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Microbiome gut brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317592/gut-microbiome-populations-are-associated-with-structure-specific-changes-in-white-matter-architecture
#1
Irene M Ong, Jose G Gonzalez, Sean J McIlwain, Emily A Sawin, Andrew J Schoen, Nagesh Adluru, Andrew L Alexander, John-Paul J Yu
Altered gut microbiome populations are associated with a broad range of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder and mood disorders. In animal models, modulation of gut microbiome populations via dietary manipulation influences brain function and behavior and has been shown to ameliorate behavioral symptoms. With striking differences in microbiome-driven behavior, we explored whether these behavioral changes are also accompanied by corresponding changes in neural tissue microstructure...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316320/human-microbiota-blood-group-antigens-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315562/hfe-genotype-restricts-the-response-to-paraquat-in-a-mouse-model-of-neurotoxicity
#3
Anne M Nixon, Mark D Meadowcroft, Elizabeth B Neely, Amanda M Snyder, Carson J Purnell, Justin Wright, Regina Lamendella, Wint Nandar, Xuemei Huang, James R Connor
Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked clinically by motor dysfunction and pathologically by dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra. The driver underlying iron accumulation is unknown and could be genetic or environmental. The HFE protein is critical for the regulation of cellular iron uptake. Mutations within this protein are associated with increased iron accumulation including in the brain. We have focused on the commonly occurring H63D variant of the HFE gene as a disease modifier in a number of neurodegenerative diseases...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301380/the-gut-brain-axis-and-the-microbiome-clues-to-pathophysiology-and-opportunities-for-novel-management-strategies-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs
#4
REVIEW
Eamonn M M Quigley
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common of all medical disorders worldwide and, while for some it represents no more than a nuisance, for others it imposes significant negative impacts on daily life and activities. IBS is a heterogeneous disorder and may well have a number of causes which may lie anywhere from the external environment to the contents of the gut lumen and from the enteric neuromuscular apparatus and the gut immune system to the central nervous system. Consequently, the paradigm of the gut-brain axis, which includes the participation of these various factors, has proven a useful model to assist clinicians and patients alike in understanding the genesis of symptoms in IBS...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290328/human-intestinal-microbiota-interaction-between-parasites-and-the-host-immune-response
#5
REVIEW
Oswaldo Partida-Rodríguez, Angélica Serrano-Vázquez, Miriam E Nieves-Ramírez, Patricia Moran, Liliana Rojas, Tobias Portillo, Enrique González, Eric Hernández, B Brett Finlay, Cecilia Ximenez
The human gut is a highly complex ecosystem with an extensive microbial community, and the influence of the intestinal microbiota reaches the entire host organism. For example, the microbiome regulates fat storage, stimulates or renews epithelial cells, and influences the development and maturation of the brain and the immune system. Intestinal microbes can protect against infection by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Hence, the maintenance of homeostasis between the gut microbiota and the rest of the body is crucial for health, with dysbiosis affecting disease...
December 28, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282673/the-microbiome-gut-behavior-axis-crosstalk-between-the-gut-microbiome-and-oligodendrocytes-modulates-behavioral-responses
#6
REVIEW
Achilles Ntranos, Patrizia Casaccia
Environmental and dietary stimuli have always been implicated in brain development and behavioral responses. The gut, being the major portal of communication with the external environment, has recently been brought to the forefront of this interaction with the establishment of a gut-brain axis in health and disease. Moreover, recent breakthroughs in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice have demonstrated the significant impact of the microbiome in modulating behavioral responses in mice and have established a more specific microbiome-gut-behavior axis...
December 27, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277311/targeting-gut-microbiome-a-novel-and-potential-therapy-for-autism
#7
REVIEW
Yongshou Yang, Jinhu Tian, Bo Yang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severely neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's ability to communicate and interact with others. Children with neurodevelopmental disorder, including ASD, are regularly affected by gastrointestinal problems and dysbiosis of gut microbiota. On the other hand, humans live in a co-evolutionary association with plenty of microorganisms that resident on the exposed and internal surfaces of our bodies. The microbiome, refers to the collection of microbes and their genetic material, confers a variety of physiologic benefits to the host in many key aspects of life as well as being responsible for some diseases...
December 22, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276734/stress-the-gut-brain-axis-regulation-by-the-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
Jane A Foster, Linda Rinaman, John F Cryan
The importance of the gut-brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237568/radiomicrobiomics-advancing-along-the-gut-brain-axis-through-big-data-analysis
#9
Silvia De Santis, David Moratal, Santiago Canals
The gut-brain axis communicates the brain with the gut microbiota, a bidirectional conduit that has received increasing attention in recent years thanks to its emerging role in brain development and function. Alterations in microbiota composition have been associated to neurological and psychiatric disorders, and several studies suggest that the immune system plays a fundamental role in the gut-brain interaction. Recent advances in brain imaging and in microbiome sequencing have generated a large amount of information, yet the data from both these sources need to be combined efficiently to extract biological meaning, and any diagnostic and/or prognostic benefit from these tools...
December 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220570/neuromicrobiology-how-microbes-influence-the-brain
#10
Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez, Beatriz Torres Meneguetti, Octávio Luiz Franco, Timothy K Lu
We review here recent discoveries in the exciting new field of neuromicrobiology. This field encompasses the interactions between the microbiome and the central nervous system. The microbiome has a tremendous impact on human health. In particular, the gut microbiota may play a key role in many essential processes in health and disease via the activity of the gut-brain axis, possibly contributing to autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety disorder. Gut microbes may also be involved in nociception, complex host behaviors, and brain development...
December 8, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186317/computational-profiling-of-the-gut-brain-axis-microflora-dysbiosis-insights-to-neurological-disorders
#11
Nikolas Dovrolis, George Kolios, George M Spyrou, Ioanna Maroulakou
Almost 2500 years after Hippocrates' observations on health and its direct association to the gastrointestinal tract, a paradigm shift has recently occurred, making the gut and its symbionts (bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses) a point of convergence for studies. It is nowadays well established that the gut microflora's compositional diversity regulates via its genes (the microbiome) the host's health and provides preliminary insights into disease progression and regulation. The microbiome's involvement is evident in immunological and physiological studies that link changes in its biodiversity to its contributions to the host's phenotype but also in neurological investigations, substantiating the aptly named gut-brain axis...
November 27, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173525/the-brain-gut-axis-and-stress-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
Charles N Bernstein
The brain-gut axis serves as a circuit that incorporates the human experience, the state of mind, the gut microbiome, and the immune response that ultimately drives the phenotypic expression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are several biological pathways through which stress can play a deleterious role, including through increasing intestinal permeability, which can facilitate intestinal translocation of bacteria. Stress has an impact on symptoms in IBD; however, there is limited evidence that stress triggers increased intestinal inflammation...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169241/gut-reactions-how-the-blood-brain-barrier-connects-the-microbiome-and-the-brain
#13
Aric F Logsdon, Michelle A Erickson, Elizabeth M Rhea, Therese S Salameh, William A Banks
A growing body of evidence indicates that the microbiome interacts with the central nervous system (CNS) and can regulate many of its functions. One mechanism for this interaction is at the level of the blood-brain barriers (BBBs). In this minireview, we examine the several ways the microbiome is known to interact with the CNS barriers. Bacteria can directly release factors into the systemic circulation or can translocate into blood. Once in the blood, the microbiome and its factors can alter peripheral immune cells to promote interactions with the BBB and ultimately with other elements of the neurovascular unit...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159583/the-association-between-artificial-sweeteners-and-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Michelle Pearlman, Jon Obert, Lisa Casey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the evolution of artificial sweeteners; to examine the latest research on the effects of artificial sweeteners on the host microbiome, the gut-brain axis, glucose homeostasis, and energy consumption; and to discuss how all of these changes ultimately contribute to obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Although artificial sweeteners were developed as a sugar substitute to help reduce insulin resistance and obesity, data in both animal models and humans suggest that the effects of artificial sweeteners may contribute to metabolic syndrome and the obesity epidemic...
November 21, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158778/helicobacter-pylori-and-gut-microbiota-in-multiple-sclerosis-versus-alzheimer-s-disease-10-pitfalls-of-microbiome-studies
#15
Ah-Mee Park, Seiichi Omura, Mitsugu Fujita, Fumitaka Sato, Ikuo Tsunoda
Alteration of microbiota has been associated with intestinal, inflammatory, and neurological diseases. Abundance of "good bacteria" such as Bifidobacterium, or their products have been generally believed to be beneficial for any diseases, while "bad bacteria" such as pathogenic Helicobacter pylori are assumed to be always detrimental for hosts. However, this is not the case when we compare and contrast the association of the gut microbiota with two neurological diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
August 2017: Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145012/the-gut-brain-interaction-in-opioid-tolerance
#17
REVIEW
Hamid I Akbarali, William L Dewey
The prevailing opioid crisis has necessitated the need to understand mechanisms leading to addiction and tolerance, the major contributors to overdose and death and to develop strategies for developing drugs for pain treatment that lack abuse liability and side-effects. Opioids are commonly used for treatment of pain and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. The significant effect of opioids in the gut, both acute and chronic, includes persistent constipation and paradoxically may also worsen pain symptoms...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#18
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122491/inflammation-and-autism-from-maternal-gut-to-fetal-brain
#19
Ivan Osokine, Adrian Erlebacher
Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disorders in the offspring of affected mothers. Two recent studies highlight how maternal inflammation disrupts inhibitory interneuron networks and suggest that the maternal gut microbiome may be a contributing risk factor for MIA-induced behavioral abnormalities.
November 6, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117778/serotonin-a-mediator-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Tsveta S Malinova, Christine D Dijkstra, Helga E de Vries
BACKGROUND: The significance of the gut microbiome for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established, although the underlying signaling mechanisms of this interaction have not been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVES: We address this point and use serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-a microbial-modulated neurotransmitter (NT) as a showcase to demonstrate that NTs regulated by the gut microbiome are potent candidates for mediators of the gut-brain axis in demyelinating disorders...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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