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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809748/new-issues-on-measurement-of-b-type-natriuretic-peptides
#1
Aldo Clerico, Martina Zaninotto, Claudio Passino, Mario Plebani
The measurement of the active hormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) system actually has several analytical limitations and difficulties in clinical interpretations compared to that of inactive peptide N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) because of the different biochemical and pathophysiological characteristics of two peptides and quality specifications of commercial immunoassay methods used for their measurement. Because of the better analytical characteristics of NT-proBNP immunoassays and the easier pathophysiological and clinical interpretations of variations of NT-proBNP levels in patients with heart failure (HF), some authors claimed to measure the inactive peptide NT-proBNP instead of the active hormone BNP for management of HF patients...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794054/cardiovascular-event-prediction-by-machine-learning-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#2
Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Xiaoying Yang, Colin O Wu, Kiang Liu, W G Hundley, Robyn L McClelland, Antoinette S Gomes, Aaron R Folsom, Steven Shea, Eliseo Guallar, David A Bluemke, João A Lima
Rationale: Machine learning may be useful to characterize cardiovascular risk, predict outcomes and identify biomarkers in population studies. Objective: To test the ability of random survival forests (RF), a machine learning technique, to predict six cardiovascular outcomes in comparison to standard cardiovascular risk scores. Methods and Results: We included participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Baseline measurements were used to predict cardiovascular outcomes over 12 years of follow-up...
August 9, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789938/azilsartan-ameliorates-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-young-db-db-mice-through-the-modulation-of-ace-2-ang-1-7-mas-receptor-cascade
#3
Vijayakumar Sukumaran, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Eisuke Tatsumi, Mikiyasu Shirai, James T Pearson
Hyperglycemia up-regulates intracellular angiotensin II (ANG-II) production in cardiac myocytes. This study investigated the hemodynamic and metabolic effects of azilsartan (AZL) treatment in a mouse model of diabetic cardiomyopathy and whether the cardioprotective effects of AZL are mediated by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-2/ANG 1-7/Mas receptor (R) cascade. Control db/+ and db/db mice (n=5 per group) were treated with vehicle or AZL (1 or 3 mg/kg/d oral gavage) from the age of 8 to 16 weeks. Echocardiography was then performed and myocardial protein levels of ACE-2, Mas R, AT1R, AT2R, osteopontin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and nitrotyrosine were measured by Western blotting...
August 5, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780894/gene-therapy-for-hypertension
#4
Ludovit Paulis, Heinrich Franke, Fedor Simko
The control of hypertension and the resulting cardiovascular events is still insufficient. Thus, the search for novel means for blood pressure (BP) reduction remains worth further clinical and research attention. The advances in vector and construct design sketch the use of gene therapy in hypertension. Areas covered: The authors have searched for studies using gene therapy in hypertension reporting BP outcomes. They have identified 63 experimental studies demonstrating feasible targeting of the classical and new renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, β1-adrenergic receptor, NO-cGMP axis, endothelin, natriuretic peptides, kallikrein system, cytochrome P-450 hydroxylase, oncogenes, growth factors, interleukins, angiopoietin-1, adrenomedullin or Klotho in small rodents...
August 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780577/drug-treatment-effects-on-outcomes-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Sean Lee Zheng, Fiona T Chan, Adam A Nabeebaccus, Ajay M Shah, Theresa McDonagh, Darlington O Okonko, Salma Ayis
BACKGROUND: Clinical drug trials in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction have failed to demonstrate improvements in mortality. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials (RCT) assessing pharmacological treatments in patients with heart failure with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction≥40% from January 1996 to May 2016. The primary efficacy outcome was all-cause mortality...
August 5, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769873/targeting-obesity-and-diabetes-to-treat-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#6
REVIEW
Raffaele Altara, Mauro Giordano, Einar S Nordén, Alessandro Cataliotti, Mazen Kurdi, Saeed N Bajestani, George W Booz
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major unmet medical need that is characterized by the presence of multiple cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Foremost among these comorbidities are obesity and diabetes, which are not only risk factors for the development of HFpEF, but worsen symptoms and outcome. Coronary microvascular inflammation with endothelial dysfunction is a common denominator among HFpEF, obesity, and diabetes that likely explains at least in part the etiology of HFpEF and its synergistic relationship with obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765884/enhanced-expression-of-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-a-and-b-in-neutrophils-of-culprit-lesions-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#7
Masashi Nakagawa, Takahiko Naruko, Kenichi Sugioka, Chizuko Kitabayashi, Nobuyuki Shirai, Masahiko Takagi, Minoru Yoshiyama, Masahiko Ohsawa, Makiko Ueda
Natriuretic peptides and their specific receptors have been suggested to have regulatory effects on smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth and inflammatory cell reactions. However, the roles of natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR‑A) and B (NPR‑B) in unstable plaques remain to be studied in detail. Frozen sections from 82 coronary artery segments were used. These segments were obtained at autopsy from 13 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI; 7 ruptured and 6 eroded plaques) and from 30 patients with non‑cardiovascular diseases...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762762/gdf-15-and-trail-r2-are-powerful-predictors-of-long-term-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#8
Emma Skau, Egil Henriksen, Philippe Wagner, Pär Hedberg, Agneta Siegbahn, Jerzy Leppert
Background The Proximity Extension Assay proteomics chip provides a large-scale analysis of 92 biomarkers linked to cardiovascular disease or inflammation. We aimed to identify the biomarkers that best predicted long-term all-cause mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 92 biomarkers were analysed in 847 consecutive patients from the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study with a median follow-up of 6.9 years. Results The mean (± standard deviation) age of the patients was 70 (11...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762163/polycystin-2-dependent-cardio-protective-mechanisms-revealed-by-cardiac-stress
#9
Esther Giehl, Fernanda O Lemos, Yan Huang, Frank J Giordano, Ivana Y Kuo, Barbara E Ehrlich
Although autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the development of multiple kidney cysts, the most frequent cause of death in ADPKD patients is cardiovascular disease. ADPKD is linked to mutations in PKD1 or pkd2, the genes that encode for the proteins polycystin 1 and polycystin 2 (PC1 and PC2, respectively). The cardiovascular complications have been assumed to be a consequence of renal hypertension and activation of renin/angiotensin/aldosterone (RAAS) pathway. However, the expression of PC1 and PC2 in cardiac tissue suggests additional direct effects of these proteins on cardiac function...
July 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743802/enhancing-natriuretic-peptide-signaling-in-adipose-tissue-but-not-in-muscle-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#10
Wei Wu, Fubiao Shi, Dianxin Liu, Ryan P Ceddia, Robert Gaffin, Wan Wei, Huafeng Fang, E Douglas Lewandowski, Sheila Collins
In addition to controlling blood pressure, cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) can stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes and promote the "browning" of white adipose tissue. NPs may also increase the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. To unravel the contribution of NP-stimulated metabolism in adipose tissue compared to that in muscle in vivo, we generated mice with tissue-specific deletion of the NP clearance receptor, NPRC, in adipose tissue (Nprc(AKO) ) or in skeletal muscle (Nprc(MKO) ). We showed that, similar to Nprc null mice, Nprc(AKO) mice, but not Nprc(MKO) mice, were resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet...
July 25, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738523/a-natriuretic-peptides-clearance-receptor-s-agonist-reduces-pulmonary-artery-pressures-and-enhances-cardiac-performance-in-preclinical-models-new-hope-for-patients-with-pulmonary-hypertension-due-to-left-ventricular-heart-failure
#11
Emmanuel Eroume Egom, Tiam Feridooni, Rebabonye B Pharithi, Barkat Khan, Haaris A Shiwani, Vincent Maher, Yassine El Hiani, Kishore B S Pasumarthi, Hilaire A Ribama
BACKGROUND: In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common and represents a strong predictor of death. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding there is as yet no prospect of cure of this deadly clinical entity and the majority of patients continue to progress to right ventricular failure and die. Furthermore, there is no single medical treatment currently approved for PH related to HF. There is, therefore an urgent unmet need to identify novel pharmacological agents that will prevent the progressive increased or reverse the elevated pulmonary arterial pressures while enhancing cardiac performance in HF...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731153/altered-profile-of-mrna-expression-in-atrioventricular-node-of-streptozotocin%C3%A2-induced-diabetic-rats
#12
Frank Christopher Howarth, Khatija Parekh, Petrilla Jayaprakash, Edward Samuel Inbaraj, Murat Oz, Halina Dobrzynski, Thomas Edward Adrian
Prolonged action potential duration, reduced action potential firing rate, upstroke velocity and rate of diastolic depolarization have been demonstrated in atrioventricular node (AVN) cells from streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats. To further clarify the molecular basis of these electrical disturbances, the mRNA profiles encoding a variety of proteins associated with the generation and conduction of electrical activity in the AVN, were evaluated in the STZ‑induced diabetic rat heart. Expression of mRNA was measured in AVN biopsies using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714615/-arni-new-abbreviation-for-a-new-class-of-treatment-of-heart-failure
#13
Soran Karimzadeh, Hazrije Mustafić, Tomoe Stampfli Andres
ARNI (Angiontensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor) are a new class of drug : the angiotensin and neprilysin inhibitors. This combined effect allows an optimisation of the heart failure treatment by acting on both pathways of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and of the natriuretic peptides. LCZ696 is a combined molecule of valsartan and sacubitril and is currently the only one on the market. Its efficacy has been shown in a large randomised trial in 2014, and LCZ696 is now part of the last 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of heart failure...
March 1, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708271/melatonin-protects-against-the-pathological-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-transverse-aortic-constriction-through-activating-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#14
Mengen Zhai, Zhenhua Liu, Bin Zhang, Lin Jing, Buying Li, Kaifeng Li, Xiuju Chen, Meng Zhang, Bo Yu, Kai Ren, Yang Yang, Wei Yi, Jian Yang, Jincheng Liu, Dinghua Yi, Hongliang Liang, Zhenxiao Jin, Russel J Reiter, Weixun Duan, Shiqiang Yu
Melatonin, a circadian molecule secreted by the pineal gland, confers a protective role against cardiac hypertrophy induced by hyperthyroidism, chronic hypoxia and isoproterenol. However, its role against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of melatonin on pathological cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Male C57BL/6 mice underwent TAC or sham surgery at day 0 and were then treated with melatonin (20 mg/kg/day, via drinking water) for 4 or 8 weeks...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706128/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-a-role-for-the-endothelial-anp-gc-a-signaling-in-interfering-with-pre-metastatic-niche-formation-by-solid-cancers
#15
Takashi Nojiri, Miki Arai, Yutaka Suzuki, Motofumi Kumazoe, Takeshi Tokudome, Koichi Miura, Jun Hino, Hiroshi Hosoda, Mikiya Miyazato, Meinoshin Okumura, Shinpei Kawaoka, Kenji Kangawa
Cancer establishes a microenvironment called the pre-metastatic niche in distant organs where disseminated cancer cells can efficiently metastasize. Pre-metastatic niche formation requires various genetic factors. Previous studies suggest that inhibiting a single niche-factor is insufficient to completely block pre-metastatic niche formation especially in human patients. Here we show that the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an endogenous hormone produced by the heart, inhibits pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis of murine solid cancer models when pharmacologically supplied in vivo...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700781/efficacy-and-safety-of-spironolactone-in-acute-heart-failure-the-athena-hf-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Javed Butler, Kevin J Anstrom, G Michael Felker, Michael M Givertz, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos, Marvin A Konstam, Douglas L Mann, Kenneth B Margulies, Steven E McNulty, Robert J Mentz, Margaret M Redfield, W H Wilson Tang, David J Whellan, Monica Shah, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Adrian F Hernandez, Eugene Braunwald
Importance: Persistent congestion is associated with worse outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists administered at high doses may relieve congestion, overcome diuretic resistance, and mitigate the effects of adverse neurohormonal activation in AHF. Objective: To assess the effect of high-dose spironolactone and usual care on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels compared with usual care alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind and placebo (or low-dose)-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in 22 US acute care hospitals among patients with AHF who were previously receiving no or low-dose (12...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698147/rip2-deficiency-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-pressure-overload-induced-mice
#17
Cui-Hua Zhao, Xiang Ma, Hong-Yu Guo, Peng Li, Hong-Yang Liu
Although the pathological cardiac hypertrophy presents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease is still poor. Here, we reported that receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIP2), promoting pro-inflammatory gene expression, enhanced the pathological cardiac hypertrophy in animals. The effects of RIP2 on the cardiac hypertrophy triggered by pathological stimuli have not been fully investigated. In our study, mice were subjected to aortic banding (AB) surgery to explore the pathological, echocardiographic and molecular mechanisms...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697992/pde3-inhibition-by-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-induced-cgmp-enhances-camp-mediated-signaling-in-both-non-failing-and-failing-hearts
#18
Silja Meier, Kjetil Wessel Andressen, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Ivar Sjaastad, Karina Hougen, Tor Skomedal, Jan-Bjørn Osnes, Eirik Qvigstad, Finn Olav Levy, Lise Román Moltzau
We have previously shown that the natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) agonist C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) enhances cyclic adenosine 3´,5´-monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated signaling in failing hearts, through cyclic guanosine 3´,5´-monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibition. As several signaling pathways are importantly changed in failing hearts, it could not be taken for granted that this crosstalk would be the same in non-failing hearts. Thus, we wanted to clarify to which extent this effect of CNP occurred also in non-failing hearts...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689178/sacubitril-valsartan-beyond-natriuretic-peptides
#19
REVIEW
Jagdeep S S Singh, Louise M Burrell, Myriam Cherif, Iain B Squire, Andrew L Clark, Chim C Lang
Natriuretic peptides, especially B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), have primarily been regarded as biomarkers in heart failure (HF). However, they are also possible therapeutic agents due to their potentially beneficial physiological effects. The angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan, simultaneously augments the natriuretic peptide system (NPS) by inhibiting the enzyme neprilysin (NEP) and inhibits the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by blocking the angiotensin II receptor...
July 8, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680569/ppar%C3%AE-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-hypertrophic-transcriptional-pathways-in-the-heart
#20
Abubakr Chaudhry, Kristal A Carthan, Bum-Yong Kang, John Calvert, Roy L Sutliff, C Michael Hart
Chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by increased pressure and resistance in the pulmonary vasculature and hypertrophy of the right ventricle (RV). The transcription factors, nuclear factor activated T-cells (NFAT), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB/p65) contribute to RV hypertrophy (RVH). Because peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activation attenuates hypoxia-induced PH and RVH, we hypothesized that PPARγ inhibits activation of RV hypertrophic transcriptional signaling mechanisms...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
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