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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231380/perioperative-medications-for-preventing-temporarily-increased-intraocular-pressure-after-laser-trabeculoplasty
#1
REVIEW
Linda Zhang, Jennifer S Weizer, David C Musch
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the international leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only currently known modifiable risk factor; it can be reduced by medications, incisional surgery, or laser trabeculoplasty (LTP). LTP reduces IOP by 25% to 30% from baseline, but early acute IOP elevation after LTP is a common adverse effect. Most of these IOP elevations are transient, but temporarily elevated IOP may cause further optic nerve damage, worsening of glaucoma requiring additional therapy, and permanent vision loss...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230858/ngs-based-transcriptome-profiling-reveals-biomarkers-for-companion-diagnostics-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-blocker-galunisertib-in-hcc
#2
Yuan Cao, Rahul Agarwal, Francesco Dituri, Luigi Lupo, Paolo Trerotoli, Serena Mancarella, Peter Winter, Gianluigi Giannelli
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling has gained extensive interest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The small molecule kinase inhibitor galunisertib, targeting the TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI), blocks HCC progression in preclinical models and shows promising effects in ongoing clinical trials. As the drug is not similarly effective in all patients, this study was aimed at identifying new companion diagnostics biomarkers for patient stratification. Next-generation sequencing-based massive analysis of cDNA ends was used to investigate the transcriptome of an invasive HCC cell line responses to TGF-β1 and galunisertib...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229252/pain-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer-prevalence-mechanisms-management-and-future-developments
#3
REVIEW
Andreas I Koulouris, Paul Banim, Andrew R Hart
Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence...
February 22, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229250/role-of-mirnas-in-human-disease-and-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#4
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Belén Pérez, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). They are estimated to target ∼60% of all human protein-coding genes and are involved in regulating key physiological processes and intracellular signaling pathways. They also exhibit tissue specificity, and their dysregulation is linked to the progression of pathology. Identifying disease associated miRNAs and their respective targets provides novel molecular insight into disease, enabling the design of new therapeutic strategies...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229078/systemic-therapy-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Ruben R Plentz, Nisar P Malek
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the second most common primary malignant liver disease. During the last decades, various novel therapies have been introduced in the field of oncology; nevertheless, the number of treatment options for CC is still limited. METHODS: In this article, current palliative chemotherapy concepts as well as new drug therapies are outlined. RESULTS: Gemcitabine and cisplatin are the standard treatment of care for patients with inoperable CC...
December 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225334/the-tuberculosis-taboo
#6
L B Reichman
The treatment of latent tuberculous infection (TBI) is a productive and meaningful approach to tuberculosis (TB) control, and an important component of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) new End TB Strategy, especially in high-risk contacts. Unfortunately, although recognized and recommended by the WHO, it continues to be underutilized, and has even been ignored for decades in some high-risk groups, as though it were a taboo. Historical approaches to treating TBI in contacts of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB are presented and discussed as compelling experiences...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224371/can-disproportionality-analysis-of-post-marketing-case-reports-be-used-for-comparison-of-drug-safety-profiles
#7
Christiane Michel, Emil Scosyrev, Michael Petrin, Robert Schmouder
Clinical trials usually do not have the power to detect rare adverse drug reactions. Spontaneous adverse reaction reports as for example available in post-marketing safety databases such as the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) are therefore a valuable source of information to detect new safety signals early. To screen such large data-volumes for safety signals, data-mining algorithms based on the concept of disproportionality have been developed. Because disproportionality analysis is based on spontaneous reports submitted for a large number of drugs and adverse event types, one might consider using these data to compare safety profiles across drugs...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223818/an-evidence-based-review-on-urate-lowering-treatments-implications-for-optimal-treatment-of-chronic-hyperuricemia
#8
REVIEW
Marilisa Bove, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Maddalena Veronesi, Claudio Borghi
Several studies suggest that chronic hyperuricemia, the main precursor of gout, is involved in the pathogenesis of different systemic disorders that affect cardiovascular and renal systems, such as hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, chronic heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Recent epidemiological evidence has shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in the Western world: a number of population-based studies estimate a prevalence of up to 21% for hyperuricemia and 1%-4% for gout...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222701/the-effect-of-deep-muscle-relaxation-on-the-force-required-during-latissimus-dorsi-dissection-for-breast-reconstructive-surgery-results-of-a-prospective-double-blinded-observational-pilot-study
#9
T Ledowski, A Goodwin-Walters, P Quinn, M Calvert
BACKGROUND: The use of neuromuscular blocking agents has previously been suggested to facilitate the dissection of the latissimus dorsi muscle during breast reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of deep muscle relaxation on the force required to lift the latissimus dorsi muscle during flap preparation. METHODS: After ethics approval and written informed consent 15 patients scheduled for elective breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi pedicled flap (muscle flap, not myocutaneous flap) under general anaesthesia were prospectively included...
February 21, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222220/meaningful-endpoints-for-therapies-approved-for-hematologic-malignancies
#10
B Douglas Smith, Amy E DeZern, Alex W Bastian, Brian G M Durie
BACKGROUND: Overall survival (OS) is considered the gold standard for determining treatment efficacy in oncology trials, but the relation between treatment and OS can be challenging to assess because of long study durations and the impact of subsequent therapies on outcome. Using OS can be particularly difficult for new therapies in hematologic malignancies (HMs). METHODS: This retrospective analysis was conducted to characterize the primary endpoints used to support US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for new drug or novel HM indications between January 2002 and July 2015...
February 21, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220461/new-generation-coronary-stents-current-data-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Ankur Kalra, Hasan Rehman, Sahil Khera, Braghadheeswar Thyagarajan, Deepak L Bhatt, Neal S Kleiman, Robert W Yeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drug-eluting stents are the mainstay in the treatment of coronary artery disease using percutaneous coronary intervention. Innovations developed to overcome the limitations of prior generations of stents include biodegradable polymer stents, drug-eluting stents without a polymer, and bioabsorbable scaffolds. Our review briefly discusses the clinical profiles of first- and second-generation coronary stents, and provides an up-to-date overview of design, technology, and clinical safety and efficacy profiles of newer generation coronary stents discussing the relevant clinical trials in this rapidly evolving area of interventional cardiology...
March 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219203/-precision-first-line-therapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-harboring-egfr-mutation
#12
D M Yuan, Y Song
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become the preferred treatment option for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) according to major practice guidelines. Gefitinib, elortinib and icotinib formed the cornerstone of first-line EGFR-TKIs in the clinical practice in our country. Now, with the continuously emerging of new types of EGFR-TKIs and ever-increasing publication of clinical trial results on afatinib, AZD9291 and other TKIs, we have more first-line choices for patients with EGFR mutations...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219048/arylsulfonamides-and-selectivity-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Nilanjan Adhikari, Avinaba Mukherjee, Achintya Saha, Tarun Jha
Uncontrolled regulation of specific metalloenzymes plays important roles in several diseases like tumor metastasis and inflammation. Therefore, selective metalloenzyme inhibition may be a potential target for drug design and development. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) opened up a new horizon as the possible treatment of arthritis, cancer, and emphysema. However, due to adverse effects and poor pharmacokinetics, first generation MMPIs failed in clinical trials. Therefore, development of potential and selective MMPIs is still in demand...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215711/biomarkers-for-cystic-fibrosis-drug-development
#14
REVIEW
Marianne S Muhlebach, J P Clancy, Sonya L Heltshe, Assem Ziady, Tom Kelley, Frank Accurso, Joseph Pilewski, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett, Elizabeth Joseloff, Scott D Sagel
PURPOSE: To provide a review of the status of biomarkers in cystic fibrosis drug development, including regulatory definitions and considerations, a summary of biomarkers in current use with supportive data, current gaps, and future needs. METHODS: Biomarkers are considered across several areas of CF drug development, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulation, infection, and inflammation. RESULTS: Sweat chloride, nasal potential difference, and intestinal current measurements have been standardized and examined in the context of multicenter trials to quantify CFTR function...
November 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215155/magnetic-nanoparticles-new-perspectives-in-drug-delivery
#15
Joanna Wong, Jeremy Prout, Alexander Seifalian
BACKGROUND: The study of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for drug delivery has recently seen a surge of interest even though the first studies were conducted as early as in the seventies. Despite this, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the field, implicating the complexities in designing the ideal MNP for drug delivery. The large surface area of MNPs and the ability to manipulate with an externally applied magnetic field render the MNP a good candidate for targeted delivery of drugs...
February 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211193/sequential-allocation-trial-design-in-anesthesia-an-introduction-to-methods-modeling-and-clinical-applications
#17
REVIEW
Matthias Görges, Guohai Zhou, Rollin Brant, J Mark Ansermino
Estimation of the dose-response curve for new anesthetic protocols typically focuses on identifying minimum effective doses. The application of a sequential experimental method is appropriate, as it minimizes sample size requirements by updating dose assignments based on information accrued from successive subjects. One approach is the up-and-down method for estimating the median effective dose in a patient population (ED50 ). Designs better suited for achieving greater than 50% effectiveness, include the biased coin approach, and continual reassessment method...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210462/accuracy-of-a-new-rapid-antigen-detection-test-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
Rasoul Aliannejad, Ahmadreza Bahrmand, Hamidreza Abtahi, Mahnaz Seifi, Enayat Safavi, Farid Abdolrahimi, Shahriyar Shahriaran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem in the world. Treatment and control of TB needs detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) in the proper samples. While smear doesn't have enough sensitivity, culture and PCR are expensive, time consuming and unavailable in many centers. Recent development of a rapid TB antigen detection test (PrTBK) at Pasteur Institute of Iran could give a simple way for diagnosis of TB in about two hours. In this test the antigen-antibody complex will change color when gold conjugated mouse anti-rabbit antibody detects specific MT cell wall antigen in suspected samples...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210205/the-atp-gated-p2x7-receptor-as-a-target-for-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Edward Beamer, Wolfgang Fischer, Tobias Engel
Despite the progress made in the development of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the biggest challenges that epilepsy presents to drug development have remained unchanged for the last 80 years: finding a treatment with potential for modifying disease progression and reducing the percentage of patients resistant to all pharmacological interventions. The mechanism of action of the majority of AEDs is based on blocking Na(+) and/or Ca(2+) channels, promotion of GABA or inhibition of glutamate signaling. In order for further progress to be made, however, a fuller picture of epilepsy will need to be considered, including changes to blood-brain barrier permeability, synaptic plasticity, network reorganization, and gliosis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209404/cell-penetrating-peptides-from-basic-research-to-clinics
#20
REVIEW
Giulia Guidotti, Liliana Brambilla, Daniela Rossi
The presence of cell and tissue barriers together with the low biomembrane permeability of various therapeutics often hampers systemic drug distribution; thus, most of the available molecules are of limited therapeutic value. Opportunities to increase medicament concentrations in areas that are difficult to access now exist with the advent of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which can transport into the cell a wide variety of biologically active conjugates (cargoes). Numerous preclinical evaluations with CPP-derived therapeutics have provided promising results in various disease models that, in some cases, prompted clinical trials...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
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