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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775725/anti-hepatitis-c-virus-activity-and-synergistic-effect-of-nymphaea-alba-extracts-and-bioactive-constituents-in-liver-infected-cells
#1
Sidra Rehman, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Bushra Ijaz, Sheikh Riazuddin
BACKGROUND: Without an effective vaccine, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a global threat, inflicting 170-300 million carriers worldwide at risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Though various direct acting antivirals have been redeemed the hepatitis C treatment, a few restraints persist including possible side effects, viral resistance emergence, excessive cost which restricts its availability to a common person. HYPOTHESIS: There is no preventive HCV vaccine available today so the discovery of potent antiviral natural flora and their bioactive constituents may help to develop preventive cures against HCV infection...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771298/detection-and-isolation-of-c-difficile-asymptomatic-carriers-during-c-difficile-infection-outbreaks-an-exploratory-study
#2
Bianka Paquet-Bolduc, Philippe Gervais, Jean-Francois Roussy, Sylvie Trottier, Matthew Oughton, Ivan Brukner, Jean Longtin, Vivian G Loo, Andre Dascal, Yves Longtin
Unit-wide detection and isolation of C. difficile asymptomatic carriers was performed during four C. difficile infection outbreaks. Of 114 patients screened, 15 (13%) were carriers. Prevalence of carriage varied between outbreaks from 0% to 29% (p=0.004). Isolating carriers was not associated with significantly shorter outbreak duration compared with historical controls.
May 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769275/-point-counterpoint-active-surveillance-for-carriers-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-should-be-performed-to-guide-prevention-efforts
#3
L Clifford McDonald, Daniel J Diekema
In 2017, we published a point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, Drs Ferric Fang, Christopher Polage, and Mark Wilcox discussed the strategies for diagnosing Clostridium difficile colitis in symptomatic patients. Since that manuscript new guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of American and the Society for Health Care Epidemiology have been published (1) and healthcare systems have begun to explore screening asymptomatic patients for C. difficile colonization...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767500/enhanced-performance-of-field-effect-transistors-based-on-black-phosphorus-channels-reduced-by-galvanic-corrosion-of-al-over-layers
#4
Sangik Lee, Chansoo Yoon, Ji Hye Lee, Yeon Soo Kim, Mi Jung Lee, Wondong Kim, Jaeyoon Baik, Quanxi Jia, Bae Ho Park
Two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconducting materials with considerable bandgaps are emerging as a new class of materials applicable to next-generation devices. Particularly, black phosphorus (BP) is considered to be very promising for next-generation 2D electrical and optical devices due to its high carrier mobility of 200-1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and large on/off ratio of 104 -105 in field effect transistors. However, its environmental instability in air requires fabrication processes in a glove box filled with nitrogen or argon gas followed by encapsulation, passivation, and chemical functionalization of BP...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764119/founder-mutations-for-early-onset-melanoma-as-revealed-by-whole-exome-sequencing-suggests-that-this-is-not-associated-with-the-increasing-incidence-of-melanoma-in-poland
#5
Tadeusz Dębniak, Rodney J Scott, Rodney A Lea, Bohdan Górski, Bartłomiej Masojć, Cezary Cybulski, Andrzej Kram, Romuald Maleszka, Tomasz Gromowski, Katarzyna Paszkowska-Szczur, Aniruddh Kashyap, Marcin R Lener, Karolina Malińska, Emilia Rogoża, Dawid Murawa, Helena Rudnicka, Jakub Deptuła, Jan Lubiński
Purpose: Germline mutations within melanoma susceptibility genes are present only in minority of melanoma patients and it is expected that additional genes will be discovered with next generation sequence technology and whole-exome sequencing. Material and Methods: Herein we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on a cohort of 96 unrelated Polish patients with melanoma diagnosed under the age of 40 years who all screened negative for the presence of CDKN2A-variants...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761674/screening-arab-israeli-pregnant-women-for-group-b-streptococcus-by-the-amplivue-gbs-assay-are-the-rates-higher-than-the-national-average
#6
Marwan Hakim, Adel Jabour, Miriam Anton, Meggie Hakim, Sahar Kheirallah
BACKGROUND: The recommendation of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding universal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) at 35-37 weeks gestational age in pregnancy is not accepted in Israel. The National Council for Obstetrics, Neonatology and Genetics recommends intrapartum prophylaxis, mainly based on risk factors, to prevent early neonatal GBS infection. This policy is based on past studies demonstrating low colonization rates of the bacteria in Israeli pregnant women and very low neonatal sepsis rates...
May 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761648/poly-%C3%AE-amino-ester-co-poly-caprolactone-terpolymers-as-nonviral-vectors-for-mrna-delivery-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Umberto Capasso Palmiero, James C Kaczmarek, Owen S Fenton, Daniel G Anderson
The production of new proteins with messenger RNA (mRNA) has gained a broad interest due to its potential for addressing a wide range of diseases. Here, the design and characterization of novel ionizable poly(β-amino ester)-co-poly(caprolactone) terpolymers, synthesized via the combination of the ring opening polymerization and the Michael step-growth polymerization, are reported. The versatility of this method is demonstrated by varying the number of caprolactone units attached to each poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) terpolymer...
May 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760218/validation-of-an-expanded-carrier-screen-that-optimizes-sensitivity-via-full-exon-sequencing-and-panel-wide-copy-number-variant-identification
#8
Gregory J Hogan, Valentina S Vysotskaia, Kyle A Beauchamp, Stefanie Seisenberger, Peter V Grauman, Kevin R Haas, Sun Hae Hong, Diana Jeon, Shera Kash, Henry H Lai, Laura M Melroy, Mark R Theilmann, Clement S Chu, Kevin Iori, Jared R Maguire, Eric A Evans, Imran S Haque, Rebecca Mar-Heyming, Hyunseok P Kang, Dale Muzzey
BACKGROUND: By identifying pathogenic variants across hundreds of genes, expanded carrier screening (ECS) enables prospective parents to assess the risk of transmitting an autosomal recessive or X-linked condition. Detection of at-risk couples depends on the number of conditions tested, the prevalence of the respective diseases, and the screen's analytical sensitivity for identifying disease-causing variants. Disease-level analytical sensitivity is often <100% in ECS tests because copy number variants (CNVs) are typically not interrogated because of their technical complexity...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758563/pilot-study-of-population-based-newborn-screening-for-spinal-muscular-atrophy-in-new-york-state
#9
Jennifer N Kraszewski, Denise M Kay, Colleen F Stevens, Carrie Koval, Bianca Haser, Veronica Ortiz, Anthony Albertorio, Lilian L Cohen, Ritu Jain, Sarah P Andrew, Sally Dunaway Young, Nicole M LaMarca, Darryl C De Vivo, Michele Caggana, Wendy K Chung
PurposeTo determine feasibility and utility of newborn screening for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in New York State.MethodsWe validated a multiplex TaqMan real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay using dried blood spots for SMA. From January 2016 to January 2017, we offered, consented, and screened 3,826 newborns at three hospitals in New York City and tested newborns for the deletion in exon 7 of SMN1.ResultsNinety-three percent of parents opted in for SMA screening. Overall the SMA carrier frequency was 1...
October 12, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756035/the-ultrafast-dynamics-and-conductivity-of-photoexcited-graphene-at-different-fermi-energies
#10
Andrea Tomadin, Sam M Hornett, Hai I Wang, Evgeny M Alexeev, Andrea Candini, Camilla Coletti, Dmitry Turchinovich, Mathias Kläui, Mischa Bonn, Frank H L Koppens, Euan Hendry, Marco Polini, Klaas-Jan Tielrooij
For many of the envisioned optoelectronic applications of graphene, it is crucial to understand the subpicosecond carrier dynamics immediately following photoexcitation and the effect of photoexcitation on the electrical conductivity-the photoconductivity. Whereas these topics have been studied using various ultrafast experiments and theoretical approaches, controversial and incomplete explanations concerning the sign of the photoconductivity, the occurrence and significance of the creation of additional electron-hole pairs, and, in particular, how the relevant processes depend on Fermi energy have been put forward...
May 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754767/preconception-carrier-screening-by-genome-sequencing-results-from-the-clinical-laboratory
#11
Sumit Punj, Yassmine Akkari, Jennifer Huang, Fei Yang, Allison Creason, Christine Pak, Amiee Potter, Michael O Dorschner, Deborah A Nickerson, Peggy D Robertson, Gail P Jarvik, Laura M Amendola, Jennifer Schleit, Dana Kostiner Simpson, Alan F Rope, Jacob Reiss, Tia Kauffman, Marian J Gilmore, Patricia Himes, Benjamin Wilfond, Katrina A B Goddard, C Sue Richards
Advances in sequencing technologies permit the analysis of a larger selection of genes for preconception carrier screening. The study was designed as a sequential carrier screen using genome sequencing to analyze 728 gene-disorder pairs for carrier and medically actionable conditions in 131 women and their partners (n = 71) who were planning a pregnancy. We report here on the clinical laboratory results from this expanded carrier screening program. Variants were filtered and classified using the latest American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guideline; only pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants were confirmed by orthologous methods before being reported...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751920/an-improved-clenbuterol-detection-by-immunochromatographic-assay-with-bacteria-au-composite-as-signal-amplifier
#12
Qiong Huang, Tong Bu, Wentao Zhang, Lingzhi Yan, Mengyue Zhang, Qingfeng Yang, Lunjie Huang, Baowei Yang, Na Hu, Yourui Suo, Jianlong Wang, Daohong Zhang
Immunochromatographic assays (ICAs) are most frequently used for on-site rapid screening of clenbuterol. To improve sensitivity, a novel probe with bacteria as signal carriers was developed. Bacteria can load a great deal of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on their surface, meaning much fewer antibodies are needed to produce clearly visible results, although low concentrations of antibody could also trigger fierce competition between free analyte and the immobilized antigen. Thus, a limited number of antibodies was key to significantly improved sensitivity...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750599/peri-operative-nasal-eradication-therapy-prevents-staphylococcus-aureus-surgical-site-infections-in-aortoiliac-surgery
#13
Jasper C M Langenberg, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Paul G H Mulder, Jannie Romme, Gwan H Ho, Lyckle Van Der Laan
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) cause considerable morbidity and deaths among patients undergoing vascular surgery. Pre-operative screening and subsequent treatment of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriers with mupirocin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of SSIs in cardiothoracic and orthopedic surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this screen-and-treat strategy on the development of SSI in patients undergoing aortoiliac surgery. METHODS: A prospective study was performed that enrolled an intervention cohort comprising all patients undergoing aortoiliac surgery from February 2013 to December 2016...
May 11, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748150/targeted-exome-sequencing-reveals-homozygous-trem2-r47c-mutation-presenting-with-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-without-bone-involvement
#14
Adeline Sl Ng, Yi Jayne Tan, Zhao Yi, Moses Tandiono, Elaine Chew, Jacqueline Dominguez, Mabel Macas, Ebonne Ng, Shahul Hameed, Simon Ting, Eng King Tan, Jia Nee Foo, Nagaendran Kandiah
To identify genes associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in South-East Asia, targeted exome sequencing and C9orf72 genotyping was performed in 198 subjects (52 patients with FTD and 146 healthy controls) who were screened for mutations in 12 FTD-associated genes. We detected a homozygous TREM2 R47C mutation in a patient with behavioral variant FTD without bone cysts or bone-associated phenotype. Two novel nonsense GRN mutations in 3 FTD patients from the Philippines were detected, but no known pathogenic mutations in other FTD-associated genes were found...
April 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745899/identification-of-a-transporter-complex-responsible-for-the-cytosolic-entry-of-nitrogen-containing-bisphosphonates
#15
Zhou Yu, Lauren E Surface, Chong Yon Park, Max A Horlbeck, Gregory A Wyant, Monther Abu-Remaileh, Timothy R Peterson, David M Sabatini, Jonathan S Weissman, Erin K O'Shea
Nitrogen-containing-bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are a class of drugs widely prescribed to treat osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases. Although previous studies have established that N-BPs function by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway in osteoclasts, the mechanism by which N-BPs enter the cytosol from the extracellular space to reach their molecular target is not understood. Here we implemented a CRISPRi-mediated genome-wide screen and identified SLC37A3 (solute carrier family 37 member A3) as a gene required for the action of N-BPs in mammalian cells...
May 10, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743817/analysis-of-the-role-of-rs2031920-and-rs3813867-polymorphisms-within-the-cytochrome-p450-2e1-gene-in-the-risk-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Hai Zhang, Haiyan Li, Huanxin Yu
Background: To explore the genetic effect of rs2031920 and rs3813867 polymorphisms within the cytochrome P450 2E1 ( CYP2E1 ) gene on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: The eligible case-control studies were obtained by database searching and screening, and the specific statistical analysis was performed with STATA 12.0 software. Results: After the process of database searching and screening, a total of 32 case-control studies with 7435 cases and 10,466 controls were ultimately included in our meta-analysis...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743380/tailored-adjunctive-cilostazol-therapy-based-on-cyp2c19-genotyping-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-the-caldera-gene-study
#17
Koichi Kaikita, Hiromi Yoshimura, Masanobu Ishii, Takashi Kudoh, Yoshihiro Yamada, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Sunao Kojima, Hideki Shimomura, Ryusuke Tsunoda, Kunihiko Matsui, Hisao Ogawa, Kenichi Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Patients with reduced-function CYP2C19 genotypes on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel show higher clinical risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated the effect of CYP2C19 genotype-tailored adjunctive cilostazol therapy on treatment of AMI.Methods and Results:The study group of 138 patients with suspected AMI were screened for CYP2C19 genotype immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a SPARTAN RX point-of-care device...
May 8, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742467/three-decades-of-neonatal-vaccination-has-greatly-reduced-antenatal-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-gravidae-covered-by-the-program
#18
Terence T Lao, Daljit S Sahota, Paul K S Chan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of three decades of hepatitis B vaccination in infancy on antenatal prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in 93,134 Hong-Kong born gravidae managed in 1997-2015. METHODS: Annual prevalence of HBsAg carriage on routine antenatal screening was examined with respect to maternal year of birth in three periods i.e. pre-1983 (before availability of vaccination), 1983-88 (vaccination of infants born to HBsAg-carriers), and after 1988 (universal vaccination)...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742276/hla-b57-01-shields-people-living-with-hiv-for-significantly-better-periodontal-health
#19
Gundolf Schuettfort, Philipp Leuw, Annette Haberl, Eva Herrmann, Kyu-Hyun Park, Timo Wolf, Christoph Stephan
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between HLA-B57.01 (Human leukocyte antigen) and clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis in people living with HIV (PLWHIV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients were recruited from the HIVCENTER at the Universityhospital Frankfurt during April 2014 and July 2015. Periodontal examination included Periodontal Screening Index (PSI), Gingivalindex (GI), Bleeding on Probing Index (BOP), Periodontal Probing Depth (PD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) and DMF-T Score (decayed, missing, filled teeth)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741247/prenatal-and-preimplantation-diagnosis-of-hemoglobinopathies
#20
REVIEW
C Vrettou, G Kakourou, T Mamas, J Traeger-Synodinos
The hemoglobinopathies, as a group, are one of the most common serious monogenic diseases in the world. An accepted and widely adopted approach to reduce the number of new cases involves carrier-screening programs, with the option of prenatal diagnosis (PND) or preimplantation diagnosis (preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease, PGT-M) for carrier couples. The aim of PND is to provide an accurate result as early in pregnancy as possible, which necessitates prior identification of the parental disease-causing mutations, as well as safe and timely biopsy of fetal material...
May 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
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