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Dror S Shouval, Amlan Biswas, Yu Hui Kang, Alexandra E Griffith, Liza Konnikova, Ivan D Mascanfroni, Naresh S Redhu, Sandra M Frei, Michael Field, Andria L Doty, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Atul K Bhan, Anthony Loizides, Batia Weiss, Baruch Yerushalmi, Tadahiro Yanagi, Xiuli Lui, Francisco J Quintana, Aleixo M Muise, Christoph Klein, Bruce H Horwitz, Sarah C Glover, Athos Bousvaros, Scott B Snapper
IL10 receptor (IL10R)-deficient mice develop spontaneous colitis and similarly, patients with loss-of-function mutations in IL10R develop severe infant-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Loss of IL10R signaling in mouse and human macrophages is associated with increased production of interleukin 1 beta (IL1B). We demonstrated that innate immune production of IL1B mediates colitis in IL10R-deficient mice. Transfer of Il1r1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells into Rag1-/-/Il10rb-/- mice reduced the severity of their colitis (compared to mice that received CD4(+) T cells that express IL1R), accompanied by decreased production of interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and IL17A...
September 27, 2016: Gastroenterology
K A Goldsmith, T Chalder, P D White, M Sharpe, A Pickles
Clinical trials are expensive and time-consuming and so should also be used to study how treatments work, allowing for the evaluation of theoretical treatment models and refinement and improvement of treatments. These treatment processes can be studied using mediation analysis. Randomised treatment makes some of the assumptions of mediation models plausible, but the mediator-outcome relationship could remain subject to bias. In addition, mediation is assumed to be a temporally ordered longitudinal process, but estimation in most mediation studies to date has been cross-sectional and unable to explore this assumption...
September 19, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Sandor E Karpathy, Kimetha S Slater, Cynthia S Goldsmith, William L Nicholson, Christopher D Paddock
In 1973, investigators isolated a rickettsial organism, designated strain WB-8-2T, from an adult Amblyomma americanum tick collected at Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, Tennessee. This organism is now recognized as highly prevalent in Amblyomma americanum, as well as several other Amblyomma species found throughout the Western Hemisphere, and it has been suggested that cross-reactivity to WB-8-2 T and similar strains contributes to the increasing number of spotted fever cases reported in the United States...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Joshua D Lansom, Kate Curtis, Helen Goldsmith, Alex Tzannes
OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether, in patients requiring intubation with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), prehospital intubation compared with emergency department intubation leads to a reduction in treatment times and time to a computed tomographic (CT) scan. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study compared adult patients with a Glasgow Coma Score of less than 14 with a suspected TBI who underwent intubation, either prehospital or on arrival to the emergency department...
September 2016: Air Medical Journal
John E M Goldsmith, Mark D Gerling, James S Brennan
We describe a very compact (0.9 m high, 0.4 m diameter, 40 kg) battery operable neutron scatter camera designed for field deployment. Unlike most other systems, the configuration of the sixteen liquid-scintillator detection cells are arranged to provide omnidirectional (4π) imaging with sensitivity comparable to a conventional two-plane system. Although designed primarily to operate as a neutron scatter camera for localizing energetic neutron sources, it also functions as a Compton camera for localizing gamma sources...
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Katherine M Lupo, Daniel A Hinton, James D Ng, Nicolas A Padilla, Randall H Goldsmith
The nature of silica surfaces is relevant to many chemical systems, including heterogeneous catalysis and chromatographies utilizing functionalized-silica stationary phases. Surface linkages must be robust to achieve wide and reliable applicability. However, silyl ether-silica support linkages are known to be susceptible to detachment when exposed to basic conditions. We use single-molecule spectroscopy to examine the rate of surface linkage failure upon exposure to base at a variety of deposition conditions...
September 13, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michael R Kanost, Estela L Arrese, Xiaolong Cao, Yun-Ru Chen, Sanjay Chellapilla, Marian R Goldsmith, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, David G Heckel, Nicolae Herndon, Haobo Jiang, Alexie Papanicolaou, Jiaxin Qu, Jose L Soulages, Heiko Vogel, James Walters, Robert M Waterhouse, Seung-Joon Ahn, Francisca C Almeida, Chunju An, Peshtewani Aqrawi, Anne Bretschneider, William B Bryant, Sascha Bucks, Hsu Chao, Germain Chevignon, Jayne M Christen, David F Clarke, Neal T Dittmer, Laura C F Ferguson, Spyridoula Garavelou, Karl H J Gordon, Ramesh T Gunaratna, Yi Han, Frank Hauser, Yan He, Hanna Heidel-Fischer, Ariana Hirsh, Yingxia Hu, Hongbo Jiang, Divya Kalra, Christian Klinner, Christopher König, Christie Kovar, Ashley R Kroll, Suyog S Kuwar, Sandy L Lee, Rüdiger Lehman, Kai Li, Zhaofei Li, Hanquan Liang, Shanna Lovelace, Zhiqiang Lu, Jennifer H Mansfield, Kyle J McCulloch, Tittu Mathew, Brian Morton, Donna M Muzny, David Neunemann, Fiona Ongeri, Yannick Pauchet, Ling-Ling Pu, Ioannis Pyrousis, Xiang-Jun Rao, Amanda Redding, Charles Roesel, Alejandro Sanchez-Gracia, Sarah Schaack, Aditi Shukla, Guillaume Tetreau, Yang Wang, Guang-Hua Xiong, Walther Traut, Tom K Walsh, Kim C Worley, Di Wu, Wenbi Wu, Yuan-Qing Wu, Xiufeng Zhang, Zhen Zou, Hannah Zucker, Adriana D Briscoe, Thorsten Burmester, Rollie J Clem, René Feyereisen, Cornelis J P Grimmelikhuijzen, Stavros J Hamodrakas, Bill S Hansson, Elisabeth Huguet, Lars S Jermiin, Que Lan, Herman K Lehman, Marce Lorenzen, Hans Merzendorfer, Ioannis Michalopoulos, David B Morton, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, John G Oakeshott, Will Palmer, Yoonseong Park, A Lorena Passarelli, Julio Rozas, Lawrence M Schwartz, Wendy Smith, Agnes Southgate, Andreas Vilcinskas, Richard Vogt, Ping Wang, John Werren, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Susan J Brown, Steven E Scherer, Stephen Richards, Gary W Blissard
Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M...
September 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
N L Rose, S D Turner, B Goldsmith, L Gosling, T A Davidson
BACKGROUND: Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey...
2016: BMC Ecology
M Worm-Smeitink, S Nikolaus, K Goldsmith, J Wiborg, S Ali, H Knoop, T Chalder
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) reduces fatigue and disability in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, outcomes vary between studies, possibly because of differences in patient characteristics, treatment protocols, diagnostic criteria and outcome measures. The objective was to compare outcomes after CBT in tertiary treatment centres in the Netherlands (NL) and the United Kingdom (UK), using different treatment protocols but identical outcome measures, while controlling for differences in patient characteristics and diagnostic criteria...
August 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Hong-Wu Xin, Chenwi M Ambe, Tyler C Miller, Jin-Qiu Chen, Gordon W Wiegand, Andrew J Anderson, Satyajit Ray, John E Mullinax, Danielle M Hari, Tomotake Koizumi, Jessica D Godbout, Paul K Goldsmith, Alexander Stojadinovic, Udo Rudloff, Snorri S Thorgeirsson, Itzhak Avital
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recently, we reported that liver Label Retaining Cancer Cells (LRCC) can initiate tumors with only 10 cells and are relatively resistant to the targeted drug Sorafenib, a standard of practice in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LRCC are the only cancer stem cells (CSC) isolated alive according to a stem cell fundamental function, asymmetric cell division. Metformin has been reported to preferentially target many other types of CSC of different organs, including liver...
2016: Journal of Cancer
O J Ziff, A Covic, D Goldsmith
Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). RAAS antagonists can significantly improve clinical outcomes, but monotherapy blocks but one step of the RAAS and can be bypassed through compensatory mechanisms. Providing more complete RAAS blockade by deploying drugs with complementary actions seemed logical - hence the practice of using dual (or triple) RAAS inhibitors. However, RAAS antagonists also exhibit dose-limiting side effects, including acute kidney injury, hyperkalaemia and hypotension, which blunt their overall effectiveness...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Atis Muehlenbachs, Olimpia de la Rosa Vázquez, Daniel G Bausch, Ilana J Schafer, Christopher D Paddock, Jean Paul Nyakio, Papys Lame, Eric Bergeron, Andrea M McCollum, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Brigid C Bollweg, Miriam Alía Prieto, Robert Shongo Lushima, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Stuart T Nichol, Wun-Ju Shieh, Ute Ströher, Pierre E Rollin, Sherif R Zaki
Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
The progression of HCV-associated liver disease in a cohort of haemophilic patients. Telfer P, Sabin C, Devereux H, Scott F, Dusheiko G, Lee C. Increasing hepatitis C virus RNA levels in hemophiliacs: relationship to human immunodeficiency virus infection and liver disease. Eyster E, Fried MW, Di Bisceglie AM, Goedert JJ. Risks of immunodeficiency, AIDS, and death related to purity of factor VIII concentrate. Goedert JJ, Cohen AR, Kessler CM, Eichinger S, Seremtis SV, Rabkin CS, Yellin FJ, Rosenberg PS, Aledort LM...
April 1995: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
B Djulbegovic, G Goldsmith, D Vaughn, J Birkimer, M Marasa, G Joseph, A Huang, T Hadley
In a prospective study, we tested the hypothesis that an already reduced quality of life in haemophilia patients is further diminished in those haemophilia patients who contracted the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a result of transfusion of coagulation factor preparations. From an available pool of 92 males with haemophilia A or B, 18 patients seropositive for HIV infection and 11 seronegative patients were randomly selected for the study. We applied two instruments to measure the quality of life (QOL) in our patients...
July 1996: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
David J A Goldsmith
Evidence for the usefulness of using vitamin D to treat 'renal bone disease' is now nearly six decades old. In regular clinical practice, however, it is more like three decades, at most, that we have routinely been using vitamin D to try to prevent, or reverse, the impact of hyperparathyroidism on the skeleton of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The practice has been in the main to use high doses of synthetic vitamin D compounds, not naturally occurring ones. However, the pharmacological impacts of the different vitamin D species and of their different modes, and styles of administration cannot be assumed to be uniform across the spectrum...
May 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Marlou P M Adriaanse, Daniel A Leffler, Ciaran P Kelly, Detlef Schuppan, Robert M Najarian, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Wim A Buurman, Anita C E Vreugdenhil
OBJECTIVES: Response to gluten challenge (GC) is a key feature in diagnostic algorithms and research trials in celiac disease (CD). Currently, autoantibody titers, late responders to GC, and invasive duodenal biopsies are used to evaluate gluten responsiveness. This study investigated the accuracy of serum intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), a marker for intestinal epithelial damage, to predict intestinal damage during GC in patients with CD. METHODS: Twenty adult CD patients in remission underwent a two-week GC with 3 or 7...
July 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Tracy X Cui, Bhargavi Maheshwer, Jun Y Hong, Adam M Goldsmith, J Kelley Bentley, Antonia P Popova
Infants with a history of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia have a high risk of asthma and viral-induced exacerbations later in life. We hypothesized that hyperoxic exposure, a predisposing factor to bronchopulmonary dysplasia, modulates the innate immune response, producing an exaggerated proinflammatory reaction to viral infection. Two- to 3-d-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to air or 75% oxygen for 14 d. Mice were infected intranasally with rhinovirus (RV) immediately after O2 exposure. Lung mRNA and protein expression, histology, dendritic cells (DCs), and airway responsiveness were assessed 1-12 d postinfection...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Zhiying Zhang, Peter D Goldsmith, Alex Winter-Nelson
There have been successful interventions fortifying staple foods to mobilize micronutrients as well as agricultural efforts to raise yields of staple foods to increase food availability. Zambia serves as an interesting case study because since 1961 there has been a notable decline in the availability of animal source foods (ASFs) and pulses and a significant increase in the supply of cassava and vegetable oils. The shift in food availability was partly attributed to the agricultural success in high-yielding and drought-resistant varieties that made cassava and oil crops more affordable and readily available...
May 5, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Kassandra A Knapper, Kevin D Heylman, Erik H Horak, Randall H Goldsmith
On page 2945, R. H. Goldsmith and co-workers describe an all-glass, high-Q, low-mode-volume optical microresonator for label-free sensing and imaging, which overcomes scalability barriers and also brings other advantages, including optical transparency. By using the microresonators as transducers to detect heat dissipated by individual nano-objects upon photoexcitation, label-free single-particle imaging is demonstrated.
April 2016: Advanced Materials
David R Goldsmith, Ebrahim Haroon, Bobbi J Woolwine, Moon Y Jung, Evanthia C Wommack, Philip D Harvey, Michael T Treadway, Jennifer C Felger, Andrew H Miller
Previous data have demonstrated that administration of inflammatory cytokines or their inducers leads to altered basal ganglia function associated with reduced psychomotor speed. Decreased psychomotor speed, referred to clinically as psychomotor retardation, is a cardinal symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) and has been associated with poor antidepressant treatment response. We therefore examined the association between plasma inflammatory markers and psychomotor speed in ninety-three un-medicated patients with MDD...
August 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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