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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#1
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#2
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136516/the-order-of-information-processing-alters-economic-gain-loss-framing-effects
#3
Youngbin Kwak, Scott Huettel
Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually - which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes...
November 11, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129535/genetic-influence-on-eye-movements-to-complex-scenes-at-short-timescales
#4
Daniel P Kennedy, Brian M D'Onofrio, Patrick D Quinn, Sven Bölte, Paul Lichtenstein, Terje Falck-Ytter
Where one looks within their environment constrains one's visual experiences, directly affects cognitive, emotional, and social processing [1-4], influences learning opportunities [5], and ultimately shapes one's developmental path. While there is a high degree of similarity across individuals with regard to which features of a scene are fixated [6-8], large individual differences are also present, especially in disorders of development [9-13], and clarifying the origins of these differences is essential to understand the processes by which individuals develop within the complex environments in which they exist and interact...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129037/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-middle-cerebellar-peduncle-strokes
#5
Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) is a major conduit for cortico-ponto-cerebellar fibers that convey information related to eye movements. This study aims to elucidate eye movement abnormalities that arise from lesions confined to the MCP. In 23 patients with acute strokes restricted to unilateral MCPs, we investigated the clinical features and ocular motor findings including spontaneous nystagmus, saccades, smooth pursuit, ocular tilt reaction, and head impulse tests. Bithermal caloric tests and audiometry were also performed...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127576/skipping-of-chinese-characters-does-not-rely-on-word-based-processing
#6
Nan Lin, Bernhard Angele, Huimin Hua, Wei Shen, Junyi Zhou, Xingshan Li
Previous eye-movement studies have indicated that people tend to skip extremely high-frequency words in sentence reading, such as "the" in English and "/de" in Chinese. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain how this frequent skipping happens in Chinese reading: one assumes that skipping happens when the preview has been fully identified at the word level (word-based skipping); the other assumes that skipping happens whenever the preview character is easy to identify regardless of whether lexical processing has been completed or not (character-based skipping)...
November 10, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123495/likability-s-effect-on-interpersonal-motor-coordination-exploring-natural-gaze-direction
#7
Zhong Zhao, Robin N Salesse, Ludovic Marin, Mathieu Gueugnon, Benoît G Bardy
Although existing studies indicate a positive effect of interpersonal motor coordination (IMC) on likability, no consensus has been reached as for the effect of likability back onto IMC. The present study specifically investigated the causal effect of likability on IMC and explored, by tracking the natural gaze direction, the possible underlying mechanisms. Twenty-two participants were engaged in an interpersonal finger-tapping task with a confederate in three likability conditions (baseline, likable, and unlikable), while wearing an eye tracker...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123215/observer-s-anxiety-facilitates-magnocellular-processing-of-clear-facial-threat-cues-but-impairs-parvocellular-processing-of-ambiguous-facial-threat-cues
#8
Hee Yeon Im, Reginald B Adams, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Cody A Cushing, Kestutis Kveraga
Facial expression and eye gaze provide a shared signal about threats. While a fear expression with averted gaze clearly points to the source of threat, direct-gaze fear renders the source of threat ambiguous. Separable routes have been proposed to mediate these processes, with preferential attunement of the magnocellular (M) pathway to clear threat, and of the parvocellular (P) pathway to threat ambiguity. Here we investigated how observers' trait anxiety modulates M- and P-pathway processing of clear and ambiguous threat cues...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121827/gaze-cueing-with-crossed-eyes-asymmetry-between-nasal-and-temporal-shifts
#9
Saki Takao, Aiko Murata, Katsumi Watanabe
A person's direction of gaze (and visual attention) can be inferred from the direction of the parallel shift of the eyes. However, the direction of gaze is ambiguous when there is a misalignment between the eyes. The use of schematic drawings of faces in a previous study demonstrated that gaze-cueing was equally effective, even when one eye looked straight and the other eye was averted. In the current study, we used more realistic computer-generated face models to re-examine if the diverging direction of the eyes affected gaze-cueing...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121090/differences-between-racing-and-non-racing-drivers-a-simulator-study-using-eye-tracking
#10
Peter M van Leeuwen, Stefan de Groot, Riender Happee, Joost C F de Winter
Motorsport has developed into a professional international competition. However, limited research is available on the perceptual and cognitive skills of racing drivers. By means of a racing simulator, we compared the driving performance of seven racing drivers with ten non-racing drivers. Participants were tasked to drive the fastest possible lap time. Additionally, both groups completed a choice reaction time task and a tracking task. Results from the simulator showed faster lap times, higher steering activity, and a more optimal racing line for the racing drivers than for the non-racing drivers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120977/use-of-a-scan-ultrasound-and-optical-coherence-tomography-to-differentiate-papilledema-from-pseudopapilledema
#11
Roberto Saenz, Han Cheng, Thomas C Prager, Laura J Frishman, Rosa A Tang
SIGNIFICANCE: Differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema reflecting tilted/crowded optic discs or disc drusen is critical but can be challenging. Our study suggests that spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and retrobulbar optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured by A-scan ultrasound provide useful information when differentiating the two conditions. PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of A-scan ultrasound and spectral-domain OCT retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in differentiating papilledema associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension from pseudopapilledema...
November 9, 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120939/clinical-signs-and-electroencephalographic-patterns-of-emergence-from-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-in-children-an-observational-study
#12
Laura Cornelissen, Carolina Donado, Johanna M Lee, Norah E Liang, Ian Mills, Andrea Tou, Aykut Bilge, Charles B Berde
BACKGROUND: Few studies have systematically described relationships between clinical-behavioural signs, electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns and age during emergence from anaesthesia in young children. OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationships between end-tidal sevoflurane (ETsevoflurane) concentration, age and frontal EEG spectral properties in predicting recovery of clinical-behavioural signs during emergence from sevoflurane in children 0 to 3 years of age, with and without exposure to nitrous oxide...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118362/deconstructing-atypical-eye-gaze-perception-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
The ability to discern the target of another person's gaze is critical for social and linguistic development, but functions atypically in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multi-pronged approach allowed us to deconstruct this complex ability, to uncover the fundamental bases of this impairment. We analyzed performance on a novel gaze perception task with classical psychophysical metrics (precision and accuracy), principal component analysis (in the analysis of spatial biases), and Bayesian computational modeling (in the analysis of individual subjects' use of contextual salience cues)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116436/higher-levels-of-motor-competence-are-associated-with-reduced-interference-in-action-perception-across-the-lifespan
#14
Stephanie Wermelinger, Anja Gampe, Moritz M Daum
Action perception and action production are tightly linked and elicit bi-directional influences on each other when performed simultaneously. In this study, we investigated whether age-related differences in manual fine-motor competence and/or age affect the (interfering) influence of action production on simultaneous action perception. In a cross-sectional eye-tracking study, participants of a broad age range (N = 181, 20-80 years) observed a manual grasp-and-transport action while performing an additional motor or cognitive distractor task...
November 7, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116398/predictive-factors-for-corrective-effect-of-inferior-rectus-recession-for-congenital-superior-oblique-palsy
#15
Manabu Miyata, Kiyo Shibata, Ichiro Hamasaki, Masayuki Hata, Yuki Muraoka, Munemitsu Yoshikawa, Satoshi Hasebe, Hiroshi Ohtsuki
PURPOSE: To identify preoperative factors associated with the surgical corrective effect of contralateral inferior rectus recession (IRR) for vertical deviation in patients with congenital superior oblique palsy (SOP). METHODS: This retrospective study included 20 treatment-naïve patients with unilateral congenital SOP (age range, 6-79 years) who underwent contralateral IRR according to our basic policy to select IRR for paretic eye fixation. The corrective effect (°/mm) of IRR was defined as the difference in the vertical deviation at the primary gaze position between before and 6-18 months after surgery per distance of recession...
November 7, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111411/overlapping-and-distinct-neural-correlates-of-imitating-and-opposing-facial-movements
#16
Detre A Godinez, Daniel S Lumian, Tanisha Crosby-Attipoe, Ana M Bedacarratz, Paree Zarolia, Kateri McRae
Previous studies have demonstrated that imitating a face can be relatively automatic and reflexive. In contrast, opposing facial expressions may require engaging flexible, cognitive control. However, few studies have examined the degree to which imitation and opposition of facial movements recruit overlapping and distinct neural regions. Furthermore, little work has examined whether opposition and imitation of facial movements differ between emotional and averted eye gaze facial expressions. This study utilized a novel task with 40 participants to compare passive viewing, imitation and opposition of emotional faces looking forward and neutral faces with averted eye gaze [(3: Look, Imitate, Oppose) x (2: Emotion, Averted Eye)]...
October 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105015/children-s-use-of-morphological-cues-in-real-time-event-representation
#17
Peng Zhou, Weiyi Ma
The present study investigated whether and how fast young children can use information encoded in morphological markers during real-time event representation. Using the visual world paradigm, we tested 35 adults, 34 5-year-olds and 33 3-year-olds. The results showed that the adults, the 5-year-olds and the 3-year-olds all exhibited eye gaze patterns that reflected a rapid use of morphological cues during real-time event representation. There was no difference in the time course of the eye gaze patterns of the 5-year-olds and those of the adults, indicating that 5-year-old children already have adult-like processing abilities and they can use morphological cues as effectively as adults during real-time event representation...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094383/social-beliefs-and-visual-attention-how-the-social-relevance-of-a-cue-influences-spatial-orienting
#18
Matthias S Gobel, Miles R A Tufft, Daniel C Richardson
We are highly tuned to each other's visual attention. Perceiving the eye or hand movements of another person can influence the timing of a saccade or the reach of our own. However, the explanation for such spatial orienting in interpersonal contexts remains disputed. Is it due to the social appearance of the cue-a hand or an eye-or due to its social relevance-a cue that is connected to another person with attentional and intentional states? We developed an interpersonal version of the Posner spatial cueing paradigm...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094148/temporal-evolution-of-the-central-fixation-bias-in-scene-viewing
#19
Lars O M Rothkegel, Hans A Trukenbrod, Heiko H Schütt, Felix A Wichmann, Ralf Engbert
When watching the image of a natural scene on a computer screen, observers initially move their eyes toward the center of the image-a reliable experimental finding termed central fixation bias. This systematic tendency in eye guidance likely masks attentional selection driven by image properties and top-down cognitive processes. Here, we show that the central fixation bias can be reduced by delaying the initial saccade relative to image onset. In four scene-viewing experiments we manipulated observers' initial gaze position and delayed their first saccade by a specific time interval relative to the onset of an image...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094147/selective-enhancement-of-orientation-tuning-before-saccades
#20
Sven Ohl, Clara Kuper, Martin Rolfs
Saccadic eye movements cause a rapid sweep of the visual image across the retina and bring the saccade's target into high-acuity foveal vision. Even before saccade onset, visual processing is selectively prioritized at the saccade target. To determine how this presaccadic attention shift exerts its influence on visual selection, we compare the dynamics of perceptual tuning curves before movement onset at the saccade target and in the opposite hemifield. Participants monitored a 30-Hz sequence of randomly oriented gratings for a target orientation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
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