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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103496/toddlers-action-prediction-statistical-learning-of-continuous-action-sequences
#1
Claire D Monroy, Sarah A Gerson, Sabine Hunnius
The current eye-tracking study investigated whether toddlers use statistical information to make anticipatory eye movements while observing continuous action sequences. In two conditions, 19-month-old participants watched either a person performing an action sequence (Agent condition) or a self-propelled visual event sequence (Ghost condition). Both sequences featured a statistical structure in which certain action pairs occurred with deterministic transitional probabilities. Toddlers learned the transitional probabilities between the action steps of the deterministic action pairs and made predictive fixations to the location of the next action in the Agent condition but not in the Ghost condition...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102012/visual-perception-of-faces-with-unilateral-and-bilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-an-eye-tracking-study
#2
Furkan Dindaroğlu, Servet Doğan, Sonia Amado, Ege Doğan
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypotheses that there are differences between orthodontists, individuals with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and laypersons in the visual perception of faces with unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP), the faces with UCLP and BCLP are visually perceived differently and the hierarchy of visual attention changes when viewing individuals with CLP. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Department of Orthodontics and Experimental Psychology at Ege University, İzmir...
February 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#3
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093035/cognitive-emotion-regulation-in-adulthood-and-old-age-positive-gaze-preferences-across-two-strategies
#4
Eric S Allard, Elizabeth A Kensinger
While positive emotional functioning may be enhanced across adulthood and old age, research is mixed as to the types of regulatory strategies that are more or less beneficial for facilitating well-being. The goal of the present study was to examine how specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies assumed to rely on varying levels of effortful processing (selective attention vs. reappraisal) would impact regulatory behaviors (via eye gaze deployment) and resultant affective outcomes. Participants viewed a series of positive, negative, and neutral film clips while their eyes were tracked across three conditions: passive viewing, selective attention, and reappraisal...
January 16, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093026/out-of-sight-out-of-mind-racial-retrieval-cues-increase-the-accessibility-of-social-justice-concepts
#5
Phia S Salter, Nicholas J Kelley, Ludwin E Molina, Luyen T Thai
Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them...
January 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092393/surgical-treatment-of-adult-onset-esotropia-characteristics-and-outcomes
#6
Sara F Grace, Kara M Cavuoto, Wei Shi, Hilda Capo
PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics of the strabismus, surgical management, and outcomes of patients who underwent surgery for adult-onset esotropia. METHODS: This was a retrospective case study of patients at an academic tertiary referral center who underwent surgical treatment of esotropia acquired at or after age 18 years. Primary outcome measures were resolution of diplopia in primary position and a deviation of 10 prism diopters or less in primary gaze...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079249/fractal-analysis-of-visual-search-activity-for-mass-detection-during-mammographic-screening
#7
Folami Alamudun, Hong-Jun Yoon, Kathleen B Hudson, Garnetta Morin-Ducote, Tracy Hammond, Georgia D Tourassi
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. METHODS: The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus data for this study...
January 12, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077686/evolution-of-iris-colour-in-relation-to-cavity-nesting-and-parental-care-in-passerine-birds
#8
Gabrielle L Davidson, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Strong selection pressures are known to act on animal coloration. Although many animals vary in eye colour, virtually no research has investigated the functional significance of these colour traits. Passeriformes have a range of iris colours, making them an ideal system to investigate how and why iris colour has evolved. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested the hypothesis that conspicuous iris colour in passerine birds evolved in response to (a) coordination of offspring care and (b) cavity nesting, two traits thought to be involved in intra-specific gaze sensitivity...
January 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070783/brief-report-using-a-point-of-view-camera-to-measure-eye-gaze-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-during-naturalistic-social-interactions-a-pilot-study
#9
Sarah R Edmunds, Agata Rozga, Yin Li, Elizabeth A Karp, Lisa V Ibanez, James M Rehg, Wendy L Stone
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show reduced gaze to social partners. Eye contact during live interactions is often measured using stationary cameras that capture various views of the child, but determining a child's precise gaze target within another's face is nearly impossible. This study compared eye gaze coding derived from stationary cameras to coding derived from a "point-of-view" (PoV) camera on the social partner. Interobserver agreement for gaze targets was higher using PoV cameras relative to stationary cameras...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060529/is-domain-highlighting-actually-helpful-in-identifying-phishing-web-pages
#10
Aiping Xiong, Robert W Proctor, Weining Yang, Ninghui Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of domain highlighting in helping users identify whether Web pages are legitimate or spurious. BACKGROUND: As a component of the URL, a domain name can be overlooked. Consequently, browsers highlight the domain name to help users identify which Web site they are visiting. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of domain highlighting, and the only formal study confounded highlighting with instructions to look at the address bar...
December 1, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057579/the-center-of-attention-metamers-sensitivity-and-bias-in-the-emergent-perception-of-gaze
#11
Timothy D Sweeny, David Whitney
A person's gaze reveals much about their focus of attention and intentions. Sensitive perception of gaze is thus highly relevant for social interaction, especially when it is directed toward the viewer. Yet observers also tend to overestimate the likelihood that gaze is directed toward them. How might the visual system balance these competing goals, maximizing sensitivity for discriminating gazes that are relatively direct, while at the same time allowing many gazes to appear as if they look toward the viewer? Perceiving gaze is an emergent visual process that involves integrating information from the eyes with the rotation of the head...
January 10, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057443/analysis-of-gaze-points-for-mouth-images-using-an-eye-tracking-system
#12
Mayu Yamamoto, Katsunori Torii, Masaki Sato, Junko Tanaka, Masahiro Tanaka
PURPOSE: We aimed to clarify whether people stare at non-esthetic restorations by analyzing the gaze point of laypersons looking at mouth images with intraoral non-esthetic restoration. METHODS: The gaze points of 47 laypersons who do not visit dentists were measured using an eye tracker. The stimuli were 18 photographs of mouths with or without a non-esthetic tooth restoration, each randomly shown for 5s. The analysis sites included a tooth with non-esthetic restoration and the same tooth on the opposite side of the mouth...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056653/a-statistical-physics-perspective-to-understand-social-visual-attention-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Alessio Liberati, Roberta Fadda, Giuseppe Doneddu, Sara Congiu, Marco A Javarone, Tricia Striano, Alessandro Chessa
This study investigated social visual attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and with typical development (TD) in the light of Brockmann and Geisel's model of visual attention. The probability distribution of gaze movements and clustering of gaze points, registered with eye-tracking technology, was studied during a free visual exploration of a gaze stimulus. A data-driven analysis of the distribution of eye movements was chosen to overcome any possible methodological problems related to the subjective expectations of the experimenters about the informative contents of the image in addition to a computational model to simulate group differences...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056652/asymmetry-in-gaze-direction-discrimination-between-the-upper-and-lower-visual-fields
#14
Adam Palanica, Roxane J Itier
Previous research has shown that gaze direction can only be accurately discriminated within parafoveal limits (∼5° eccentricity) along the horizontal visual field. Beyond this eccentricity, head orientation seems to influence gaze discrimination more than iris cues. The present study examined gaze discrimination performance in the upper visual field (UVF) and lower visual field (LVF), and whether head orientation affects gaze judgments beyond parafoveal vision. Direct and averted gaze faces, in frontal and deviated head orientations, were presented for 150 ms along the vertical meridian while participants maintained central fixation during gaze discrimination judgments...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056378/maternal-gaze-to-the-infant-face-effects-of-infant-age-and-facial-configuration-during-mother-infant-engagement-in-the-first-nine-weeks
#15
Leonardo De Pascalis, Natalie Kkeli, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Louise Dalton, Kyla Vaillancourt, Holly Rayson, Sarah Bicknell, Tim Goodacre, Peter Cooper, Alan Stein, Lynne Murray
BACKGROUND: Adult gaze plays an important role in early infant development, and infants are highly sensitive to its presence and direction. Little is known, however, about how adults look at infants while interacting with them. Using eye-tracking technology, this study investigated maternal gaze during naturalistic interactions, and how it was influenced by infant age, focusing on the transition from the first to the second month when social expressiveness emerges, and by infant facial configuration, focusing on the effect of cleft lip...
January 2, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056109/postural-ataxia-in-cerebellar-downbeat-nystagmus-its-relation-to-visual-proprioceptive-and-vestibular-signals-and-cerebellar-atrophy
#16
Christoph Helmchen, Jan-Birger Kirchhoff, Martin Göttlich, Andreas Sprenger
BACKGROUND: The cerebellum integrates proprioceptive, vestibular and visual signals for postural control. Cerebellar patients with downbeat nystagmus (DBN) complain of unsteadiness of stance and gait as well as blurred vision and oscillopsia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of visual input, gaze eccentricity, vestibular and proprioceptive input on the postural stability in a large cohort of cerebellar patients with DBN, in comparison to healthy age-matched control subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055858/icap-an-individualized-model-combining-gaze-parameters-and-image-based-features-to-predict-radiologists-decisions-while-reading-mammograms
#17
Ziba Gandomkar, Kevin Tay, William Ryder, Patrick C Brennan, Claudia Mello-Thoms
This study introduces an individualized tool for identifying mammogram interpretation errors, called eye-Computer Assisted Perception (iCAP). iCAP consists of two modules, one which processes areas marked by radiologists as suspicious for cancer and classifies these as False Positive (FP) or True Positive (TP) decisions, while the second module classifies fixated but not marked locations as False Negative (FN) or True-Negative (TN) decisions. iCAP relies on both radiologists' gaze-related parameters, extracted from eye tracking data, and image-based features...
December 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045963/collective-behaviour-in-video-viewing-a-thermodynamic-analysis-of-gaze-position
#18
Kate Burleson-Lesser, Flaviano Morone, Paul DeGuzman, Lucas C Parra, Hernán A Makse
Videos and commercials produced for large audiences can elicit mixed opinions. We wondered whether this diversity is also reflected in the way individuals watch the videos. To answer this question, we presented 65 commercials with high production value to 25 individuals while recording their eye movements, and asked them to provide preference ratings for each video. We find that gaze positions for the most popular videos are highly correlated. To explain the correlations of eye movements, we model them as "interactions" between individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033477/the-stationary-gaze-task-should-not-be-systematically-used-as-the-control-task-in-studies-of-postural-control
#19
Cédrick T Bonnet, Sébastien Szaffarczyk
In studies of postural control, a control task is often used to understand significant effects obtained with experimental manipulations. This task should be the easiest task and (therefore) engage the lowest behavioral variability and cognitive workload. Since 1983, the stationary-gaze task is considered as the most relevant control task. Instead, the authors expected that free looking at small targets (white paper or images; visual angle: 12°) could be an easier task. To verify this assumption, 16 young individuals performed stationary-gaze, white-panel, and free-viewing 12° tasks in steady and relaxed stances...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032518/factors-contributing-to-individual-differences-in-facial-expression-categorisation
#20
Corinne Green, Kun Guo
Individuals vary in perceptual accuracy when categorising facial expressions, yet it is unclear how these individual differences in non-clinical population are related to cognitive processing stages at facial information acquisition and interpretation. We tested 104 healthy adults in a facial expression categorisation task, and correlated their categorisation accuracy with face-viewing gaze allocation and personal traits assessed with Autism Quotient, anxiety inventory and Self-Monitoring Scale. The gaze allocation had limited but emotion-specific impact on categorising expressions...
December 29, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
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