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Microbiome gut brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379454/intervention-strategies-for-cesarean-section-induced-alterations-in-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#1
Angela Moya-Pérez, Pauline Luczynski, Ingrid B Renes, Shugui Wang, Yuliya Borre, C Anthony Ryan, Jan Knol, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379213/energy-dense-diet-triggers-changes-in-gut-microbiota-reorganization-of-gut%C3%A2-brain-vagal-communication-and-increases-body-fat-accumulation
#2
Alexandra C Vaughn, Erin M Cooper, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Levi J O'Loughlin, Michael E Konkel, James H Peters, Andras Hajnal, Tanusree Sen, Sun Hye Lee, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet‑induced changes in gut microbiota alter vagal gut-brain communication associated with increased body fat accumulation...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#3
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328972/altered-gut-microbiome-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness-causes-neuroinflammation-and-intestinal-injury-via-leaky-gut-and-tlr4-activation
#4
Firas Alhasson, Suvarthi Das, Ratanesh Seth, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Traci Testerman, James Burch, Lorne J Hofseth, Ronnie Horner, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Stephen M Lasley, Saurabh Chatterjee
Many of the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI) that include neurological abnormalities, neuroinflammation, chronic fatigue and gastrointestinal disturbances have been traced to Gulf War chemical exposure. Though the association and subsequent evidences are strong, the mechanisms that connect exposure to intestinal and neurological abnormalities remain unclear. Using an established rodent model of Gulf War Illness, we show that chemical exposure caused significant dysbiosis in the gut that included increased abundance of phylum Firmicutes and Tenericutes, and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318994/more-flavor-for-flavonoid-based-interventions
#5
Nadeem O Kaakoush, Margaret J Morris
Poor diets are associated with obesity and a decline in cognitive function. Flavonoids are plant compounds that have been associated with improved metabolic parameters in obesity and reversal of cognitive decline. Given that microbial flavonoid conversion is important for bioactivity, flavonoid-derived neuroactive compounds may be functionally crucial in the gut microbiome-brain axis.
March 17, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303750/the-gut-microbiome-obesity-and-weight-control-in-women-s-reproductive-health
#6
K Leigh Greathouse, Mary Ann Faucher, Marie Hastings-Tolsma
The microbes residing in the human gut, referred to as the microbiome, are intricately linked to energy homeostasis and subsequently obesity. Integral to the origins of obesity, the microbiome is believed to affect not only health of the human gut but also overall health. This microbiome-obesity association is mediated through the process of energy extraction, metabolism, and cross talk between the brain and the gut microbiome. Host exposures, including diet, that potentially modify genetic predisposition to obesity and affect weight management are reviewed...
March 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301775/the-microbiome-and-host-behavior
#7
Helen E Vuong, Jessica M Yano, Thomas C Fung, Elaine Y Hsiao
The microbiota is increasingly recognized for its ability to influence the development and function of the nervous system and several complex host behaviors. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for the gut microbiota in modulating host social and communicative behavior, stressor-induced behavior, and performance in learning and memory tasks. We summarize effects of the microbiota on host neurophysiology, including brain microstructure, gene expression, and neurochemical metabolism across regions of the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and hypothalamus...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293926/prenatal-maternal-distress-and-allergic-diseases-in-offspring-review-of-evidence-and-possible-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Dong In Suh, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Eun Lee, Song I Yang, Soo Jong Hong
Recent studies have suggested a close association between prenatal maternal distress and allergic diseases in the offspring. We selected relevant birth-cohort or national registry studies using a keyword search of the PubMed database and summarized current evidence on the impact of prenatal maternal distress on the development of offspring's allergic diseases. Moreover, we postulated possible pathways linking prenatal distress and allergic diseases based on relevant human and animal studies. Both dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased oxidative stress may cause structural (altered brain/lung development) and functional (skewed immune development) changes, which may predispose the fetus to developing allergic diseases during childhood...
May 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286112/the-gut-microbiome-and-microbial-translocation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Ali Mirza, Yang Mao-Draayer
Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a distinct intestinal microbial community (microbiota) and increased low-grade translocation of bacteria from the intestines into the circulation. The observed change of intestinal bacteria in MS patients regulate immune functions involved in MS pathogenesis. These functions include: systemic and central nervous system (CNS) immunity (including peripheral regulatory T cell function), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS-resident cell activity. This review discusses the MS intestinal microbiota implication on MS systemic- and CNS-immunopathology...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283098/from-bugs-to-brains-the-microbiome-in-neurological-health
#10
EDITORIAL
Kyla A McKay, Kaarina Kowalec, Fiona Brinkman, B Brett Finlay, Marc Horwitz, Amee R Manges, Lisa Osborne, Helen Tremlett
Knowledge surrounding the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human gut has bloomed exponentially in recent years, and the emerging concept of a gut-brain axis represents a major shift in how we think about neurological health. A recent workshop at the University of British Columbia, Canada brought together multi-disciplinary leaders in the field of microbiomics and brain health and aimed to serve as a springboard for future combined endeavors in these areas. This article provides the motivation for, and overview of, the workshop, and the next steps in establishing a cross-disciplinary initiative on Brain Health and the Microbiome...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244666/when-the-low-fodmap-diet-does-not-work
#11
REVIEW
Emma P Halmos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is heterogeneous. Patients need proper assessment and explanation of IBS pathophysiology and appropriate therapies. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet effectively reduces symptoms in 75% of patients. Best treatment for those nonresponsive will depend on the pathophysiological basis for symptom genesis, with the following possible abnormalities: (i) Visceral hypersensitivity and/or enhanced gut-brain communication: a low FODMAP diet is mainly targeted for this patient group...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242200/nutritional-psychiatry-where-to-next
#12
REVIEW
Felice N Jacka
The nascent field of 'Nutritional Psychiatry' offers much promise for addressing the large disease burden associated with mental disorders. A consistent evidence base from the observational literature confirms that the quality of individuals' diets is related to their risk for common mental disorders, such as depression. This is the case across countries and age groups. Moreover, new intervention studies implementing dietary changes suggest promise for the prevention and treatment of depression. Concurrently, data point to the utility of selected nutraceuticals as adjunctive treatments for mental disorders and as monotherapies for conditions such as ADHD...
March 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242013/targeting-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-prebiotics-have-anxiolytic-and-antidepressant-like-effects-and-reverse-the-impact-of-chronic-stress-in-mice
#13
Aurelijus Burokas, Silvia Arboleya, Rachel D Moloney, Veronica L Peterson, Kiera Murphy, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
BACKGROUND: The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders, is rapidly advancing. Nurturing a beneficial gut microbiome with prebiotics, such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), is an appealing but underinvestigated microbiota manipulation. Here we tested whether chronic prebiotic treatment modifies behavior across domains relevant to anxiety, depression, cognition, stress response, and social behavior...
February 24, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239408/the-effects-of-probiotics-on-depressive-symptoms-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Caroline J K Wallace, Roumen Milev
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from depression experience significant mood, anxiety, and cognitive symptoms. Currently, most antidepressants work by altering neurotransmitter activity in the brain to improve these symptoms. However, in the last decade, research has revealed an extensive bidirectional communication network between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, referred to as the "gut-brain axis." Advances in this field have linked psychiatric disorders to changes in the microbiome, making it a potential target for novel antidepressant treatments...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229114/the-trier-social-stress-test-principles-and-practice
#15
REVIEW
Andrew P Allen, Paul J Kennedy, Samantha Dockray, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke
Researchers interested in the neurobiology of the acute stress response in humans require a valid and reliable acute stressor that can be used under experimental conditions. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) provides such a testing platform. It induces stress by requiring participants to make an interview-style presentation, followed by a surprise mental arithmetic test, in front of an interview panel who do not provide feedback or encouragement. In this review, we outline the methodology of the TSST, and discuss key findings under conditions of health and stress-related disorder...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223922/gut-microbiota-a-potential-regulator-of-neurodevelopment
#16
REVIEW
Paola Tognini
During childhood, our brain is exposed to a variety of environmental inputs that can sculpt synaptic connections and neuronal circuits, with subsequent influence on behavior and learning processes. Critical periods of neurodevelopment are windows of opportunity in which the neuronal circuits are extremely plastic and can be easily subjected to remodeling in response to experience. However, the brain is also more susceptible to aberrant stimuli that might lead to altered developmental trajectories. Intriguingly, postnatal brain development is paralleled by the maturation of the gut microbiota: the ecosystem of symbionts populating our gastro-intestinal tract...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194099/gut-to-brain-dysbiosis-mechanisms-linking-western-diet-consumption-the-microbiome-and-cognitive-impairment
#17
REVIEW
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Scott E Kanoski
Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179108/revisiting-metchnikoff-age-related-alterations-in-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-in-the-mouse
#18
Karen A Scott, Masayuki Ida, Veronica L Peterson, Jack A Prenderville, Gerard M Moloney, Takayuki Izumo, Kiera Murphy, Amy Murphy, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the role of the gut microbiome in health including brain health. This is by no means a new theory; Elie Metchnikoff proposed over a century ago that targeting the gut by consuming lactic acid bacteria such as those in yogurt, could improve or delay the onset of cognitive decline associated with ageing. However, there is limited information characterising the relationship between the behavioural and physiological sequelae of aging and alterations in the gut microbiome...
February 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164856/the-gut-microbiome-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-other-functional-bowel-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Yehuda Ringel
Emerging data from epidemiologic, microbiome, and physiology research in patients with functional bowel disorders (FBDs) provide evidence for a linkage between alterations in the intestinal microbiota and FBDs. However, currently most of the data is based on association studies, and the causality role of the microbiota in these disorders is not established. Growing evidence for compositional changes and the increasing recognition of the association between the intestinal microbiota and gut-brain functions that are relevant to the pathophysiology and/or clinical symptoms of FBDs have led to increased interest in manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the treatment of these disorders...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164854/the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism...
March 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
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