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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715575/saccadic-suppression-during-voluntary-versus-reactive-saccades
#1
Svenja Gremmler, Markus Lappe
Saccades are fast eye movements that reorient gaze. They can be performed voluntarily-for example, when viewing a scene-but they can also be triggered in reaction to suddenly appearing targets. The generation of these voluntary and reactive saccades have been shown to involve partially different cortical pathways. However, saccades of either type confront the visual system with a major challenge from massive image motion on the retina. Despite the fact that the whole scene is swept across the retina, a saccade usually does not elicit a percept of motion...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712371/visual-systemizing-preference-in-children-with-autism-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-intranasal-oxytocin
#2
Lane Strathearn, Sohye Kim, D Anthony Bastian, Jennifer Jung, Udita Iyengar, Sheila Martinez, Robin P Goin-Kochel, Peter Fonagy
Several studies have suggested that the neuropeptide oxytocin may enhance aspects of social communication in autism. Little is known, however, about its effects on nonsocial manifestations, such as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. In the empathizing-systemizing theory of autism, social deficits are described along the continuum of empathizing ability, whereas nonsocial aspects are characterized in terms of an increased preference for patterned or rule-based systems, called systemizing. We therefore developed an automated eye-tracking task to test whether children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to matched controls display a visual preference for more highly organized and structured (systemized) real-life images...
July 17, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707506/perception-action-coupling-in-complex-game-play-exploring-the-quiet-eye-in-contested-basketball-jump-shots
#3
André Klostermann, Derek Panchuk, Damian Farrow
The duration of the final fixation before movement initiation - a gaze strategy labelled quiet eye - has been found to explain differences in motor expertise and performance in precision tasks. To date, research only addressed this phenomenon in situations without adversarial constraints. In the present study, we compared the quiet-eye behaviour of intermediately-skilled and highly-skilled basketball players in defended vs. undefended game situations. We predicted differences in quiet-eye duration as a function of skill and performance particularly resulting from late quiet-eye offsets...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702093/human-eye-movements-after-viewpoint-shifts-in-edited-dynamic-scenes-are-under-cognitive-control
#4
Raphael Seywerth, Christian Valuch, Ulrich Ansorge
We tested whether viewers have cognitive control over their eye movements after cuts in videos of real-world scenes. In the critical conditions, scene cuts constituted panoramic view shifts: Half of the view following a cut matched the view on the same scene before the cut. We manipulated the viewing task between two groups of participants. The main experimental group judged whether the scene following a cut was a continuation of the scene before the cut. Results showed that following view shifts, fixations were determined by the task from 250 ms until 1...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701942/neural-mechanisms-underlying-conscious-and-unconscious-gaze-triggered-attentional-orienting-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Shota Uono, Sayaka Yoshimura, Motomi Toichi
Impaired joint attention represents the core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Behavioral studies have suggested that gaze-triggered attentional orienting is intact in response to supraliminally presented eyes but impaired in response to subliminally presented eyes in individuals with ASD. However, the neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious gaze-triggered attentional orienting remain unclear. We investigated this issue in ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698242/abnormal-fixational-eye-movements-in-strabismus
#6
Fatema F Ghasia, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef G Shaikh
INTRODUCTION: Fixational saccades are miniature eye movements that constantly change the gaze during attempted visual fixation. Visually guided saccades and fixational saccades represent an oculomotor continuum and are produced by common neural machinery. Patients with strabismus have disconjugate binocular horizontal saccades. We examined the stability and variability of eye position during fixation in patients with strabismus and correlated the severity of fixational instability with strabismus angle and binocular vision...
July 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697418/suicidal-ideation-and-attentional-biases-in-children-an-eye-tracking-study
#7
Aliona Tsypes, Max Owens, Brandon E Gibb
BACKGROUND: Despite theoretical and empirical evidence for a heighted responsiveness to signals of social-threat in suicidal individuals, no studies to date have examined whether this responsiveness might also manifest in the form of specific biases in attention to interpersonal stimuli. The current study, therefore, examined the presence and nature of attentional biases for facial expressions of emotion in children with and without a history of suicidal ideation (SI). METHOD: Participants were 88 children (44 with a history of SI and 44 demographically and clinically matched controls without such history) recruited from the community...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695765/the-redundancy-effect-in-human-causal-learning-no-evidence-for-changes-in-selective-attention
#8
Peter M Jones, Tara Zaksaite
Several recent papers (e.g. Uengoer, Lotz, & Pearce, 2013) have reported a difference in associative learning for two kinds of redundant cues, such that a blocked cue (e.g. X in A+ AX+) apparently forms a stronger association with the outcome than an uncorrelated cue (e.g. Y in BY+ CY-). This difference is referred to as the redundancy effect, and is of interest because it is contrary to the predictions of a number of popular learning models. One way of reconciling these models with the redundancy effect is to assume that the amount of attention paid to redundant cues changes as a result of experience, and that these changes in attention influence subsequent learning...
July 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690585/saccadic-impairments-in-patients-with-the-norrbottnian-form-of-gaucher-s-disease-type-3
#9
Josefine Blume, Stanislav Beniaminov, Cecilia Kämpe Björkvall, Maciej Machaczka, Per Svenningsson
BACKGROUND: Chronic neuronopathic Gaucher's disease type 3 (GD3) is relatively frequent in northern Sweden. Besides multiple other neurological symptoms, horizontal gaze palsy or oculomotor apraxia is common in GD3. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the saccades in patients with Norrbottnian GD3 with respect to their neurological and cognitive status using a computer-based eye-tracking technique. METHODS: Horizontal and vertical reflexive saccades as well as antisaccades of nine GD3 patients [4M/5F; 41...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686605/does-the-implicit-models-of-leadership-influence-the-scanning-of-other-race-faces-in-adults
#10
Iain L Densten, Luc Borrowman
The current study aims to identify the relationships between implicit leadership theoretical (ILT) prototypes / anti-prototype and five facial features (i.e., nasion, upper nose, lower nose, and upper lip) of a leader from a different race than respondents. A sample of 81 Asian respondents viewed a 30-second video of a Caucasian female who in a non-engaging manner talked about her career achievements. As participants watch the video, their eye movements were recorded via an eye tracking devise. While previous research has identified that ILT influences perceptional and attitudinal ratings of leaders, the current study extends these findings by confirming the impact of ILT on the gaze patterns of other race participants, who appear to adopt system one type thinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686077/stressing-the-feedback-attention-and-cardiac-vagal-tone-during-a-cognitive-stress-task
#11
Muhammad Abid Azam, Paul Ritvo, Samantha R Fashler, Joel Katz
OBJECTIVES: The present study examined relationships among gaze behaviour and cardiac vagal tone using a novel stress-inducing task. METHODS: Participants' (N = 40) eye movements and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during an unsolvable computer-based task randomly presenting feedback of "Right" and "Wrong" answers distinctly onscreen after each trial. Subgroups were created on the basis of more frequent eye movements to the right ("Correct"-Attenders; n = 23) or wrong ("Incorrect"-Attenders; n = 17) areas onscreen...
July 7, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685177/eye-movements-when-looking-at-potential-friends-and-romantic-partners
#12
Omri Gillath, Angela J Bahns, Hayley A Burghart
Eye movements of 105 heterosexual undergraduate students (36 males) were monitored while viewing photographs of men and women identified as a potential mate or a potential friend. Results showed that people looked at the head and chest more when assessing potential mates and looked at the legs and feet more when assessing potential friends. Single people looked at the photographs longer and more frequently than coupled people, especially when evaluating potential mates. In addition, eye gaze was a valid indicator of relationship interest...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683562/gaze-to-faces-across-interactive-contexts-in-infants-at-heightened-risk-for-autism
#13
Devon N Gangi, A J Schwichtenberg, Ana-Maria Iosif, Gregory S Young, Fam Baguio, Sally Ozonoff
Infant social-communicative behavior, such as gaze to the face of an interactive partner, is an important early developmental skill. Children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit atypicalities in social-communicative behavior, including gaze and eye contact. Behavioral differences in infancy may serve as early markers of autism spectrum disorder and help identify individuals at highest risk for developing the disorder. Researchers often assess social-communicative behavior in a single interactive context, such as during assessment with an unfamiliar examiner or play with a parent...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683138/rapid-target-foraging-with-reach-or-gaze-the-hand-looks-further-ahead-than-the-eye
#14
Jonathan S Diamond, Daniel M Wolpert, J Randall Flanagan
Real-world tasks typically consist of a series of target-directed actions and often require choices about which targets to act on and in what order. Such choice behavior can be assessed from an optimal foraging perspective whereby target selection is shaped by a balance between rewards and costs. Here we evaluated such decision-making in a rapid movement foraging task. On a given trial, participants were presented with 15 targets of varying size and value and were instructed to harvest as much reward as possible by either moving a handle to the targets (hand task) or by briefly fixating them (eye task)...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682255/visual-attention-saccadic-models-learn-to-emulate-gaze-patterns-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#15
Olivier Le Meur, Antoine Coutrot, Zhi Liu, Pia Rama, Adrien Le Roch, Andrea Helo
How people look at visual information reveals fundamental information about themselves, their interests and their state of mind. While previous visual attention models output static 2-dimensional saliency maps, saccadic models aim to predict not only where observers look at but also how they move their eyes to explore the scene. In this paper, we demonstrate that saccadic models are a flexible framework that can be tailored to emulate observer's viewing tendencies. More specifically, we use fixation data from 101 observers split into 5 age groups (adults, 8-10 y...
June 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681278/are-we-overlooking-masked-bilateral-congenital-superior-oblique-palsy-in-children-is-it-possible-to-diagnose-before-surgery
#16
Kadriye Erkan Turan, Hande Taylan Sekeroglu, Ali Sefik Sanac
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of children who had subsequent contralateral superior oblique underaction (SOUA) and inferior oblique overaction (IOOA) after unilateral inferior oblique weakening surgery and to identify suggestive clinical features for masked bilateral fourth nerve palsy. METHODS: The medical records of children who underwent unilateral inferior oblique tenotomy as a single procedure for unilateral superior oblique palsy were all reviewed...
July 5, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680416/an-eye-tracking-study-on-the-perception-and-comprehension-of-unimodal-and-bimodal-linguistic-inputs-by-deaf-adolescents
#17
Eliana Mastrantuono, David Saldaña, Isabel R Rodríguez-Ortiz
An eye tracking experiment explored the gaze behavior of deaf individuals when perceiving language in spoken and sign language only, and in sign-supported speech (SSS). Participants were deaf (n = 25) and hearing (n = 25) Spanish adolescents. Deaf students were prelingually profoundly deaf individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) used by age 5 or earlier, or prelingually profoundly deaf native signers with deaf parents. The effectiveness of SSS has rarely been tested within the same group of children for discourse-level comprehension...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673266/ultra-widefield-fundus-imaging-in-gas-filled-eyes-after-vitrectomy
#18
Makoto Inoue, Takashi Koto, Kazunari Hirota, Akito Hirakata
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the quality of the images obtained by an ultra-widefield device in gas-filled eyes after vitrectomy for a retinal detachment. METHODS: Retrospective case series. The ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscopic images (Optos 200Tx imaging system) of 40 eyes that were gas-filled with 40 to 90% of the vitreous cavity after vitrectomy for a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were studied. The rates of detecting the rates of reattachments and the causative retinal tears that were treated and were in the superior or inferior areas in eyes with intravitreal gas of ≥60% were compared to that to eyes with intravitreal gas of <60% of the vitreous cavity...
July 3, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666793/gaze-based-technology-as-a-tool-for-surgical-skills-assessment-and-training-in-urology
#19
Carolina Diaz-Piedra, Jose M Sanchez-Carrion, Héctor Rieiro, Leandro L Di Stasi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the sensitivity of gaze-based metrics in detecting cognitive demands imposed by surgical procedures. We analyzed urologists' gaze entropy and velocity while performing two standardized high-fidelity simulated stone procedures with different levels of complexity. METHODS: Using a wearable eye-tracker device (mounted onto an eyeglass frame), we measured gaze entropy and velocity in fifteen urologists, members of the Andalusian healthcare system, while they performed an extraction of a stone in the bladder (low complexity) and an extraction of a stone in the lumbar ureter (high complexity)...
June 27, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666215/just-look-away-gaze-aversions-as-an-overt-attentional-disengagement-mechanism
#20
Dekel Abeles, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
During visual exploration of a scene, the eye-gaze tends to be directed toward more salient image-locations, containing more information. However, while performing non-visual tasks, such information-seeking behavior could be detrimental to performance, as the perception of irrelevant but salient visual input may unnecessarily increase the cognitive-load. It would be therefore beneficial if during non-visual tasks, eye-gaze would be governed by a drive to reduce saliency rather than maximize it. The current study examined the phenomenon of gaze-aversion during non-visual tasks, which is hypothesized to act as an active avoidance mechanism...
June 27, 2017: Cognition
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