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Autonomic seizure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650001/prediction-of-autonomic-dysreflexia-during-urodynamics-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Matthias Walter, Stephanie C Knüpfer, Jacquelyn J Cragg, Lorenz Leitner, Marc P Schneider, Ulrich Mehnert, Andrei V Krassioukov, Martin Schubert, Armin Curt, Thomas M Kessler
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition in patients with spinal cord injury, as it can lead to myocardial ischemia, brain hemorrhage, or even death. Urodynamic investigation is the gold standard to assess neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to spinal cord injury and reveal crucial pathological findings, such as neurogenic detrusor overactivity. However, neurogenic detrusor overactivity and urodynamic investigation are known to be leading triggers of autonomic dysreflexia...
April 13, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619247/cardiac-arrhythmia-and-neuroexcitability-gene-variants-in-resected-brain-tissue-from-patients-with-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep
#2
Daniel Friedman, Kasthuri Kannan, Arline Faustin, Seema Shroff, Cheddhi Thomas, Adriana Heguy, Jonathan Serrano, Matija Snuderl, Orrin Devinsky
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of epilepsy-related mortality in young adults. The exact mechanisms are unknown but death often follows a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Proposed mechanisms include seizure-related respiratory, cardiac, autonomic, and arousal dysfunction. Genetic drivers underlying SUDEP risk are largely unknown. To identify potential SUDEP risk genes, we compared whole-exome sequences (WES) derived from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded surgical brain specimens of eight epilepsy patients who died from SUDEP with seven living controls matched for age at surgery, sex, year of surgery and lobe of resection...
2018: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599011/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-children-incidence-and-experience-in-hong-kong
#3
Alvin Chi-Chung Ho, Sophelia Hoi-Shan Chan, Eric Chan, Sheila Suet-Na Wong, Sharon Tsui-Hang Fung, Sharon Wan-Wah Cherk, Eva Lai-Wah Fung, Kam-Hung Ma, Kwing-Wan Tsui, Eric Kin-Cheong Yau, Virginia Chun-Nei Wong
AIM: The study aims to analyze the incidence, clinical features, investigation findings and treatment outcomes of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis in children from Hong Kong. METHOD: A retrospective study was carried out on paediatric patients diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis in Hong Kong from January 2009 to December 2015. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (67% female, 93% Chinese) were identified over seven years and the estimated incidence in Hong Kong was 2...
March 26, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594870/treatment-strategies-for-dravet-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Kelly G Knupp, Elaine C Wirrell
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a medically refractory epilepsy that onsets in the first year of life with prolonged seizures, often triggered by fever. Over time, patients develop other seizure types (myoclonic, atypical absences, drops), intellectual disability, crouch gait and other co-morbidities (sleep problems, autonomic dysfunction). Complete seizure control is generally not achievable with current therapies, and the goals of treatment are to balance reduction of seizure burden with adverse effects of therapies...
March 28, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570805/algorithm-analysis-of-the-dsm-5-alcohol-withdrawal-symptom
#5
Christopher S Martin, Alvaro Vergés, James W Langenbucher, Andrew Littlefield, Tammy Chung, Duncan B Clark, Kenneth J Sher
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal (AW) is an important clinical and diagnostic feature of alcohol dependence. AW has been found to predict a worsened course of illness in clinical samples, but in some community studies AW endorsement rates are strikingly high, suggesting false positive symptom assignments. Little research has examined the validity of the DSM-5 algorithm for AW, which requires either the presence of at least 2 of 8 sub-criteria (i.e., autonomic hyperactivity, tremulousness, insomnia, nausea, hallucinations, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures), or, the use of alcohol to avoid or relieve these symptoms...
March 23, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553924/porphyria-what-is-it-and-who-should-be-evaluated
#6
Yonatan Edel, Rivka Mamet
The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders, inherited or acquired, along the heme biosynthetic pathway, which could manifest with neurovisceral and/or cutaneous symptoms, depending on the defective enzyme. Neurovisceral porphyrias are characterized by acute attacks, in which excessive heme production is induced following exposure to a trigger. An acute attack usually presents with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and tachycardia. Other symptoms which could appear include hypertension, hyponatremia, peripheral neuropathy, and mild mental symptoms...
March 15, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542031/an-explanation-for-sudden-death-in-epilepsy-sudep
#7
REVIEW
Mark Stewart
This review traces the examination of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory derangements associated with seizure activity in the clinical and preclinical literature generally, and in the author's animal model specifically, and concludes with the author's views on the potential mechanisms for sudden death in epilepsy (SUDEP). An animal model that employs kainic acid-induced seizures on a background of urethane anesthesia has permitted unprecedented access to the behavior of autonomic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems during seizure activity...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527169/-orthosiphon-stamineus-leaf-extract-affects-tnf-%C3%AE-and-seizures-in-a-zebrafish-model
#8
Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Seow-Mun Hue, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus , is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523913/-autoimmune-encephalitis-with-psychotic-symptoms-diagnostics-warning-signs-and-practical-approach
#9
REVIEW
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512824/improved-cardiac-outcomes-with-combined-atenolol-and-diazepam-intervention-in-seizure
#10
Morgayn I Read, Rebecca N Millen, Dominic M McCann, Joanne C Harrison, Douglas S Kerr, Ivan A Sammut
OBJECTIVE: Altered autonomic activity has been implicated in the development of cardiac dysfunction during seizures. This study investigates whether intervening in seizure progression with diazepam will reduce seizure-induced cardiomyopathy. Second, this study examines the hypothesis that combining atenolol with diazepam, as an intervention after seizure onset, will combat cardiac injury during status epilepticus. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalographic/electrocardiographic electrodes to allow simultaneous recordings during seizures induced by intrahippocampal (2 nmol, 1 μL) kainic acid (KA)...
April 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464197/mecp2-deficiency-leads-to-loss-of-glial-kir4-1
#11
Uri Kahanovitch, Vishnu A Cuddapah, Natasha L Pacheco, Leanne M Holt, Daniel K Mulkey, Alan K Percy, Michelle L Olsen
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder usually caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). RTT is typified by apparently normal development until 6-18 mo of age, when motor and communicative skills regress and hand stereotypies, autonomic symptoms, and seizures present. Restoration of MeCP2 function selectively to astrocytes reversed several deficits in a murine model of RTT, but the mechanism of this rescue is unknown. Astrocytes carry out many essential functions required for normal brain functioning, including extracellular K+ buffering...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462779/effects-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-heart-rate-variability-in-children-with-epilepsy
#12
Tugba Hirfanoglu, Ayse Serdaroglu, Ilker Cetin, Gokhan Kurt, Irem Y Capraz, Filiz Ekici, Ebru Arhan, Erhan Bilir
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on heart rate variability (HRV) in children with epilepsy. METHODS: The subgroups of HRV, namely time domain (Standard deviation of NN interval (SDNN), SDNN index, Standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals (SDANN), Root mean square of successive differences (RMMSD), Adjacent NN intervals differing by more than 50 ms in the entire recording divided by the total number of all NN intervals (PNN50), triangular index) and frequency domain (Low-frequency (LF), High-frequency (HF), LF/HF), were investigated in 20 pediatric patients before and after 6 and 12months of VNS treatment during day and night by comparing their data with those of 20 control subjects...
April 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457123/general-anesthesia-with-propofol-for-ovarian-teratoma-excision-associated-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#13
Masami Sato, Hiroaki Yasumoto, Toshiyuki Arai
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder caused by production of anti-NMDAR antibodies that is often associated with ovarian teratoma and exhibits various manifestations including psychiatric symptoms, seizures, hypoventilation, and autonomic nerve instability. Patients with this disorder who receive early surgical tumor resection along with immunotherapy have better outcome than the rest of the patients. To establish an anesthetic plan, it is important to understand the pharmacological interaction between the anesthetic agents and the disabled NMDAR, because NMDAR is one of the major sites of action for commonly-used anesthetic agents...
2018: JA Clinical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452687/diagnostic-challenges-in-epilepsy-seizure-under-reporting-and-seizure-detection
#14
REVIEW
Christian E Elger, Christian Hoppe
Epileptic seizures vary greatly in clinical phenomenology and can markedly affect the patient's quality of life. As therapeutic interventions focus on reduction or elimination of seizures, the accurate documentation of seizure occurrence is essential. However, patient self-evaluation compared with objective evaluation by video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring or long-term ambulatory EEG revealed that patients document fewer than 50% of their seizures, on average, and that documentation accuracy varies significantly over time...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413523/anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-clinical-features-and-basic-mechanisms
#15
David R Lynch, Amy Rattelle, Yi Na Dong, Kylie Roslin, Amy J Gleichman, Jessica A Panzer
In slightly more than 10 years, anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has changed from a rare paraneoplastic syndrome to the most common cause of nonviral encephalitis. It presents fulminantly with progressive psychosis, seizures, and autonomic dysfunction, leading to death if untreated. However, rapid recognition and treatment can lead to survival and a return to baseline levels of functioning in many patients. While initially associated with ovarian teratomas, it is now associated with other tumors and can reflect a postviral event...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408771/headache-in-mitochondrial-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
Headache is a prominent feature in mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) but no comprehensive overview is currently available. This review aims at summarising and discussing findings concerning type, frequency, pathogenesis, and treatment of headache in MIDs. The most frequent headache types in MIDs are migraine and migraine-like headache (MLH). MLH is classified as secondary headache. More rarely, tension-type headache, trigemino-autonomic headache, or different secondary headaches can be found. Migraine or MLH may manifest with or without aura...
March 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370977/severe-dysautonomia-as-a-main-feature-of-anti-gad-encephalitis-report-of-a-paediatric-case-and-literature-review
#17
Nedia Ben Achour, Thouraya Ben Younes, Ibtihel Rebai, Melika Ben Ahmed, Ichraf Kraoua, Ilhem Ben Youssef-Turki
INTRODUCTION: Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD65) antibodies are a rare cause of autoimmune encephalitis. This entity is mainly recognized in adults and very few cases were reported in children. We report on a paediatric case of anti-GAD encephalitis with severe presentation and uncontrollable dysautonomia. CASE STUDY: A 9-year-old girl was referred to our department for refractory seizures and behavioral disturbances. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368690/bad-and-k-atp-channels-regulate-neuron-excitability-and-epileptiform-activity
#18
Juan Ramón Martínez-François, María Carmen Fernández-Agüera, Nidhi Nathwani, Carolina Lahmann, Veronica L Burnham, Nika N Danial, Gary Yellen
Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad (<u>B</u>CL-2<u>a</u>gonist of cell<u>d</u>eath) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on KATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD's influence on neuronal KATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability...
January 25, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364393/autoimmune-encephalitis-a-review-of-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
Lívia Almeida Dutra, Fabiano Abrantes, Fabio Fieni Toso, José Luiz Pedroso, Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini, Romana Hoftberger
Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is one of the most common causes of noninfectious encephalitis. It can be triggered by tumors, infections, or it may be cryptogenic. The neurological manifestations can be either acute or subacute and usually develop within six weeks. There are a variety of clinical manifestations including behavioral and psychiatric symptoms, autonomic disturbances, movement disorders, and seizures. We reviewed common forms of AIE and discuss their diagnostic approach and treatment.
January 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359079/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-young-females
#20
Kamlesh Kumari, Neeru Sahni, Vimla Kumari, Vikas Saini
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an immune-mediated disease commonly associated with ovarian teratoma. Anti-NMDA-receptor autoantibodies disrupt NMDA function leading to the development of psychosis, seizures and autonomic dysfunction. The treatment includes underlying tumour resection and immunosuppression. Slow recovery and unpredictable clinical course makes intensive care management of these patients challenging. We report the management of two young female patients with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
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