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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714975/association-analyses-based-on-false-discovery-rate-implicate-new-loci-for-coronary-artery-disease
#1
Christopher P Nelson, Anuj Goel, Adam S Butterworth, Stavroula Kanoni, Tom R Webb, Eirini Marouli, Lingyao Zeng, Ioanna Ntalla, Florence Y Lai, Jemma C Hopewell, Olga Giannakopoulou, Tao Jiang, Stephen E Hamby, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Themistocles L Assimes, Erwin P Bottinger, John C Chambers, Robert Clarke, Colin N A Palmer, Richard M Cubbon, Patrick Ellinor, Raili Ermel, Evangelos Evangelou, Paul W Franks, Christopher Grace, Dongfeng Gu, Aroon D Hingorani, Joanna M M Howson, Erik Ingelsson, Adnan Kastrati, Thorsten Kessler, Theodosios Kyriakou, Terho Lehtimäki, Xiangfeng Lu, Yingchang Lu, Winfried März, Ruth McPherson, Andres Metspalu, Mar Pujades-Rodriguez, Arno Ruusalepp, Eric E Schadt, Amand F Schmidt, Michael J Sweeting, Pierre A Zalloua, Kamal AlGhalayini, Bernard D Keavney, Jaspal S Kooner, Ruth J F Loos, Riyaz S Patel, Martin K Rutter, Maciej Tomaszewski, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jeanette Erdmann, George Dedoussis, Johan L M Björkegren, Heribert Schunkert, Martin Farrall, John Danesh, Nilesh J Samani, Hugh Watkins, Panos Deloukas
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in coronary artery disease (CAD) had identified 66 loci at 'genome-wide significance' (P < 5 × 10(-8)) at the time of this analysis, but a much larger number of putative loci at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 5% (refs. 1,2,3,4). Here we leverage an interim release of UK Biobank (UKBB) data to evaluate the validity of the FDR approach. We tested a CAD phenotype inclusive of angina (SOFT; ncases = 10,801) as well as a stricter definition without angina (HARD; ncases = 6,482) and selected cases with the former phenotype to conduct a meta-analysis using the two most recent CAD GWAS...
July 17, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708024/quality-improvement-initiative-preventative-surgical-site-infection-protocol-in-vascular-surgery
#2
David Parizh, Enrico Ascher, Syed Ali Raza Rizvi, Anil Hingorani, Michael Amaturo, Eric Johnson
Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688684/early-detection-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-carcinogen-induced-oral-cancer-rodent-model-by-ratiometric-activatable-cell-penetrating-peptides
#3
Dina V Hingorani, Aaron J Lemieux, Joseph R Acevedo, Heather L Glasgow, Suraj Kedarisetty, Michael A Whitney, Alfredo A Molinolo, Roger Y Tsien, Quyen T Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: Ratiometric cell-penetrating-peptides (RACPP) are hairpin-shaped molecules that undergo cleavage by tumor-associated proteases resulting in measurable Cy5:Cy7 fluorescence ratiometric change to label cancer in vivo. We evaluated an MMP cleavable RACPP for use in the early detection of malignant lesions in a carcinogen-induced rodent tumor model. METHODS: Wild-type immune-competent mice were given 4-nitroquinoline-oxide (4NQO) for 16weeks. Oral cavities from live mice that had been intravenously administered MMP cleavable PLGC(Me)AG-RACPP were serially imaged from week 11 through week 21 using white-light reflectance and Cy5:Cy7 ratiometric fluorescence...
August 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637781/detecting-optic-nerve-head-swelling-on-ultrasound-and-optical-coherence-tomography-in-children-and-young-people-an-observational-study
#4
Annegret Hella Dahlmann-Noor, Gillian W Adams, Moritz Claudius Daniel, Alison Davis, Joanne Hancox, Melanie Hingorani, Patricia Ibanez, Becky McPhee, Himanshu Patel, Marie Restori, Clare Roberts, Maria Theodorou, James Acheson
BACKGROUND: Following high-profile cases, referrals for evaluation of 'suspicious optic discs' to eye clinics in the UK have sharply increased, asking ophthalmologists to reliably distinguish between true and pseudopapilloedema. Optic nerve sheath dilatation (ONSD) on ocular ultrasound (US) is considered a reliable sign of true papilloedema, but this test is not widely available. Recently, anterior bowing of Bruch's membrane (BM) and increased retinal nerve fibre layer thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) have emerged as indicators of intracranial hypertension, and OCT is widely available...
June 21, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629510/screening-strategies-for-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#5
Nicky J Welton, Alexandra McAleenan, Howard Hz Thom, Philippa Davies, Will Hollingworth, Julian Pt Higgins, George Okoli, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Gene Feder, Diane Eaton, Aroon Hingorani, Christopher Fawsitt, Trudie Lobban, Peter Bryden, Alison Richards, Reecha Sofat
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that increases the risk of thromboembolic events. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent AF-related stroke has been shown to be cost-effective. A national screening programme for AF may prevent AF-related events, but would involve a substantial investment of NHS resources. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) of screening tests for AF, update a systematic review of comparative studies evaluating screening strategies for AF, develop an economic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies and review observational studies of AF screening to provide inputs to the model...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589527/targeting-the-tumor-stroma-the-biology-and-clinical-development-of-pegylated-recombinant-human-hyaluronidase-pegph20
#6
REVIEW
Kit Man Wong, Kathryn J Horton, Andrew L Coveler, Sunil R Hingorani, William P Harris
The tumor stroma is increasingly recognized as a key player in tumorigenesis through its effects on cell signaling, immune responses, and access of therapeutic agents. A major component of the extracellular matrix is hyaluronic acid (HA), which raises the interstitial gel fluid pressure within tumors and reduces drug delivery to malignant cells, and has been most extensively studied in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Pegylated recombinant human hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) is a novel agent that degrades HA and normalizes IFP to enhance the delivery of cytotoxic agents...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578639/abiraterone-for-prostate-cancer-not-previously-treated-with-hormone-therapy
#7
Nicholas D James, Johann S de Bono, Melissa R Spears, Noel W Clarke, Malcolm D Mason, David P Dearnaley, Alastair W S Ritchie, Claire L Amos, Clare Gilson, Rob J Jones, David Matheson, Robin Millman, Gerhardt Attard, Simon Chowdhury, William R Cross, Silke Gillessen, Christopher C Parker, J Martin Russell, Dominik R Berthold, Chris Brawley, Fawzi Adab, San Aung, Alison J Birtle, Jo Bowen, Susannah Brock, Prabir Chakraborti, Catherine Ferguson, Joanna Gale, Emma Gray, Mohan Hingorani, Peter J Hoskin, Jason F Lester, Zafar I Malik, Fiona McKinna, Neil McPhail, Julian Money-Kyrle, Joe O'Sullivan, Omi Parikh, Andrew Protheroe, Angus Robinson, Narayanan N Srihari, Carys Thomas, John Wagstaff, James Wylie, Anjali Zarkar, Mahesh K B Parmar, Matthew R Sydes
Background Abiraterone acetate plus prednisolone improves survival in men with relapsed prostate cancer. We assessed the effect of this combination in men starting long-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), using a multigroup, multistage trial design. Methods We randomly assigned patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive ADT alone or ADT plus abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily) and prednisolone (5 mg daily) (combination therapy). Local radiotherapy was mandated for patients with node-negative, nonmetastatic disease and encouraged for those with positive nodes...
June 3, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566218/relations-between-lipoprotein-a-concentrations-lpa-genetic-variants-and-the-risk-of-mortality-in-patients-with-established-coronary-heart-disease-a-molecular-and-genetic-association-study
#8
Stephen Zewinger, Marcus E Kleber, Vinicius Tragante, Raymond O McCubrey, Amand F Schmidt, Kenan Direk, Ulrich Laufs, Christian Werner, Wolfgang Koenig, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Ute Mons, Lutz P Breitling, Herrmann Brenner, Richard T Jennings, Ioannis Petrakis, Sarah Triem, Mira Klug, Alexandra Filips, Stefan Blankenberg, Christoph Waldeyer, Christoph Sinning, Renate B Schnabel, Karl J Lackner, Efthymia Vlachopoulou, Ottar Nygård, Gard Frodahl Tveitevåg Svingen, Eva Ringdal Pedersen, Grethe S Tell, Juha Sinisalo, Markku S Nieminen, Reijo Laaksonen, Stella Trompet, Roelof A J Smit, Naveed Sattar, J Wouter Jukema, Heinrich V Groesdonk, Graciela Delgado, Tatjana Stojakovic, Anna P Pilbrow, Vicky A Cameron, A Mark Richards, Robert N Doughty, Yan Gong, Rhonda Cooper-DeHoff, Julie Johnson, Markus Scholz, Frank Beutner, Joachim Thiery, J Gustav Smith, Ragnar O Vilmundarson, Ruth McPherson, Alexandre F R Stewart, Sharon Cresci, Petra A Lenzini, John A Spertus, Oliviero Olivieri, Domenico Girelli, Nicola I Martinelli, Andreas Leiherer, Christoph H Saely, Heinz Drexel, Axel Mündlein, Peter S Braund, Christopher P Nelson, Nilesh J Samani, Daniel Kofink, Imo E Hoefer, Gerard Pasterkamp, Arshed A Quyyumi, Yi-An Ko, Jaana A Hartiala, Hooman Allayee, W H Wilson Tang, Stanley L Hazen, Niclas Eriksson, Claes Held, Emil Hagström, Lars Wallentin, Axel Åkerblom, Agneta Siegbahn, Igor Karp, Christopher Labos, Louise Pilote, James C Engert, James M Brophy, George Thanassoulis, Peter Bogaty, Wojciech Szczeklik, Marcin Kaczor, Marek Sanak, Salim S Virani, Christie M Ballantyne, Vei-Vei Lee, Eric Boerwinkle, Michael V Holmes, Benjamin D Horne, Aroon Hingorani, Folkert W Asselbergs, Riyaz S Patel, Bernhard K Krämer, Hubert Scharnagl, Danilo Fliser, Winfried März, Thimoteus Speer
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) concentrations in plasma are associated with cardiovascular risk in the general population. Whether lipoprotein(a) concentrations or LPA genetic variants predict long-term mortality in patients with established coronary heart disease remains less clear. METHODS: We obtained data from 3313 patients with established coronary heart disease in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. We tested associations of tertiles of lipoprotein(a) concentration in plasma and two LPA single-nucleotide polymorphisms ([SNPs] rs10455872 and rs3798220) with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality by Cox regression analysis and with severity of disease by generalised linear modelling, with and without adjustment for age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, systolic blood pressure, BMI, smoking status, estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL-cholesterol concentration, and use of lipid-lowering therapy...
July 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500271/causal-associations-of-adiposity-and-body-fat-distribution-with-coronary-heart-disease-stroke-subtypes-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#9
Caroline E Dale, Ghazaleh Fatemifar, Tom M Palmer, Jon White, David Prieto-Merino, Delilah Zabaneh, Jorgen E L Engmann, Tina Shah, Andrew Wong, Helen R Warren, Stela McLachlan, Stella Trompet, Max Moldovan, Richard W Morris, Reecha Sofat, Meena Kumari, Elina Hyppönen, Barbara J Jefferis, Tom R Gaunt, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Ang Zhou, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Andy Ryan, Renée de Mutsert, Raymond Noordam, Mark J Caulfield, J Wouter Jukema, Bradford B Worrall, Patricia B Munroe, Usha Menon, Chris Power, Diana Kuh, Debbie A Lawlor, Steve E Humphries, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Naveed Sattar, Mika Kivimaki, Jacqueline F Price, George Davey Smith, Frank Dudbridge, Aroon D Hingorani, Michael V Holmes, Juan P Casas
BACKGROUND: The implications of different adiposity measures on cardiovascular disease etiology remain unclear. In this article, we quantify and contrast causal associations of central adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index [WHRadjBMI]) and general adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) with cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: Ninety-seven independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms for BMI and 49 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for WHRadjBMI were used to conduct Mendelian randomization analyses in 14 prospective studies supplemented with coronary heart disease (CHD) data from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics; combined total 66 842 cases), stroke from METASTROKE (12 389 ischemic stroke cases), type 2 diabetes mellitus from DIAGRAM (Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis; 34 840 cases), and lipids from GLGC (Global Lipids Genetic Consortium; 213 500 participants) consortia...
June 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459559/photostable-ratiometric-pdot-probe-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-imaging-of-hypochlorous-acid
#10
Li Wu, I-Che Wu, Christopher C DuFort, Markus A Carlson, Xu Wu, Lei Chen, Chun-Ting Kuo, Yuling Qin, Jiangbo Yu, Sunil R Hingorani, Daniel T Chiu
Developing probes for the detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a hallmark of many pathophysiological process, is imperative to both understanding the precise roles of ROS in many life-threatening diseases and optimizing therapeutic interventions. We herein report an all-in-one fluorescent semiconducting polymer based far-red to near-infrared (NIR) Pdot nanoprobe for the ratiometric detection of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The fabrication takes the advantage of flexible polymer design by incorporating target-sensitive and target-inert fluorophores into a single conjugated polymer to avoid leakage or differential photobleaching problems existed in other nanoprobes...
May 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456096/identifying-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-associated-variants-in-the-annexin-a2-anxa2-gene
#11
Roaa Hani Fairoozy, Jackie Cooper, Jon White, Claudia Giambartolomei, Lasse Folkersen, S Goya Wannamethee, Barbara J Jefferis, Peter Whincup, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Meena Kumari, Mika Kivimaki, Andrew Wong, Rebecca Hardy, Diana Kuh, Tom R Gaunt, J P Casas, Stela McLachlan, Jackie F Price, Aroon Hingorani, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Thomas Grewal, Anastasia Z Kalea, Steve E Humphries
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Annexin-A2 (AnxA2) is an endogenous inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9). The repeat-one (R1) domain of AnxA2 binds to PCSK9, blocking its ability to promote degradation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-receptors (LDL-R) and thereby regulate low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Here we identify variants in ANXA2 influencing LDL-C levels and we determine the molecular mechanisms of their effects. RESULTS: The ANXA2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype-phenotype association was examined using the Second-Northwick-Park Heart Study (NPHSII) (n∼2700) and the UCL-LSHTM-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) consortium (n∼14,600)...
June 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453187/pcsk9-monoclonal-antibodies-for-the-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Amand F Schmidt, Lucy S Pearce, John T Wilkins, John P Overington, Aroon D Hingorani, Juan P Casas
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of effective drug therapies that reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity. Therefore, additional LDL-C reduction may be warranted, especially for patients who are unresponsive to, or unable to take, existing LDL-C-reducing therapies. By inhibiting the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) enzyme, monoclonal antibodies (PCSK9 inhibitors) may further reduce LDL-C, potentially reducing CVD risk as well...
April 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436317/endoureteral-coil-embolization-of-an-ureteral-arterial-fistula
#13
Pavel Kibrik, Justin Eisenberg, Marc A Bjurlin, Natalie Marks, Anil Hingorani, Enrico Ascher
Background Ureteral arterial fistulas are rare but potentially life threatening. We present a female who developed a ureteral arterial fistula following a right robotic nephrectomy. After several endovascular interventions to control the bleeding had failed, we approached the fistula through the right ureteral stump with coil embolization. Methods Coil embolization of the right ureteral stump was performed. We utilized a 6Fr × 45 cm sheath inserted through one of the cystoscope channels to cannulate the right ureteral orifice...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423765/evaluation-of-machine-learning-methods-to-predict-coronary-artery-disease-using-metabolomic-data
#14
Henrietta Forssen, Riyaz Patel, Natalie Fitzpatrick, Aroon Hingorani, Adam Timmis, Harry Hemingway, Spiros Denaxas
Metabolomic data can potentially enable accurate, non-invasive and low-cost prediction of coronary artery disease. Regression-based analytical approaches however might fail to fully account for interactions between metabolites, rely on a priori selected input features and thus might suffer from poorer accuracy. Supervised machine learning methods can potentially be used in order to fully exploit the dimensionality and richness of the data. In this paper, we systematically implement and evaluate a set of supervised learning methods (L1 regression, random forest classifier) and compare them to traditional regression-based approaches for disease prediction using metabolomic data...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409546/clinical-correlation-with-failure-of-endovenous-therapy-for-leg-swelling
#15
Ahmad Alsheekh, Anil Hingorani, Natalie Marks, Yuriy Ostrozhynskyy, Enrico Ascher
Background The development and use of minimally invasive procedures provide improved options for the management of symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency. While many patients with iliac venous occlusive disease and superficial venous insufficiency improve with combined iliac venous stenting and correction of superficial venous reflux, some patients have symptoms which persist. The goal of this study was to identify clinical factors related to persistent symptoms in patients with leg swelling after treatment of both iliac vein stenting and thermal ablation...
June 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399267/development-of-a-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-amino-acid-dicarboxylate-prodrug-with-improved-ocular-bioavailability
#16
Goutham R Adelli, Prakash Bhagav, Pranjal Taskar, Tushar Hingorani, Sara Pettaway, Waseem Gul, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Michael A Repka, Soumyajit Majumdar
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the relatively hydrophilic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prodrugs, mono and di-valine esters (THC-Val and THC-Val-Val) and the amino acid (valine)-dicarboxylic acid (hemisuccinate) ester (THC-Val-HS), with respect to ocular penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity. THC, timolol, and pilocarpine eye drops were used as controls. Methods: THC-Val, THC-Val-Val, and THC-Val-HS were synthesized and chemically characterized...
April 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356508/the-druggable-genome-and-support-for-target-identification-and-validation-in-drug-development
#17
Chris Finan, Anna Gaulton, Felix A Kruger, R Thomas Lumbers, Tina Shah, Jorgen Engmann, Luana Galver, Ryan Kelley, Anneli Karlsson, Rita Santos, John P Overington, Aroon D Hingorani, Juan P Casas
Target identification (determining the correct drug targets for a disease) and target validation (demonstrating an effect of target perturbation on disease biomarkers and disease end points) are important steps in drug development. Clinically relevant associations of variants in genes encoding drug targets model the effect of modifying the same targets pharmacologically. To delineate drug development (including repurposing) opportunities arising from this paradigm, we connected complex disease- and biomarker-associated loci from genome-wide association studies to an updated set of genes encoding druggable human proteins, to agents with bioactivity against these targets, and, where there were licensed drugs, to clinical indications...
March 29, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349888/screening-for-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-in-childhood-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children-alspac
#18
Marta Futema, Jackie A Cooper, Marietta Charakida, Christopher Boustred, Naveed Sattar, John Deanfield, Debbie A Lawlor, Nicholas J Timpson, Steve E Humphries, Aroon D Hingorani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant disease with frequency of 1/500 to 1/250 that leads to premature coronary heart disease. New approaches to identify FH mutation-carriers early are needed to prevent premature cardiac deaths. In a cross-sectional study of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we evaluated the biochemical thresholds for FH screening in childhood, and modelled a two-stage biochemical and sequencing screening strategy for FH detection...
May 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330434/is-there-an-effect-of-race-ethnicity-on-early-complications-of-iliac-vein-stenting
#19
Ahmad Alsheekh, Anil Hingorani, Samson Ferm, Pavel Kibric, Afsha Aurshina, Natalie Marks, Enrico Ascher
Background There have been well-documented implications of race/ethnicity on the outcome of various vascular diseases. Little literature has examined the effect of race/ethnicity on venous disease. Iliac vein stenting is an emerging technology in treating chronic venous insufficiency. To further characterize this disease and its treatment, we chose to study the effect of selected clinical factors including race/ethnicity on the early complications of non-thrombotic iliac vein stenting. Methods In this observational study, data analysis was performed for 623 patients with chronic venous insufficiency who underwent iliac vein stenting during the time period from August 2012 to September 2014...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299667/runx3-and-cell-fate-decisions-in-pancreas-cancer
#20
Martin C Whittle, Sunil R Hingorani
The RUNX family transcription factors are critical regulators of development and frequently dysregulated in cancer. RUNX3, the least well characterized of the three family members, has been variously described as a tumor promoter or suppressor, sometimes with conflicting results and opinions in the same cancer and likely reflecting a complex role in oncogenesis. We recently identified RUNX3 expression as a crucial determinant of the predilection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells to proliferate locally or promulgate throughout the body...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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