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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908653/molecular-changes-in-children-with-heart-failure-undergoing-left-ventricular-assist-device-therapy
#1
Elizabeth Medina, Carmen C Sucharov, Penny Nelson, Shelley D Miyamoto, Brian L Stauffer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether left ventricular assist device (LVAD) treatment in children with heart failure would result in the modification of molecular pathways involved in heart failure pathophysiology. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-seven explanted hearts from children were studied (16 nonfailing control, 20 failing, and 11 failing post-LVAD implantation [F-LVAD]). Protein expression and phosphorylation states were determined by receptor binding assays and Western blots...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908347/prognostic-implications-of-changes-in-n-terminal-pro-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#2
Michael R Zile, Brian L Claggett, Margaret F Prescott, John J V McMurray, Milton Packer, Jean L Rouleau, Karl Swedberg, Akshay S Desai, Jianjian Gong, Victor C Shi, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Natriuretic peptides (NP) have prognostic value in heart failure (HF), although the clinical importance of changes in NP from baseline is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The authors assessed whether a reduction in N-terminal pro-B-type NP (NT-proBNP) was associated with a decrease in HF hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality (primary endpoint) in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction, whether treatment with sacubitril/valsartan reduced NT-proBNP below specific partition values more than enalapril, and whether the relationship between changes in NT-proBNP and changes in the primary endpoint were dependent on assigned treatment...
December 6, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898523/role-of-corin-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#3
Hui Li, Yue Zhang, Qingyu Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an important hormone in regulating salt-water balance and blood pressure. This review focuses on the regulation of corin function and potential roles of corin defects in hypertensive, heart, and renal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 has been identified as a primary enzyme that converts zymogen corin to an active protease. Genetic variants that impair corin intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and zymogen activation have been found in patients with hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and pre-eclampsia...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892684/angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor-lcz696-pharmacology-pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-development
#4
Yue Hua, Ian Wang, Bin Liu, Darren J Kelly, Christopher Reid, Danny Liew, Yingchun Zhou, Bing H Wang
Heart failure still has a significant disease burden with poor outcomes worldwide despite advances in therapy. The standard therapies have been focused on blockade of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid antagonists and the sympathetic nervous system with β-blockers. The natriuretic peptide system is a potential counter-regulatory system that promotes vasodilatation and natriuresis. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors are a new class drug capable of blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and enhancing the natriuretic peptide system to improve neurohormonal balance...
November 28, 2016: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887774/rationale-and-study-design-of-respite-an-open-label-phase-3b-study-of-riociguat-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-who-demonstrate-an-insufficient-response-to-treatment-with-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors
#5
Marius M Hoeper, James R Klinger, Raymond L Benza, Gerald Simonneau, David Langleben, Robert Naeije, Paul A Corris
Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) who do not have an adequate response to therapy with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) may have insufficient synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). These patients may respond to a direct soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator such as riociguat. RESPITE (NCT02007629) was an open-label, multicenter, uncontrolled, single-arm phase 3b study of riociguat in patients with PAH who demonstrated an insufficient response to treatment with PDE-5i...
November 5, 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884156/targeted-myocardial-gene-expression-in-failing-hearts-by-rna-sequencing
#6
Kajari Dhar, Alexandra M Moulton, Eric Rome, Fang Qiu, Jeff Kittrell, Eugenia Raichlin, Ronald Zolty, John Y Um, Michael J Moulton, Hesham Basma, Daniel R Anderson, James D Eudy, Brian D Lowes
BACKGROUND: Myocardial recovery with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy is highly variable and difficult to predict. Next generation ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing is an innovative, rapid, and quantitative approach to gene expression profiling in small amounts of tissue. Our primary goal was to identify baseline transcriptional profiles in non-ischemic cardiomyopathies that predict myocardial recovery in response to LVAD therapy. We also sought to verify transcriptional differences between failing and non-failing human hearts...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872884/data-on-clinical-characteristics-of-a-heart-failure-patients-cohort-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-analysis-of-the-circulating-values-of-five-different-heart-failure-biomarkers-high-sensitivity-troponin-t-galectin-3-c-terminal-propeptide-of-type-i-procollagen
#7
M Batlle, B Campos, M Farrero, M Cardona, B González, M A Castel, J Ortiz, E Roig, M J Pulgarín, J Ramírez, J L Bedini, M Sabaté, P García de Frutos, F Pérez-Villa
In this article, the full description of a heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF_REF) cohort of 192 patients is provided. Tables with the baseline demographic, prior history, ECG parameters, echocardiographic parameters, laboratory values and pharmacological treatment of these patients are included. Also, the quartile values of the analyzed circulating biomarkers: high sensitivity Troponin T (hs-TnT), galectin-3 (Gal-3), C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (CICP), soluble AXL (sAXL) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) are given...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868321/dementia-related-adverse-events-in-paradigm-hf-and-other-trials-in-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#8
Jane A Cannon, Li Shen, Pardeep S Jhund, Søren L Kristensen, Lars Køber, Fabian Chen, Jianjian Gong, Martin P Lefkowitz, Jean L Rouleau, Victor C Shi, Karl Swedberg, Michael R Zile, Scott D Solomon, Milton Packer, John J V McMurray
AIMS: Inhibition of neprilysin, an enzyme degrading natriuretic and other vasoactive peptides, is beneficial in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), as shown in PARADIGM-HF which compared the angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril/valsartan with enalapril. As neprilysin is also one of many enzymes clearing amyloid-β peptides from the brain, there is a theoretical concern about the long-term effects of sacubitril/valsartan on cognition. Therefore, we have examined dementia-related adverse effects (AEs) in PARADIGM-HF and placed these findings in the context of other recently conducted HFrEF trials...
November 20, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865641/canadian-cardiovascular-society-guidelines-on-perioperative-cardiac-risk-assessment-and-management-for-patients-who-undergo-noncardiac-surgery
#9
Emmanuelle Duceppe, Joel Parlow, Paul MacDonald, Kristin Lyons, Michael McMullen, Sadeesh Srinathan, Michelle Graham, Vikas Tandon, Kim Styles, Amal Bessissow, Daniel I Sessler, Gregory Bryson, P J Devereaux
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines Committee and key Canadian opinion leaders believed there was a need for up to date guidelines that used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of evidence assessment for patients who undergo noncardiac surgery. Strong recommendations included: 1) measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) before surgery to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation in patients who are 65 years of age or older, are 45-64 years of age with significant cardiovascular disease, or have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥ 1; 2) against performing preoperative resting echocardiography, coronary computed tomography angiography, exercise or cardiopulmonary exercise testing, or pharmacological stress echocardiography or radionuclide imaging to enhance perioperative cardiac risk estimation; 3) against the initiation or continuation of acetylsalicylic acid for the prevention of perioperative cardiac events, except in patients with a recent coronary artery stent or who will undergo carotid endarterectomy; 4) against α2 agonist or β-blocker initiation within 24 hours before surgery; 5) withholding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker starting 24 hours before surgery; 6) facilitating smoking cessation before surgery; 7) measuring daily troponin for 48 to 72 hours after surgery in patients with an elevated NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery or if there is no NT-proBNP/BNP measurement before surgery, in those who have a Revised Cardiac Risk Index score ≥1, age 45-64 years with significant cardiovascular disease, or age 65 years or older; and 8) initiating of long-term acetylsalicylic acid and statin therapy in patients who suffer myocardial injury/infarction after surgery...
October 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860834/regulation-of-mammalian-oocyte-meiosis-by-intercellular-communication-within-the-ovarian-follicle
#10
Laurinda Jaffe, Jeremy R Egbert
Meiotic progression in mammalian preovulatory follicles is controlled by the granulosa cells around the oocyte. Cyclic GMP (cGMP) generated in the granulosa cells diffuses through gap junctions into the oocyte, maintaining meiotic prophase arrest. Luteinizing hormone then acts on receptors in outer granulosa cells to rapidly decrease cGMP. This occurs by two complementary pathways: cGMP production is decreased by dephosphorylation and inactivation of the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase, and cGMP hydrolysis is increased by activation of the PDE5 phosphodiesterase...
November 14, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860389/efficacy-and-safety-of-two-dosages-of-canrenone-as-add-on-therapy-in-hypertensive-patients-taking-ace-inhibitors-or-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockers-and-hydrochlorothiazide-at-maximum-dosage-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial-the-escape-it-trial
#11
Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Maria D'Avino, Carla Sala, Amedeo Mugellini, Vito Vulpis, Salvatore Felis, Luigina Guasti, Riccardo Sarzani, Alessandro Bestetti, Massimo Vanasia, Giovanni Gaudio
AIM: To evaluate the effects of canrenone as add-on therapy in patients already treated with angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and hydrochlorothiazide at the maximum dosage (25 mg/day). METHOD: In this randomized, open label, controlled trial, we enrolled 175 Caucasian patients with essential hypertension not well controlled by concomitant ACE-I or ARBs and hydrochlorothiazide. At baseline 87 patients (57 males and 30 females) were randomized to add canrenone 50 mg, and 88 (56 males and 32 females) patients to canrenone 100 mg, once a day, for three months...
November 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858191/focus-on-the-novel-cardiovascular-drug-lzc696-from-evidence-to-clinical-consideration
#12
L M Lin, Y Wu, M F Wu, J X Lin
LCZ696, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), is comprised of the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor pro-drug sacubitril (AHU377). After oral administration, AHU377 is rapidly metabolized to the active neprilysin inhibitor LBQ657. LCZ696 exerts its effects of diuresis, natriuresis, vasodilation and aldosterone secretion inhibition through simultaneous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade and natriuretic peptides system (NPS) enhancement...
November 18, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858115/-the-new-esc-guidelines-for-acute-and-chronic-heart-failure-2016
#13
C U Oeing, C Tschöpe, B Pieske
The new guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure (HF) were presented in May 2016 during the congress of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in Florence. An important amendment affects the classification of HF which now differentiates between HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and left ventricular EF (LVEF) > 50%, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, LVEF < 40%) and the new entity HF with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF, LVEF 40-49%)...
December 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846213/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-1-midregional-proatrial-natriuretic-peptide-and-midregional-proadrenomedullin-for-distinguishing-etiology-and-to-assess-severity-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#14
Susanna Esposito, Maria Di Gangi, Fabio Cardinale, Eugenio Baraldi, Ilaria Corsini, Liviana Da Dalt, Pier Angelo Tovo, Antonio Correra, Alberto Villani, Oliviero Sacco, Laura Tenero, Piera Dones, Monia Gambino, Alberto Zampiero, Nicola Principi
STUDY DESIGN: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) to distinguish bacterial from viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to identify severe cases in children hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP. Index test results were compared with those derived from routine diagnostic tests, i.e., white blood cell (WBC) counts, neutrophil percentages, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837397/from-arb-to-arni-in-cardiovascular-control
#15
REVIEW
Estrellita Uijl, Lodi C W Roksnoer, Ewout J Hoorn, A H Jan Danser
Coexistence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease synergistically aggravates the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. These high-risk, multi-morbid patient populations benefit less from currently available anti-hypertensive treatment. Simultaneous angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and neprilysin inhibition ('ARNI') with valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696) might potentiate the beneficial effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition by reinforcing its endogenous counterbalance, the natriuretic peptide system...
December 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832993/the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-diabetes-and-its-complications
#16
REVIEW
Ying Feng, Da Wang, Huili Bi, Huijuan Zhang
This review aimed to summarize recent findings on the role of natriuretic peptides (NPs) in diabetes and its important complications. Although the treatment of diabetes mellitus has benefited from recent advances, aggressive glycemic control can increase the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Therefore, innovative therapies are required to address this issue. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) may have such novel therapeutic potential. NPs comprise a family of structurally related peptides, including atrial, brain, C-type, and dendroaspis...
November 7, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818782/randomized-pilot-trial-comparing-tolvaptan-with-furosemide-on-renal-and-neurohumoral-effects-in-acute-heart-failure
#17
Kentaro Jujo, Katsumi Saito, Issei Ishida, Yuho Furuki, Ahsung Kim, Yuki Suzuki, Haruki Sekiguchi, Junichi Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Ogawa, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
AIMS: Loop diuretics are first-line medications for congestive heart failure (CHF); however, they are associated with serious adverse effects, including decreased renal function, and sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin system activation. We tested whether tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist, could reduce unfavourable furosemide-induced effects during CHF treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty patients emergently hospitalized owing to CHF-induced dyspnea were randomly assigned to receive either 40 mg intravenous furosemide daily or 7...
September 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809845/impact-of-diabetes-on-the-predictive-value-of-heart-failure-biomarkers
#18
Nuria Alonso, Josep Lupón, Jaume Barallat, Marta de Antonio, Mar Domingo, Elisabet Zamora, Pedro Moliner, Amparo Galán, Javier Santesmases, Cruz Pastor, Dídac Mauricio, Antoni Bayes-Genis
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased risk of developing heart failure (HF). Further, DM is associated with poor prognosis in patients with HF. Our aim was to determine whether DM has any impact on the predictive value of a multi-biomarker panel in patients with HF. METHODS: We included 1069 consecutive ambulatory HF patients in the study: age 66.2 ± 12.8 years, 33.5 ± 13.3 left ventricular ejection fraction, 36% diabetic patients...
November 3, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803793/sacubitril-valsartan-in-heart-failure-latest-evidence-and-place-in-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Edgardo Kaplinsky
Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk for HF progression and death. Sacubitril/valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a first-in-class medicine that contains a neprilysin (NEP) inhibitor (sacubitril) and an angiotensin II (Ang-II) receptor blocker (valsartan). NEP is an endopeptidase that metabolizes different vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides, bradykinin and Ang-II. In consequence, its inhibition increases mainly the levels of both, natriuretic peptides (promoting diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilatation) and Ang-II whose effects are blocked by the angiotensin receptor blocker, valsartan (reducing vasoconstriction and aldosterone release)...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793890/heart-peptide-hormones-adjunct-and-primary-treatments-of-cancer
#20
REVIEW
David L Vesely
: Four heart hormones, namely atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP), vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide reduce up to 97% of cancer cells in vitro. These four cardiac hormones eliminate up to 80% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas, two-thirds of human breast carcinomas and up to 86% of human small-cell lung carcinomas growing in athymic mice. ANP given intravenously for 3 hours after 'curative' lung surgery as an adjunct to surgery results in a 2-year relapse-free survival of 91% compared to 75% for those treated with surgery alone...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
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