman, Mark Sonderup, Margaret Hellard
BACKGROUND: The controlled temperature chain (CTC) strategy allows vaccines to be kept outside the cold chain for a short period of time. In remote rural areas, the CTC strategy for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) birth dose vaccination could improve its geographical coverage and timeliness of delivery, but with additional outreach costs. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of the CTC strategy for the HBV birth dose across six world regions and 72 countries according to their HBV prevalence, delivery costs, and birth dose coverage and timing...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773113/game-changing-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-a-controlled-temperature-chain
#3
Minal K Patel, Anna-Lea Kahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772941/recent-advances-in-the-discovery-and-development-of-tlr-ligands-as-novel-therapeutics-for-chronic-hbv-and-hiv-infections
#4
Keye Du, Jia Liu, Ruth Broering, Xiaoyong Zhang, Dongliang Yang, Ulf Dittmer, Mengji Lu
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands remain as promising antiviral drug candidates for the treatment of chronic viral infections. Basic research on the mechanisms of antiviral activity of TLR ligands in preclinical animal models and clinical testing of drug candidates have been carried out in recent years. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the preclinical and clinical testing of TLR ligands in two major viral infections: hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent results have further demonstrated the potent antiviral activity of various TLR ligands ...
May 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771873/community-based-services-to-improve-testing-and-linkage-to-care-among-non-u-s-born-persons-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-three-u-s-programs-october-2014-september-2017
#5
Aaron M Harris, Ruth Link-Gelles, Karen Kim, Edwin Chandrasekar, Su Wang, Nicole Bannister, Perry Pong, Eric Chak, Moon S Chen, Christopher Bowlus, Noele P Nelson
Among an estimated 850,000 to 2.2 million persons with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the United States, 70% are non-U.S.-born (1,2). All patients require linkage to care, and approximately 20%-40% require antiviral treatment (3). Without treatment, one in four persons chronically infected with HBV will die prematurely from liver failure, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma (4). To mitigate morbidity and mortality, CDC funded a cooperative agreement to develop hepatitis B testing and linkage-to-care programs serving non-U...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769493/immune-response-against-hepatitis-b-virus-after-pentavalent-vaccination-in-children
#6
R Karim, M S Rahman, M S Uddin
This study was done to know the real status of immune response to Hepatitis B vaccine among the pentavalent vaccinated children as per EPI schedule of Bangladesh. It was prospective observational study done in the EPI corner of Paediatric OPD of Dhaka National Medical College & Hospital (DNMCH), Dhaka from July 2015 to July 2016. Sixty (60) children ranging from 9 months to 2 years of age, who received pentavalent vaccination (Hepatitis B + DPT + Hib) according to EPI schedule, were included. The testing for anti-HBs titres were conducted in the Department of Virology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769062/seroprevalence-of-hiv-htlv-cmv-hbv-and-rubella-virus-infections-in-pregnant-adolescents-who-received-care-in-the-city-of-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-northern-brazil
#7
Aubaneide Batista Guerra, Leonardo Quintão Siravenha, Rogério Valois Laurentino, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Vânia Nakauth Azevedo, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado
BACKGROUND: Prenatal tests are important for prevention of vertical transmission of various infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus and vaccination coverage against HBV in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 pregnant adolescents from 2009 to 2010...
May 16, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768553/high-risk-behaviors-for-hepatitis-b-and-c-infections-among-female-sex-workers
#8
Marco Antonio Moreira Puga, Larissa Melo Bandeira, Sabrina Moreira Dos Santos Weis, Fernanda Rodas Pires Fernandes, Lisie Souza Castro, Tayana Serpa Ortiz Tanaka, Grazielli Rocha de Rezende, Sheila Araújo Teles, Vivianne de Oliveira Landgraf de Castro, Paula Guerra Murat, Gina Jonasson Mousquer Capelin, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and risk behaviors among 402 female sex workers in Central Brazil were investigated by respondent-driven sampling. METHODS: Blood samples were tested for hepatitis B and C markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two hepatitis B vaccination schedules were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections were 9.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Susceptibility to hepatitis B infection was observed in 61...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762363/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-primary-and-booster-vaccinations-of-a-fully-liquid-dtap-ipv-hb-prp-t-hexavalent-vaccine-in-healthy-infants-and-toddlers-in-germany-and-the-czech-republic
#9
Roman Prymula, Dorothee Kieninger, Emmanuel Feroldi, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Xavier DaCosta
BACKGROUND: To support a fully liquid, diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae b (PRP-T) vaccine in Europe using a 2, 3, 4 month primary series and a booster at 11 to 15 months of age. METHODS: Phase III, randomized, observer-blind studies in Germany and the Czech Republic. Participants who had not received HB vaccine were randomized to a 2, 3, 4 month primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (Group 1; N=266) or a reconstituted DTaPHB-IPV//PRP-T comparator (Group 2; N=263) and a booster of the same vaccine...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761899/the-use-of-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-with-or-without-hepatitis-b-vaccine-to-prevent-de-novo-hepatitis-b-in-pediatric-recipients-of-anti-hbc-positive-livers
#10
Noriyo Yamashiki, Atsushi Yoshizawa, Yoshihide Ueda, Toshimi Kaido, Hideaki Okajima, Hiroyuki Marusawa, Hiroshi Seno, Shinji Uemoto
Prophylactic measures are used to reduce DNHB after HBsAg-negative patients receive anti-HBc-positive liver grafts. This study investigated the incidence of DNHB and clinical outcomes in pediatric LT recipients under HBIG prophylaxis, with or without hepatitis B vaccination. Between 1995 and 2013, 51 HBsAg-negative pediatric recipients underwent living-donor LT from anti-HBc-positive donors. The median (range) age was 4 (0.1-17) years, 23 (45%) were male, and 71% were negative for both anti-HBc and anti-HBc...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761292/-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-delta-current-and-future-treatments
#11
REVIEW
N Wortmann, C Höner Zu Siederdissen, M Cornberg
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is among the 30 leading causes of death, despite effective vaccination and therapeutic options. Chronic hepatitis delta (coinfection with hepatitis D virus) leads to a rapid disease progression. AIMS: Based on current international guidelines and studies, an overview about present and future therapeutic options for chronic hepatitis B and delta is provided. RESULTS: Therapy with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues leads to nearly complete HBV DNA suppression, which is associated with regression of liver fibrosis and a lower risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma...
May 14, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761102/reactivation-of-a-vaccine-escape-hepatitis-b-virus-mutant-in-a-cambodian-patient-during-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy
#12
Dahlene N Fusco, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Yury Khudyakov, Lili Punkova, Aisha Mohamed, Scarlett Se Yun Cheon, Prapti Koirala, Karin L Andersson, Gonzague Jourdain, Camille Sureau, Raymond T Chung, Georg Lauer
A 76-year-old Cambodian man co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) 6c-1 presented for care. HBV DNA was intermittently detectable despite anti-HBs levels being above the protective threshold. During treatment for HCV, HBV DNA levels increased. Sequencing revealed multiple mutations including vaccine escape mutation and mutations predicted to enhance fitness. This case represents exacerbation of an HBV vaccine escape mutant during a direct-acting antiviral therapy.
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752131/effectiveness-of-the-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-vaccine-against-invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-disease-in-the-netherlands-2003-16-a-case-control-study
#13
Susana Monge, Susan Jm Hahné, Hester E de Melker, Elisabeth Am Sanders, Arie van der Ende, Mirjam J Knol
BACKGROUND: In 2016, an increase in invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease was reported in the Netherlands in children younger than 5 years, which coincided with the introduction of the hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-hepatitis B virus-inactivated polio virus/Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) from 2011 onwards. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of the hexavalent vaccine to assess whether this increase could be explained by decreasing effectiveness...
May 8, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751272/overcoming-immune-tolerance-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-by-therapeutic-vaccination
#14
REVIEW
Claudia Dembek, Ulrike Protzer, Michael Roggendorf
The currently used nucleoside analogs (i.e. entecavir and tenofovir) with high barrier-to-resistance efficiently suppress viral replication, limit inflammation and reduce the sequelae of chronic hepatitis B, but cannot cure the disease and thus have to be applied long-term. Therapeutic vaccination as an approach to cure chronic hepatitis B has shown promising pre-clinical results, nevertheless the proof of its efficacy in clinical trials is still missing. This may be partially due to suboptimal vaccine design...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751176/il-4-mediates-the-delayed-neurobehavioral-impairments-induced-by-neonatal-hepatitis-b-vaccination-that-involves-the-down-regulation-of-the-il-4-receptor-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Xiao Wang, Junhua Yang, Zhiwei Xing, Hongyang Zhang, Yaru Wen, Fangfang Qi, Zejie Zuo, Jie Xu, Zhibin Yao
We have previously verified that neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced hippocampal neuroinflammation and behavior impairments in mice. However, the exact mechanism of these effects remain unclear. In this study, we observed that neonatal hepatitis B vaccination induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine response lasting for 4-5 weeks in both the serum and the hippocampus, primarily indicated by elevated IL-4 levels. Three weeks after the vaccination schedule, however, hepatitis B vaccine (HBV)-mice showed delayed hippocampal neuroinflammation...
May 8, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749324/changes-in-acute-viral-hepatitis-epidemiology-in-the-turkish-adult-population-a-multicenter-study
#16
Zehra Karacaer, Selma Tosun, Ayşe Batırel, Suzan Şahin, İrem Altaş, Serhat Uysal, Serpil Erol, Nurgül Ceran, Ayşe Albayrak, İlknur Esen Yıldız, Uğur Kostakoğlu, Fatma Kaçar, Nuretdin Kuzhan, Ayten Kadanalı, Gül Karagöz, Ercan Yenilmez, Derya Bayırlı Turan, Arzu Altunçekiç Yıldırım, Funda Koçak, Rıza Aytaç Çetinkaya, Mehmet Parlak, Özlem Aydın, Pınar Ergen, Gül Durmuş, Türkkan Öztürk Kaygusuz, Özgur Dağlı, Canan Demir, Fatma Yılmaz Karadağ
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The present study aimed to determine the changes in the epidemiology of hepatitis in recent years in an adult Turkish population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 852 patients with acute viral hepatitis from 17 centers were included in this study. Their sociodemographic characteristics, clinical courses, treatments, and laboratory findings were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The most commonly found microorganisms were the hepatitis B virus (55...
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743374/common-and-distinct-capsid-and-surface-protein-requirements-for-secretion-of-complete-and-genome-free-hepatitis-b-virions
#17
Xiaojun Ning, Laurie Luckenbaugh, Kuancheng Liu, Volker Bruss, Camille Sureau, Jianming Hu
During the morphogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV), an enveloped virus, two types of virions are secreted: (1) a minor population of complete virions containing a mature nucleocapsid with the characteristic, partially double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA genome and (2) a major population containing an empty capsid with no DNA or RNA (empty virions). Secretion of both types of virions requires interactions between the HBV capsid or core protein (HBc) and the viral surface or envelope proteins. We have studied the requirements from both HBc and envelope proteins for empty virion secretion, in comparison with those for secretion of complete virions...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742467/three-decades-of-neonatal-vaccination-has-greatly-reduced-antenatal-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-gravidae-covered-by-the-program
#18
Terence T Lao, Daljit S Sahota, Paul K S Chan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of three decades of hepatitis B vaccination in infancy on antenatal prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in 93,134 Hong-Kong born gravidae managed in 1997-2015. METHODS: Annual prevalence of HBsAg carriage on routine antenatal screening was examined with respect to maternal year of birth in three periods i.e. pre-1983 (before availability of vaccination), 1983-88 (vaccination of infants born to HBsAg-carriers), and after 1988 (universal vaccination)...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738926/viral-envelope-specific-antibodies-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#19
REVIEW
Davide Corti, Fabio Benigni, Daniel Shouval
While the cellular immune response associated with acute and chronic HBV infection has been thoroughly studied, the B cell response in chronic hepatitis B and the role of antibodies raised against the HBV envelope antigens in controlling and prevention of infection requires further investigation. The detection of anti-HBs antibodies is considered as one of the biomarkers for functional cure of chronic hepatitis B virus infection, as well as for protective immunity. Indeed, vaccine-induced neutralizing anti-HBs antibodies have been shown to protect against HBV challenge...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738011/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-c-and-hiv-among-patients-attending-a-teaching-dental-hospital-a-7-year-retrospective-study-from-the-united-arab-emirates
#20
Suhail H Al-Amad
OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence and case characteristics of hepatitis B, C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and their transmissibility from patients to dental personnel following percutaneous and mucocutaneous injuries. METHODS: All incidents of sharp and splash injuries reported between January 2010 and January 2017 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were calculated using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS)...
May 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
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