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pharmacology dissertation

Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Long Chiau Ming
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau, a widely used medicinal plant, is extensively grown in tropical Asia and Southeast Asian countries. C. nutans, with its broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, has been traditionally used to treat cancer, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, insect bites, and skin problems, consumed as a vegetable, mixed with fresh juices, in concoctions, and as a whole plant. The present review analyzes the advances in the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of C...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Jennette Palcic Moreno, Theresa A Nicklas, Tom Baranowski
BACKGROUND: Short and poor sleep have been associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, such as overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes, especially among women. Women therefore represent an important target for interventions aimed at improving sleep and such interventions have been advocated to enhance maternal, fetal, and infant health. This systematic review will assess the efficacy or effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting adequate sleep among women. The primary outcomes will be changes in sleep duration and/or sleep quality from baseline to post-intervention and to the last available follow-up measured either through self-reports or objectively...
May 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Shuping Li, Xuemei Cheng, Changhong Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plants of the genus Peganum have a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, jaundice, colic, lumbago, and many other human ailments. Additionally, the plants can be used as an amulet against evil-eye, dye and so on, which have become increasingly popular in Asia, Iran, Northwest India, and North Africa. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present paper reviewed the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, analytical methods, biological activities, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and drug interaction of the genus Peganum in order to assess the ethnopharmacological use and to explore therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xirui He, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jiacheng Fang, Yu Chang, Ning Ning, Hao Guo, Linhong Huang, Xiaoqiang Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Achyranthes L. (Amaranthaceae), also known as Chaff Flower and Niuxi/, mainly includes two famous medicinal species namely A. bidentata and A. aspera. A. bidentata has been widely used as blood-activating and stasis-resolving medicine for the treatment of various diseases including amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, lumbago, gonalgia, paraplegia, edema, stranguria, headache, dizziness, odontalgia, oral ulcer, hematemesis, and epistaxis. A. aspera has been widely used to treat various diseases, including gynecological disorder, asthma, ophthalmia, odontalgia, haemorrhoids, and abdominal tumor, and has been applied to difficult labour, wound healing, insect and snake bites...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Stephanie Scott, Kathryn Parkinson, Eileen Kaner, Shannon Robalino, Martine Stead, Christine Power, Niamh Fitzgerald, Wendy Wrieden, Ashley Adamson
BACKGROUND: Excess body weight and heavy alcohol consumption are two of the greatest contributors to global disease. Alcohol use peaks in early adulthood. Alcohol consumption can also exacerbate weight gain. A high body mass index and heavy drinking are independently associated with liver disease but, in combination, they produce an intensified risk of damage, with individuals from lower socio-economic status groups disproportionately affected. METHODS: We will conduct searches in MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, ASSIA, Web of Knowledge (WoK), Scopus, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS, CENTRAL and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses for studies that assess targeted preventative interventions of any length of time or duration of follow-up that are focused on reducing unhealthy eating behaviour and linked risky alcohol use in 18-25-year-olds...
March 3, 2017: Systematic Reviews
Ana Célia Caetano de Souza, José Wicto Pereira Borges, Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira
OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of antihypertensive treatment (pharmacological and non-pharmacological) on the health-related quality of life of individuals with hypertension. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis using the following databases: IBECS, LILACS, SciELO, Medline, Cochrane, Science Direct, Scopus and the Brazilian Capes Theses and Dissertations Database. The statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager, version 5.2...
December 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
Leng Chee Chang, Mayuramas Sang-Ngern, John M Pezzuto, Carolyn Ma
The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, during a historic event in Spring 2016, graduated the first two students in the Pacific region to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo. The college offers PhD programs in these five disciplines: Cancer Biology, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. One of the Pharmacognosy dissertations focused on plant-derived natural products with potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive activities...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Xirui He, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jiacheng Fang, Zefeng Zhao, Linhong Huang, Hao Guo, Xiaohui Zheng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (Orchidaceae), also known as Hyacinth Orchid and Baiji (Simplified Chinese: ), not only has been widely used for the treatment of hematemesis, hemoptysis, and traumatic bleeding due to the efficacy of arresting bleeding with astringent action, but also has been applied topically to overcome ulcers, sores, swellings, and chapped skin due to the efficacy of dispersing swelling and promoting tissue regeneration. Additional medical applications include the treatment of tuberculosis, malignant ulcers, hemorrhoids, anthrax, eye diseases, and silicosis...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Charlene J Treanor, Una C McMenamin, Roisin F O'Neill, Chris R Cardwell, Mike J Clarke, Marie Cantwell, Michael Donnelly
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that up to 75% of cancer survivors may experience cognitive impairment as a result of cancer treatment and given the increasing size of the cancer survivor population, the number of affected people is set to rise considerably in coming years. There is a need, therefore, to identify effective, non-pharmacological interventions for maintaining cognitive function or ameliorating cognitive impairment among people with a previous cancer diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cognitive effects, non-cognitive effects, duration and safety of non-pharmacological interventions among cancer patients targeted at maintaining cognitive function or ameliorating cognitive impairment as a result of cancer or receipt of systemic cancer treatment (i...
August 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lucia Morbidelli
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood-vessel, is crucial in the pathogenesis of several diseases, and thus represents a druggable target for the prevention and treatment of different disorders. It is nowadays well kwon how diet can control cancer development and progression, and how the use of certain diet components can prevent cancer development. Several studies, also from our lab, now indicate that natural plant products including nutraceuticals modulate tumor angiogenesis. In this review, it is reported how phytochemicals, comprising hydroxytyrosol, resveratrol, genistein, curcumin, and the green tea component epigallocatechin-3-gallate among the others, negatively regulate angiogenesis...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Bhavesh C Variya, Anita K Bakrania, Snehal S Patel
Medicinal plants, having great elementary and therapeutic importance, are the gift to mankind to acquire healthy lifestyle. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbeaceae), commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, has superior value in entirely indigenous traditional system of medicine, including folklore Ayurveda, for medicinal and nutritional purposes to build up lost vitality and vigor. In this article, numerous phytochemicals isolated from E. officinalis and its ethnomedical and pharmacological potentials with molecular mechanisms are briefly deliberated and recapitulated...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Xirui He, Yajun Bai, Zefeng Zhao, Xiaoxiao Wang, Jiacheng Fang, Linhong Huang, Min Zeng, Qiang Zhang, Yajun Zhang, Xiaohui Zheng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora japonica (Fabaceae), also known as Huai (Chinese: ), is a medium-sized deciduous tree commonly found in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and other countries. The use of this plant has been recorded in classical medicinal treatises of ancient China, and it is currently recorded in both the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia. The flower buds and fruits of S. japonica, also known as Flos Sophorae Immaturus and Fructus Sophorae in China, are most commonly used in Asia (especially in China) to treat hemorrhoids, hematochezia, hematuria, hematemesis, hemorrhinia, uterine or intestinal hemorrhage, arteriosclerosis, headache, hypertension, dysentery, dizziness, and pyoderma...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kapil S Patil, Sanjivani R Bhalsing
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Boerhavia is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world including Mexico, America, Africa, Asia, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands and Australia. The genus Boerhavia is extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners for treatments of hepatitis, urinary disorders, gastro intestinal diseases, inflammations, skin problems, infectious diseases and asthma. Present review focused on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Boerhavia genus to support potential scope for advance ethnopharmacological study...
April 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Karen A Thaxter Nesbeth, Leslie A Samuels, Carla Nicholson Daley, Maxine Gossell-Williams, Damian A Nesbeth
Ptyalism gravidarum is an oral pathological condition specific to gravidity. We present a review of the literature regarding epidemiology internationally, and then highlight therapies reported by patients and caregivers. This often distressing repeated filling of the mouth with watery saliva in a pregnant patient was previously exclusively associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, and the consequent maternal-fetal risk. Our dissertation includes reference to a rare case of isolated sialorrhoea of pregnancy, without nausea or emesis...
March 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Soane K M Chaves, Chistiane M Feitosa, Lidiane da S Araújo
The study of natural substances has increased in recent years in the search for compounds with pharmacological properties that can be used for the development of new drugs. The alkaloids, substances extracted natural sources, show promising pharmacological activities, including pharmacological activities for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, whose treatment is based on the use of various drugs. Thus, the article aims to a technological prospecting of alkaloids that presented important properties in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, namely, antioxidant, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant properties...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Joanna L Michel, Armando Caceres, Gail B Mahady
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Central America, most Maya women use ethnomedicines for all aspects of their reproductive cycle including menstruation, pregnancy and menopause. However, very few of these plants have been documented, collected and tested in appropriate pharmacological assays to determine possible safety and efficacy. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of information on the ethnomedical uses, ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacological research for medicinal plants used for women's reproductive health in Guatemala, with a special emphasis on the Q'eqchi Maya of the Lake Izabal region, to demonstrate therapeutic potential and support future research in the field...
February 3, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Dominic Hurst
DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL); Medline; Embase; PsycINFO. Additional sources were also searched for early versions of the review: Web of Science, Dissertation Abstracts Online, Scopus, Healthstar, ERIC, National Technical Information Service database and Current Contents. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials and pseudo-randomised controlled trials allocating smokeless tobacco (ST) users to an intervention or control, or to different interventions...
December 2015: Evidence-based Dentistry
Shaowa Lü, Qiushi Wang, Guoyu Li, Shuang Sun, Yuyan Guo, Haixue Kuang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common worldwide public health problem. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) achieved some results to some extent in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Especially in China, TCM formulas are used in the clinic because of their advantages. Some of these TCM formulas have been used for thousands of years in ancient China, they pays much attention to strengthening healthy qi, cleaning heat, and wet, activating blood, etc...
December 24, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rong-Fang Hu, Xiao-Ying Jiang, Junmin Chen, Zhiyong Zeng, Xiao Y Chen, Yueping Li, Xin Huining, David J W Evans
BACKGROUND: Adults in intensive care units (ICUs) often suffer from a lack of sleep or frequent sleep disruptions. Non-pharmacological interventions can improve the duration and quality of sleep and decrease the risk of sleep disturbance, delirium, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the length of stay in the ICU. However, there is no clear evidence of the effectiveness and harms of different non-pharmacological interventions for sleep promotion in adults admitted to the ICU. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions for sleep promotion in critically ill adults in the ICU...
October 6, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gabriel O Anyanwu, Nisar-ur-Rehman, Chukwu E Onyeneke, Khalid Rauf
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Anthocleista of the Gentianaceae family contains 14 species of trees and shrub-like plants distributed in tropical Africa, in Madagascar and on the Comoros. Traditionally, they are commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, malaria, typhoid fever, obesity, diarrhea, dysentery, hyperprolactinemia, abdominal pain, ulcer, jaundice, asthma, hemorrhoids, hernia, cancer, wounds, chest pains, inflammations, rheumatism, STDs, infertility and skin diseases...
December 4, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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