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Fire Fighter

Pier-Olivier Tremblay, Thierry Duchesne, Steven G Cumming
Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene) and the size at "being held" (a state when no further increase in size is expected). We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i...
2018: PloS One
Andrzej Tomczak, Jerzy Bertrandt, Anna Kłos, Wiesława Szymańska, Wanda Stankiewicz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine changes in the fitness level among students of the Main Fire Service School during 3-year's education. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 75 male and 5 female students took part in the study. Fitness level measurements were carried out before beginning the studies (Measurement 0) and after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years at the school (Measurement 1, 2, 3). The following tests were performed to estimate level of physical fitness for men: pull-ups on a bar, a 50 m sprint and 1,000 m run, and for women: sit-ups, medical ball (2 kg) throw from above the head and a 4 x10 m shuttle run...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Šárka Bernatíková, Hana Tomášková, Marek Bužga, Zdeněk Jirák, Petr Novák, Ján Babjak, Tomáš Kot, Václav Krys, Ladislav Jánošík
BACKGROUND: The work of members of rescue teams could be associated with very high physical and thermal loads. If not timely interrupted, any extreme labour-thermal load may lead to a failure of the body and fatal collapse. This risk may be significantly reduced by devices that monitor the response of the body during the intervention and inform rescuers about the need to interrupt the exposure when the critical value of the reference indicator is achieved. The aim of the study was to test the correlation between the data of the newly developed device for signaling the strain of rescuers and the indicators of physiological response of the body...
January 1, 2018: Medycyna Pracy
Krista A Barzen-Hanson, Shannon E Davis, Markus Kleber, Jennifer A Field
During fire-fighter training, equipment testing, and emergency responses with aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs), milligrams per liter concentrations of anionic, zwitterionic, and cationic per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) enter the environment. Because the behavior of zwitterionic and cationic PFASs in the subsurface is unknown, batch sorption experiments were conducted using National Foam AFFF, which contains anionic fluorotelomer sulfonates (FtSs), zwitterionic fluorotelomer sulfonamido betaines (FtSaBs), and cationic 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamido amine (FtSaAm)...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Björn Hossfeld, Thomas Wurmb, Florent Josse, Matthias Helm
Terrorist attacks or amok runs may cause "threatening situations" for emergency medical services (EMS), fire fighters and physicians. Cooperation with the police is of paramount importance. In order to minimize the risk to rescue personnel and affected persons, emergency medical care has to follow tactical principles. So, the strategy in such "threatening situations" is "Stop the bleeding and clear the scene". The police define three areas of danger: unsafe, partly safe and secure. Medical care in these areas follows the concept of Tactical Combat Casualty Care...
September 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Joanna Giebułtowicz, Monika Rużycka, Piotr Wroczyński, David A Purser, Anna A Stec
Dwelling fires have changed over the years because building contents and the materials used in then have changed. They all contribute to an ever-growing diversity of chemical species found in fires, many of them highly toxic. These arise largely from the changing nature of materials in interior finishes and furniture, with an increasing content of synthetic materials containing higher levels of nitrogen, halogen and phosphorus additives. While there is still a belief that carbon monoxide is the major lethal toxic agent in fires, the hydrogen cyanide and acid gases released from these additives are now well-recognised as major contributory causes of incapacitation, morbidity and mortality in domestic fires...
June 9, 2017: Forensic Science International
A Milner, K Witt, H Maheen, A D LaMontagne
BACKGROUND: Emergency and protective services personnel (e.g., police, ambulance, fire-fighters, defence, prison and security officers) report elevated levels of job stress and health problems. While population-level research is lacking, there has been some research suggesting suicide rates may be elevated in emergency and protective services. OBJECTIVES: This paper compares suicide rates between emergency and protective services occupational groups over a 12-year period (2001-2012) in Australia...
June 1, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
X Y Huang, X Y Yang, L P Zhu, J P Yang, Z L Zhang
Objective: To investigate the influence of long-time video operation on hemodynamics of the retrobulbar arteries in operators. Methods: From March to October, 2015, a total of 120 soldiers for office work engaged in video surveillance were enrolled as study group, and 155 fire fighters were enrolled as control group. The incidence of eye discomfort was compared between the two groups. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to measure and compare the peak systolic velocity (PSV) , end-diastolic velocity (EDV) , and resistance index (RI) of the central retinal artery (CRA) and the short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA) , and the correlation of video operation time with the hemodynamic parameters of the retrobulbar arteries was analyzed...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Katie L Tataris, Christopher T Richards, Leslee Stein-Spencer, Stephanie Ryan, Pete Lazzara, Joseph M Weber
OBJECTIVE: Despite the value of out-of-hospital Termination of Resuscitation (TOR) and the scientific evidence in favor of this practice, TOR has not been uniformly adopted or consistently practiced in EMS systems. Previous focus group studies have identified multiple barriers to implementation of out of hospital TOR but existing literature on EMS provider perceptions is limited. We sought to identify EMS providers' perceived barriers to performing out-of-hospital TOR in a large urban EMS system...
September 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
George Broyles, Corey R Butler, Chucri A Kardous
Wildland fire fighters use many tools and equipment that produce noise levels that may be considered hazardous to hearing. This study evaluated 174 personal dosimetry measurements on 156 wildland fire fighters conducting various training and fire suppression tasks. Noise exposures often exceeded occupational exposure limits and suggest that wildland fire fighters may be at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss, particularly those operating chainsaws, chippers, and masticators. The authors recommend a comprehensive approach to protecting these fire fighters that includes purchasing quieter equipment, noise and administrative controls, and enrolling these fire fighters into a hearing conservation program...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Krista A Barzen-Hanson, Simon C Roberts, Sarah Choyke, Karl Oetjen, Alan McAlees, Nicole Riddell, Robert McCrindle, P Lee Ferguson, Christopher P Higgins, Jennifer A Field
Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs), containing per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), are released into the environment during response to fire-related emergencies. Repeated historical applications of AFFF at military sites were a result of fire-fighter training exercises and equipment testing. Recent data on AFFF-impacted groundwater indicates that ∼25% of the PFASs remain unidentified. In an attempt to close the mass balance, a systematic evaluation of 3M and fluorotelomer-based AFFFs, commercial products, and AFFF-impacted groundwaters from 15 U...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Emily R Watkins, Alan J Richardson
Fire Service Instructors frequently experience high levels of physiological and perceptual strain during live fire exposures. Instructors are also at risk of cardiovascular illnesses, with cardiac death being the greatest cause of fire fighter death. Current practice for UK instructors is to select undergarment type based on personal preference, between a boiler suit (BOILER) and a wicking base layer (WBL). Research suggests that shorts and t-shirt (SHORTS) may also be a beneficial alternative undergarment choice...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
Richard Parker, Antonios Vitalis, Robyn Walker, David Riley, H Grant Pearce
Wildland (rural) fire fighting is a physically demanding and hazardous occupation. An observational study was conducted to explore the use of new technologies for the field study of fire fighters at wildfires and to understand the work pressures of wildland fire fighting. The research was carried out with two fire fighters at real fires wearing microphones, miniature video cameras, heart rate monitors and GPS units to record their actions and location at wildfire events. The fire fighters were exposed to high physiological workloads (heart rates of up to 180 beats per minute) and walked considerable distances at the fires...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Corey Butler, Suzanne Marsh, Joseph W Domitrovich, Jim Helmkamp
Wildland fire fighting is a high-risk occupation requiring considerable physical and psychological demands. Multiple agencies publish fatality summaries for wildland firefighters; however, the reported number and types vary. At least five different surveillance systems capture deaths, each with varying case definitions and case inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four are population-level systems and one is case-based. System differences create challenges to accurately characterize fatalities. Data within each of the five surveillance systems were examined to better understand the types of wildland firefighter data collected, to assess each system's utility in characterizing wildland firefighter fatalities, and to determine each system's potential to inform prevention strategies...
April 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Laurent Thefenne, Charlotte Gislot, Gratiane De Brier, Arnaud Jouvion, Thomas Trappier
OBJECTIVE: Lumbago/low-back pain is the first cause of morbidity and incapacity work-related in the world. Its social and economical weight is considerable. In the armies, since 2009, lumbago is the object of a prevention plan. Therefore, we sought to determinate knowledge levels of Marseille Marine fire fighters about primary and secondary prevention. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: It's a transverse, descriptive, observational study concerning a representative sample of French military population from Marseille Marine firefighter's battalion, between September 25th 2014 and October 24th 2014...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Iro Fragkaki, Kathleen Thomaes, Marit Sijbrandij
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have investigated the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after single finished trauma, studies on PTSD under ongoing threat are scarce and it is still unclear whether these individuals present similar abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present the neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings on PTSD under ongoing threat. Ongoing threat considerably affects PTSD severity and treatment response and thus disentangling its neurobiological and neuroendocrine differences from PTSD after finished trauma could provide useful information for treatment...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Carrie House
Men-women and women-men have a long tradition in Diné (Navajo) culture where they were, and sometimes still are, held in high esteem. Their supernatural prototypes figure prominently in parts of the Diné Origin Story. It is in this cosmological worldview and tradition of acceptance that Carrie, a multi-dualistic spirit, grew up to be a female-bodied man supported and respected by his/her family and community. He/she has worked in various professions defined as "masculine" in Diné and Western contexts, such as fire fighter, heavy equipment operator, truck driver, and building contractor...
July 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Kenneth L Cameron, Jeffrey B Driban, Steven J Svoboda
OBJECTIVE:  Although tactical athletes (eg, military service members, law enforcement personnel, fire fighters) are exposed to several known risk factors, it remains unclear if they are at increased risk for osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the association between serving as a tactical athlete and the incidence and prevalence of OA. DATA SOURCES:  We completed a comprehensive systematic literature search in November 2014 using 12 bibliographic databases (eg, PubMed, Ovid, SportDiscus) supplemented with manual searches of reference lists...
November 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Kathryn Holden, Stephen Kellett, Jason Davies, Shonagh Scott
BACKGROUND: The impact and burden of working with people that hoard is largely unexplored. AIM: To explore professionals' varied experiences of engagement and intervention with this client group. METHOD: Five semi-structured interviews were initially conducted with professionals with detailed experience of working with people that hoard. A thematic analysis then identified key statements for a 49-item Q-set. The Q-sort was subsequently administered to public sector professionals with wide experience of working with people who hoard (N= 36; fire-fighters, environmental health, housing and mental health)...
April 18, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Ian McKee, Jessica L McKee, Irene Ma, Paul B McBeth, Derek J Roberts, Charles L Wurster, Robbie Parfitt, Chad G Ball, Scott Oberg, William Sevcik, Douglas R Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Remote-telementored ultrasound involves novice examiners being remotely guided by experts using informatic-technologies. However, requiring a novice to perform ultrasound is a cognitively demanding task exacerbated by unfamiliarity with ultrasound-machine controls. We incorporated a randomized evaluation of using remote control of the ultrasound functionality (knobology) within a study in which the images generated by distant naive examiners were viewed on an ultrasound graphic user interface (GUI) display viewed on laptop computers by mentors in different cities...
May 2016: American Journal of Surgery
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