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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911317/alzheimer-s-disease-histological-and%C3%A2-behavioral-manifestations-in%C3%A2-transgenic-mice-correlate-with%C3%A2-specific%C3%A2-gut-microbiome-state
#2
Liang Shen, Lu Liu, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disease and is the most common form of dementia. In recent years, many studies indicated the association of gut microbiota changes with metabolic diseases. However, the gut microbiota of AD has not been investigated. The present study aims to compare the gut microbiota in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of AD and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) mice by pyrosequencing the V3 and V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The 3-, 6-, and 8-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice were used to explore the effects of age on the gut microbiota...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884012/gut-microbiota-bacterial-translocation-and-interactions-with-diet-pathophysiological-links-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-non-communicable-medical-comorbidities
#3
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Felice N Jacka, Cristiano A Köhler, Tatiana Barichello, Roger S McIntyre, Michael Berk, Iria Grande, Jane A Foster, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Persistent low-grade immune-inflammatory processes, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation are integral to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The microbiome, intestinal compositional changes, and resultant bacterial translocation add a new element to the bidirectional interactions of the gut-brain axis; new evidence implicates these pathways in the patho-aetiology of MDD. In addition, abnormalities in the gut-brain axis are associated with several chronic non-communicable disorders, which frequently co-occur in individuals with MDD, including but not limited to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 25, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875954/how-immune-inflammatory-processes-link-cns-and-psychiatric-disorders-classification-and-treatment-implications
#4
George Anderson, Michael Maes
In this article the emerging biological overlaps of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed. Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites, with consequences for serotonin availability, including as a precursor for the melatonergic pathways. Subsequent alterations in the regulation of local melatonin synthesis are likely to have direct impacts on the reactivity of immune cells, both centrally and systemically...
November 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#5
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
November 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#6
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858116/host-microbiome-interactions-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-the-central-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Hae Ung Lee, Zachary E McPherson, Bryan Tan, Agata Korecka, Sven Pettersson
The microbiome located within a given host and its organs forms a holobiont, an intimate functional entity with evolutionarily designed interactions to support nutritional intake and reproduction. Thus, all organs in a holobiont respond to changes within the microbiome. The development and function of the central nervous system and its homeostatic mechanisms are no exception and are also subject to regulation by the gut microbiome. In order for the holobiont to function effectively, the microbiome and host must communicate...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847926/the-brain-gut-axis-dysfunctions-and-hypersensitivity-to-food-antigens-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Michał Dzikowski, Agnieszka Pelczarska, Izabela Dzikowska, Dariusz Juchnowicz
Despite over 100-year history of research on schizophrenia, its etiology is still not fully understood, which might be due to the significant heterogeneity in terms of both its course, as well as the etiopathogenesis. One of the best-proven mediating mechanisms in the development of schizophrenia is the immuno-inflammatory response, the sources of which are believed to be the dysfunctions of brain-gut axis and pathological processes occurring in the intestines. This paper is a review of the literature on this subject which presents factors both involved in the functioning of brain-gut axis and important for the development of schizophrenia, i...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832936/feeding-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-diet-microbiome-and-neuropsychiatry
#9
REVIEW
Kiran V Sandhu, Eoin Sherwin, Harriët Schellekens, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions...
October 21, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816476/sex-specific-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-behavior-in-siberian-hamsters
#10
Kristyn E Sylvia, Cathleen P Jewell, Nikki M Rendon, Emma A St John, Gregory E Demas
The gut microbiome is a diverse, host-specific, and symbiotic bacterial environment that is critical for mammalian survival and exerts a surprising yet powerful influence on brain and behavior. Gut dysbiosis has been linked to a wide range of physical and psychological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and anxiety, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. A wealth of information on the effects of dysbiosis on anxiety and depression has been reported in laboratory model systems (e.g., germ-free mice); however, the effects of microbiome disruption on social behaviors (e...
November 2, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814521/the-central-nervous-system-and-the-gut-microbiome
#11
REVIEW
Gil Sharon, Timothy R Sampson, Daniel H Geschwind, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Neurodevelopment is a complex process governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. While historically studied by researching the brain, inputs from the periphery impact many neurological conditions. Indeed, emerging data suggest communication between the gut and the brain in anxiety, depression, cognition, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of a healthy, functional brain depends on key pre- and post-natal events that integrate environmental cues, such as molecular signals from the gut...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811629/the-role-of-duodenal-inflammation-in-functional-dyspepsia
#12
Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is common and significantly impairs quality of life. Symptoms of FD are considered to originate from the gastroduodenal region, classified by the Rome criteria as disorders of brain-gut interaction without structural alteration. However, it is now apparent that FD is a number of syndromes, the epigastric pain syndrome (bothersome epigastric pain or epigastric burning) and the postprandial distress syndrome (with bothersome postprandial fullness or early satiation) and there are wide-ranging symptoms and severity...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793434/psychobiotics-and-the-manipulation-of-bacteria-gut-brain-signals
#13
REVIEW
Amar Sarkar, Soili M Lehto, Siobhán Harty, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Philip W J Burnet
Psychobiotics were previously defined as live bacteria (probiotics) which, when ingested, confer mental health benefits through interactions with commensal gut bacteria. We expand this definition to encompass prebiotics, which enhance the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. We review probiotic and prebiotic effects on emotional, cognitive, systemic, and neural variables relevant to health and disease. We discuss gut-brain signalling mechanisms enabling psychobiotic effects, such as metabolite production. Overall, knowledge of how the microbiome responds to exogenous influence remains limited...
November 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793228/microbes-and-oxytocin-benefits-for-host-physiology-and-behavior
#14
S E Erdman, T Poutahidis
It is now understood that gut bacteria exert effects beyond the local boundaries of the gastrointestinal tract to include distant tissues and overall health. Prototype probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been found to upregulate hormone oxytocin and systemic immune responses to achieve a wide array of health benefits involving wound healing, mental health, metabolism, and myoskeletal maintenance. Together these display that the gut microbiome and host animal interact via immune-endocrine-brain signaling networks...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793226/gut-microbiome-and-behavior-focus-on-neuroimmune-interactions
#15
J A Foster
As neuroscientists, psychologists, and psychiatrists are starting to appreciate the importance of the gut microbiota to mental health, it is critical to determine the mechanisms of microbiota to brain communication and thereby provide a better understanding of the aspects that may be modifiable with proper intervention in individuals with mental illness. Microbiota-brain communication is emerging as an important factor in brain development and function. Further, immune dysfunction is clearly established to play a role in mental illness...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793223/gut-to-brain-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-central-role-for-the-microbiome
#16
A D Kraneveld, K Szklany, C G M de Theije, J Garssen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders, which occur in early childhood and persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to interplay in the development of ASD. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis, in prenatal and postnatal phases, is an important example of these environmental factors, and gastrointestinal problems including adverse reactions to foods are often reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings on the role of the intestinal microbiome in ASD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793220/the-influence-of-prebiotics-on-neurobiology-and-behavior
#17
A C C Kao, S Harty, P W J Burnet
Manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the benefit of the brain is a concept that has become widely acknowledged. Prebiotics are nondigestible nutrients (i.e., fibers, carbohydrates, or various saccharides) that proliferate intrinsic, beneficial gut bacteria, and so provide an alternative strategy for effectively altering the enteric ecosystem, and thence brain function. Rodent studies demonstrating neurobiological changes following prebiotic intake are slowly emerging, and have thus far revealed significant benefits in disease models, including antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787576/-gut-microbiome-and-major-depressive-disorder-the-other-side-of-ourselves
#18
A Manook, A Hiergeist, R Rupprecht, T C Baghai
Microbiological ecology and its ambition to describe the complete genome of complex living communities as a whole, have given us powerful tools to characterize the human gut microbiome on a genetic and, hence, taxonomic and abundance level; for a decade now, they have become sufficiently inexpensive, fast and feasible. Thus, opportunities arose to have a fresh and closer look at the microbiota-gut-brain-axis and its impact on human health; this axis comprises a complex multisystemic network of multidirectional interactions between brain and gut including influences beyond one generation...
October 27, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773355/emerging-roles-for-the-gut-microbiome-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762069/an-introduction-to-microbiome-analysis-for-human-biology-applications
#20
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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