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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541084/the-feasibility-of-automated-eye-tracking-with-the-early-childhood-vigilance-test-of-attention-in-younger-hiv-exposed-ugandan-children
#1
Michael J Boivin, Jonathan Weiss, Ronak Chhaya, Victoria Seffren, Jorem Awadu, Alla Sikorskii, Bruno Giordani
OBJECTIVE: Tobii eye tracking was compared with webcam-based observer scoring on an animation viewing measure of attention (Early Childhood Vigilance Test; ECVT) to evaluate the feasibility of automating measurement and scoring. Outcomes from both scoring approaches were compared with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), Color-Object Association Test (COAT), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for preschool children (BRIEF-P). METHOD: A total of 44 children 44 to 65 months of age were evaluated with the ECVT, COAT, MSEL, and BRIEF-P...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540753/learning-from-where-eye-remotely-look-or-point-impact-on-number-line-estimation-error-in-adults
#2
Thomas Gallagher-Mitchell, Victoria Simms, Damien Litchfield
In this paper we present an investigation into the use of visual cues during number line estimation, and their influence on cognitive processes for reducing number line estimation error. Participants completed a 0-1000 number line estimation task pre and post a brief intervention in which they observed static-visual or dynamic-visual cues (control, anchor, gaze cursor, mouse cursor) and also made estimation marks to test effective number-target estimation. Results indicated that a significant pre-test to post-test reduction in estimation error was present for dynamic visual cues of modelled eye-gaze and mouse-cursor...
May 25, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537005/active-listening-delays-attentional-disengagement-and-saccadic-eye-movements
#3
Benjamin D Lester, Shaun P Vecera
Successful goal-directed visual behavior depends on efficient disengagement of attention. Attention must be withdrawn from its current focus before being redeployed to a new object or internal process. Previous research has demonstrated that occupying cognitive processes with a secondary cellular phone conversation impairs attentional functioning and driving behavior. For example, attentional processing is significantly impacted by concurrent cell phone use, resulting in decreased explicit memory for on-road information...
May 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536434/exploration-and-exploitation-in-natural-viewing-behavior
#4
Ricardo Ramos Gameiro, Kai Kaspar, Sabine U König, Sontje Nordholt, Peter König
Many eye-tracking studies investigate visual behavior with a focus on image features and the semantic content of a scene. A wealth of results on these aspects is available, and our understanding of the decision process where to look has reached a mature stage. However, the temporal aspect, whether to stay and further scrutinize a region (exploitation) or to move on and explore image regions that were yet not in the focus of attention (exploration) is less well understood. Here, we investigate the trade-off between these two processes across stimuli with varying properties and sizes...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#5
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526514/levodopa-has-primarily-negative-influences-on-postural-control-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Cédrick T Bonnet, Arnaud Delval, Sébastien Szaffarczyk, Luc Defebvre
Patients with Parkinson's disease have better functional status and motor performance under on-drug conditions. However, the administration of levodopa leads to greater postural sway. The present study's primary objective was to determine whether this on-drug problem may be related to a lack of adjustment in postural control mechanisms and body segment rotations. Fourteen patients with Parkinson's disease and 14 controls performed two gaze-shift tasks (40° to the left and 40° to the right, at 0.125 and 0...
May 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523282/comparative-study-of-computational-visual-attention-models-on-two-dimensional-medical-images
#7
Gezheng Wen, Brenda Rodriguez-Niño, Furkan Y Pecen, David J Vining, Naveen Garg, Mia K Markey
Computational modeling of visual attention is an active area of research. These models have been successfully employed in applications such as robotics. However, most computational models of visual attention are developed in the context of natural scenes, and their role with medical images is not well investigated. As radiologists interpret a large number of clinical images in a limited time, an efficient strategy to deploy their visual attention is necessary. Visual saliency maps, highlighting image regions that differ dramatically from their surroundings, are expected to be predictive of where radiologists fixate their gaze...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514361/-the-complications-of-transethmoidal-decompressive-orbitotomy-associated-with-endocrine-ophthalmopathy
#8
P A Kochetkov, Ya O Grusha, V M Svistushkin, S S Danilov
The objective of the present study was the analysis of the results of transethmoidal decompressive orbitotomy (TEDO) with the resection of the bone matrix of the medial and inferior orbital walls in the patients presenting with endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP) with the purpose of reduction of the risk of development of this pathological conditions. A total of 51 patient with EOP at the stage of complete remission or pharmacotherapeutic compensation underwent transethmoidal decompressive medial orbitotomy in the ENT Clinic of 1 I...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514063/where-are-you-heading-flexible-integration-of-retinal-and-extra-retinal-cues-during-self-motion-perception
#9
Shenbing Kuang, Jinfu Shi, Yang Wang, Tao Zhang
As we move forward in the environment, we experience a radial expansion of the retinal image, wherein the center corresponds to the instantaneous direction of self-motion. Humans can precisely perceive their heading direction even when the retinal motion is distorted by gaze shifts due to eye/body rotations. Previous studies have suggested that both retinal and extra-retinal strategies can compensate for the retinal image distortion. However, the relative contributions of each strategy remain unclear. To address this issue, we devised a two-alternative-headings discrimination task, in which participants had either real or simulated pursuit eye movements...
May 17, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513478/a-gaze-independent-hybrid-bci-based-on-visual-spatial-attention
#10
John M Egan, Gerard M Loughnane, Helen Fletcher, Emma Meade, Edmund C Lalor
OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) use measures of brain activity to convey a user's intent without the need for muscle movement. Hybrid designs, which use multiple measures of brain activity, have been shown to increase the accuracy of BCIs, including those based on EEG signals reflecting covert attention. Our study examined whether incorporating a measure of the P3 response improved the performance of a previously reported attention-based BCI design that incorporates measures of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) and alpha band modulations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512444/longitudinal-quantification-of-eye-movement-impairments-after-pontine-hemorrhage
#11
Melis Suner, Glen T Prusky, Jason B Carmel, N Jeremy Hill
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of hypertrophic olivary degeneration due to pontine hemorrhage. A 59-year-old male with untreated hypertension suffered a primary pontine hemorrhage, which caused horizontal eye-movement limitation. Progressive neurological deterioration with involuntary eye and palatal movements began months after hemorrhage. This was accompanied by magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hypertrophic olivary degeneration at 4.5 months. BACKGROUND: Primary pontine hemorrhage often leads to impairment of eye movements and diplopia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510769/comparison-of-objective-and-subjective-techniques-of-strabismus-measurement-in-adults-with-normal-retinal-correspondence
#12
Derek P Bitner, Ore-Ofe O Adesina, Kai Ding, Bradley K Farris, R Michael Siatkowski
PURPOSE: Accurate measurement of strabismus is vital to proper diagnosis and treatment. Objective and subjective measurement techniques can be used. The authors hypothesized that subjective measurement techniques would measure larger deviations than objective ones. METHODS: Adults with strabismus, visual acuity greater than 20/50 in each eye, and normal retinal correspondence were measured in primary gaze at distance and near using the alternate prism and cover test and the red glass test...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502407/i-spy-with-my-little-eye-analysis-of-airline-pilots-gaze-patterns-in-a-manual-instrument-flight-scenario
#13
Andreas Haslbeck, Bo Zhang
The aim of this study was to analyze pilots' visual scanning in a manual approach and landing scenario. Manual flying skills suffer from increasing use of automation. In addition, predominantly long-haul pilots with only a few opportunities to practice these skills experience this decline. Airline pilots representing different levels of practice (short-haul vs. long-haul) had to perform a manual raw data precision approach while their visual scanning was recorded by an eye-tracking device. The analysis of gaze patterns, which are based on predominant saccades, revealed one main group of saccades among long-haul pilots...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500508/the-whereabouts-of-visual-attention-involuntary-attentional-bias-toward-the-default-gaze-direction
#14
Ryoichi Nakashima, Takatsune Kumada
This study proposed and verified a new hypothesis on the relationship between gaze direction and visual attention: attentional bias by default gaze direction based on eye-head coordination. We conducted a target identification task in which visual stimuli appeared briefly to the left and right of a fixation cross. In Experiment 1, the direction of the participant's head (aligned with the body) was manipulated to the left, front, or right relative to a central fixation point. In Experiment 2, head direction was manipulated to the left, front, or right relative to the body direction...
May 12, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499836/inhibitory-control-for-emotional-and-neutral-scenes-in-competition-an-eye-tracking-study-in-bipolar-disorder
#15
Ana García-Blanco, Ladislao Salmerón, Manuel Perea
This study examined the inhibitory control of attention to social scenes in manic, depressive, and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Two scenes were simultaneously presented (happy/threatening/neutral [target] versus control). Participants were asked either to look at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-emotional block) or to avoid looking at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-neutral block) while their eye movements were recorded. The initial orienting (latency and percentage of first fixation) and subsequent attentional engagement (gaze duration) were computed...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496422/systematic-observation-of-an-expert-driver-s-gaze-strategy-an-on-road-case-study
#16
Otto Lappi, Paavo Rinkkala, Jami Pekkanen
In this paper we present and qualitatively analyze an expert driver's gaze behavior in natural driving on a real road, with no specific experimental task or instruction. Previous eye tracking research on naturalistic tasks has revealed recurring patterns of gaze behavior that are surprisingly regular and repeatable. Lappi (2016) identified in the literature seven "qualitative laws of gaze behavior in the wild": recurring patterns that tend to go together, the more so the more naturalistic the setting, all of them expected in extended sequences of fully naturalistic behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487798/orbital-t-cell-lymphoma-with-discrete-enlargements-of-all-extraocular-muscles-bilaterally-in-patient-with-moon-face-countenance
#17
Hideaki Kawakami, Kiyofumi Mochizuki, Hideko Goto, Naoki Watanabe, Takuji Tanaka
Purpose. To report our findings in a case of orbital T-cell lymphoma in which all of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) were bilaterally and discretely enlarged and the patient had a moon face countenance. Case. A 59-year-old woman presented with visual disturbances in her left eye, hyperemia in both eyes, and a moon face countenance. Examinations showed limited upward gaze in the right eye, blepharoptosis, hypertropia, and limited downward and rightward gaze in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed only chemosis and hyperemia of both eyes...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472111/spatiotemporal-characteristics-of-gaze-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-while-looking-at-classroom-scenes
#18
Takahiro Higuchi, Yuko Ishizaki, Atsushi Noritake, Yoshitoki Yanagimoto, Hodaka Kobayashi, Kae Nakamura, Kazunari Kaneko
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have neurodevelopmental impairments in social communication often refuse to go to school because of difficulties in learning in class. The exact cause of maladaptation to school in such children is unknown. We hypothesized that these children have difficulty in paying attention to objects at which teachers are pointing. We performed gaze behavior analysis of children with ASD to understand their difficulties in the classroom. The subjects were 26 children with ASD (19 boys and 7 girls; mean age, 8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461466/oxytocin-under-opioid-antagonism-leads-to-supralinear-enhancement-of-social-attention
#19
Olga Dal Monte, Matthew Piva, Kevin M Anderson, Marios Tringides, Avram J Holmes, Steve W C Chang
To provide new preclinical evidence toward improving the efficacy of oxytocin (OT) in treating social dysfunction, we tested the benefit of administering OT under simultaneously induced opioid antagonism during dyadic gaze interactions in monkeys. OT coadministered with a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, invoked a supralinear enhancement of prolonged and selective social attention, producing a stronger effect than the summed effects of each administered separately. These effects were consistently observed when averaging over entire sessions, as well as specifically following events of particular social importance, including mutual eye contact and mutual reward receipt...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453952/where-is-the-locus-of-the-lowercase-advantage-during-sentence-reading
#20
Manuel Perea, Eva Rosa, Ana Marcet
While most models of visual word identification and reading posit that a word's visual codes are rapidly transformed onto case-invariant representations (i.e., table and TABLE would equally activate the word unit corresponding to "table"), a number of experiments have shown a lowercase advantage in various word identification and reading tasks. In the present experiment, we examined the locus of this lowercase advantage by comparing the pattern of eye movements when reading sentences in lowercase vs. uppercase...
April 25, 2017: Acta Psychologica
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