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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527325/dyslipidemia-management-update
#1
REVIEW
Yingzi Chang, Jacques Robidoux
Association of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is well established. Reducing low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and raising high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) have been the therapeutic targets to reduce the risk of ASCVD. Cholesterol-lowering medications have been used to provide both primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD for many years by reducing the absorption and reabsorption, promoting excretion, or decreasing the synthesis of cholesterol. Within the past five years, several new classes of cholesterol-lowering drugs have been tested and approved for patients with hypercholesterolemia that are not well controlled by conventional therapy (ezetimibe, bile-acid sequestrants, and statins)...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526617/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-a-novel-avenue-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Anisha S Bhounsule, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Manisha Oza
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most frequently encountered diseases in adults with progressive loss of memory and behavioral changes. Inspite of there being an intense research in the field of AD, only a few chemical entities exhibiting anti-AD activity make it through the clinical trials and it is thus need of an hour to develop new drugs or repurpose the existing ones for better management of Alzheimer's disease. Novel therapeutic targets can influence drug discovery in the field of AD. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5) which is a serine/threonine kinase can prove to be an upcoming beneficial target to be studied for treating AD...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526024/protective-effect-on-the-coronary-microcirculation-of-patients-with-diabetes-by-clopidogrel-or-ticagrelor-predict-study-rationale-and-design-a-randomized-multicenter-clinical-trial-using-intracoronary-multimodal-physiology
#3
Enrico Cerrato, Alicia Quirós, Mauro Echavarría-Pinto, Hernan Mejia-Renteria, Andres Aldazabal, Nicola Ryan, Nieves Gonzalo, Pilar Jimenez-Quevedo, Luis Nombela-Franco, Pablo Salinas, Iván J Núñez-Gil, José Ramón Rumoroso, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz, Carlos Macaya, Javier Escaned
BACKGROUND: In diabetic patients a predisposed coronary microcirculation along with a higher risk of distal particulate embolization during primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) increases the risk of peri-procedural microcirculatory damage. However, new antiplatelet agents, in particular Ticagrelor, may protect the microcirculation through its adenosine-mediated vasodilatory effects. METHODS: PREDICT is an original, prospective, randomized, multicenter controlled study designed to investigate the protective effect of Ticagrelor on the microcirculation during PCI in patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 or pre-diabetic status...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525947/dianhydrogalactitol-a-potential-multitarget-agent-inhibits-glioblastoma-migration-invasion-and-angiogenesis
#4
Xia Jiang, Yinmei Huang, Xiaojie Wang, Qiaofang Liang, Yingjie Li, Fuji Li, Xuanhao Fu, Chonghuan Huang, Huagang Liu
The complexity of cancer has led to single-target agents exhibiting lower-than-desired clinical efficacy. Drugs with multiple targets provide a feasible option for the treatment of complex tumors. Multitarget anti-angiogenesis agents are among the new generation of anticancer drugs and have shown favorable clinical efficacy. Dianhydrogalactitol (DAG) is a chemotherapeutic agent for chronic myeloid leukemia and lung cancer. Recently, it has been tested in phase II trials of glioblastoma treatment; however, mechanisms of DAG in glioblastoma have not been elucidated...
May 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524214/-possible-treatments-for-infantile-spinal-atrophy
#5
S I Pascual-Pascual, M Garcia-Romero
The new treatments of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) due by SMN1 gene deletions are reviewed. There are several ways to increase the protein SMN, its activity and persistence in the tissues. Neuroprotective drugs as olesoxime or riluzole, and drugs acting by epigenetic mechanisms, as histone deacetylase inhibitors, have shown positive effects in preclinical studies but no clear efficacy in clinical trials. They might give in the future added benefits when used associated to other genetic modifying drugs. The best improvements in murine models of SMA and in clinical trials have been reached with antisense oligonucleotides, drugs that modify the splicing of SMN2, and they are expected to get better in the near future...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524003/targeting-the-programmed-cell-death-1-pathway-in-genitourinary-tumors-current-progress-and-future-perspectives
#6
Rodolfo Montironi, Liang Cheng, Holger Moch, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Marina Scarpelli, Francesco Massari, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Chiara Ciccarese, Michael Koch, Hristos Z Kaimakliotis, Lisha Wang, Roberto Pili, Steven A Mann
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment many malignancies with over a dozen new United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals in the past six years. Due to the combination of potent treatment success and potentially deadly adverse effects from immune checkpoint inhibitors, gathering prognostic and predictive information about FDA-indicated tumors is prudent. PD-L1 expression is a poor prognostic factor and predictive of better responses from both PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors in a variety of tumor types including RCC and urothelial carcinoma...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523636/informing-materials-drugs-as-tools-for-exploring-cancer-mechanisms-and-pathways
#7
Etienne Vignola-Gagné, Peter Keating, Alberto Cambrosio
This paper builds on previous work that investigated anticancer drugs as 'informed materials', i.e., substances that undergo an informational enrichment that situates them in a dense relational web of qualifications and measurements generated by clinical experiments and clinical trials. The paper analyzes the recent transformation of anticancer drugs from 'informed' to 'informing material'. Briefly put: in the post-genomic era, anti-cancer drugs have become instruments for the production of new biological, pathological, and therapeutic insights into the underlying etiology and evolution of cancer...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523625/identification-of-a-novel-putative-inhibitor-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-purine-nucleoside-phosphorylase-exploring-the-purine-salvage-pathway-to-design-new-antimalarial-drugs
#8
Luciano Porto Kagami, Gustavo Machado das Neves, Ricardo Pereira Rodrigues, Vinicius Barreto da Silva, Vera Lucia Eifler-Lima, Daniel Fábio Kawano
Malaria, a tropical parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium spp., continues to place a heavy social burden, with almost 200 million cases and more than 580,000 deaths per year. Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PfPNP) can be targeted for antimalarial drug design since its inhibition kills malaria parasites both in vitro and in vivo. Although the currently known inhibitors of PfPNP, immucillins, are orally available and of low toxicity to animals and humans, to the best of our knowledge, none of these compounds has entered clinical trials for the treatment of malaria...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522110/high-dose-gemcitabine-busulfan-and-melphalan-for-autologous-stem-cell-transplant-in-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-myeloma-a-phase-2-trial-and-matched-pair-comparison-with-melphalan
#9
Yago Nieto, Benigno C Valdez, Sai R Pingali, Roland Bassett, Ruby Delgado, John Nguyen, Nina Shah, Uday Popat, Roy B Jones, Borje S Andersson, Alison Gulbis, Sairah Ahmed, Qaiser Bashir, Simrit Parmar, Krina Patel, Alan Myers, Gabriela Rondon, Robert Z Orlowski, Richard Champlin, Muzaffar Qazilbash
BACKGROUND: High-dose melphalan is of little benefit as a regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma undergoing an autologous stem-cell transplant (ASCT). The poor performance of single-agent melphalan in this setting prompted us to study a new high-dose combination of infused gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan. METHODS: We did a phase 2 trial at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). We enrolled patients with primary refractory or relapsed myeloma who had received treatment with bortezomib, an immunomodulatory drug, or both, or who were receiving a salvage ASCT...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521955/prevalence-of-relevant-ns5a-resistance-associated-substitutions-to-elbasvir-in-genotype-1a-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-spain
#10
Claudia Palladino, Beatriz Esteban-Cartelle, Irene Mate-Cano, Marta Sánchez-Carrillo, Salvador Resino, Verónica Briz
Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to the new HCV NS5A inhibitor elbasvir may limit its efficacy and lead to virological failure in HCV-GT1a-infected patients. There are no data outside clinical trials evaluating their prevalence and impact in grazoprevir/elbasvir in GT1a-infected patients in Spain. A multicentre cross-sectional study of 632 initial patients was conducted. In 13 of these patients, the sample could not be amplified or a consensus sequence by Sanger sequencing could not be performed. Ultimately, 617 HCV-G1a-infected individuals treated at 84 Spanish hospitals from the 17 autonomous communities plus the 2 autonomous cities of Spain were analysed...
May 15, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521696/nanotechnology-as-a-promising-strategy-for-anticancer-drug-delivery
#11
Mona Basha
Cancer was and still a very stressful and urgent disease condition representing a leading cause of death in developed as well as developing countries. Although, much research work in both medical and pharmaceutical fields has evolved in the past few years in addition to some promising clinical trials and few market products, cancer becomes much wilder, threatening and getting more lives. Most approaches have focused on the synthesis of new active ingredients or chemical modification of available ones, formulating them in suitable dosage forms aiming for targeted and effective drug delivery with minimal side effects...
May 15, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521692/pharmacological-treatment-of-bone-loss
#12
Rui Pang, Weibo Xia
Bone loss is common in clinical practice, such as health assessment of postmenopausal women, treatment of tumor metastasis, side-effects of glucocorticoids, and skeletal manifestations of inflammatory diseases. The imbalance of remodeling between bone resorption and bone formation, the pathophysiological basis of bone loss, increases bone fragility. The treatment of bone loss is mainly carried out from the treatment of osteoporosis. There are various pharmacological therapies for bone loss, which will be introduced in 3 aspects, including anti-resorptive agents, anabolic agents and new medications...
May 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521682/repurposing-of-copper-ii-chelating-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
Valeria Lanza, Danilo Milardi, Giuseppe Di Natale, Giuseppe Pappalardo
BACKGROUND: There is mounting urgency to find new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. A large number of reviews has exhaustively described either the molecular or clinical aspects of neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD). Conversely, reports outlining how known drugs in use for other diseases can be also effective as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases are less reported. This review focuses on the current uses of some copper(II) interacting molecules as potential drug candidates in neurodegeneration...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521671/the-anticonvulsant-effects-of-ketogenic-diet-on%C3%A2-epileptic-seizures-and-potential-mechanisms
#14
Yifan Zhang, Jingwei Xu, Yingchao Zhang, Wei Yang, Bingjin Li
Epilepsy is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurologic disorders with characteristics of epileptic seizures. Although the multitude of anticonvulsant drugs has been developed, recurrent epileptic seizures remain intractable and contribute to the serious morbidity worldwide. Recently, increasing studies have established the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on epileptic seizure reduction. Both basic experiments and clinical trials demonstrated that KD significantly reduced seizure frequency with mild adverse effects...
May 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521640/antibody-mediated-immunotherapy-against-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#15
Ying Gao, Tian-Ying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia
The currently available drugs to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can only induce disease remission and are inefficient for the functional cure of patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB). Since high titers of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be essential to exhaust the host anti-HBV immune response and they cannot be significantly reduced by current drugs, new antiviral strategies aiming to suppress serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could help restore virus-specific immune responses and promote the eradication of the virus...
May 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521614/overcoming-platinum-resistance-in-ovarian-cancer-treatment-from-clinical-practice-to-emerging-chemical-therapies
#16
Federica Tomao, Claudia Marchetti, Alessia Romito, Anna Di Pinto, Violante Di Donato, Innocenza Palaia, Marco Monti, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
The objective of this review is to summarize results from clinical trials that tested cytotoxic drugs and target strategies for the treatment of platinum resistant (PR) recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC) with particular attention to Phase III and ongoing trials. Areas covered: Since platinum free interval (PFI) represents the most important predictive factor for response to platinum re-treatment in ROC, non-platinum regimens are conventionally considered the most appropriate approaches. Impressive progress has been made in recent decades, resulting in the identification of most effective cytotoxic agents and in the development of new target strategies...
May 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521067/antiepileptic-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-infants-with-severe-myoclonic-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2015, Issue 10.Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infants (SMEI), also known as Dravet syndrome, is a rare, refractory form of epilepsy, for which stiripentol (STP) has been recently licensed as add-on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of STP and other antiepileptic drug treatments (including ketogenic diet) for patients with SMEI. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (20 December 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (CRSO, 20 December 2016), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 20 December 2016) and ClinicalTrials...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520610/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-dolutegravir
#18
Pedro Cahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review addresses the role of dolutegravir (DTG) in first-line therapy. In the era of test and treat, where United Nations AIDS Program and WHO have set the ambitious targets of 90/90/90, new efficacious, well tolerated, and simple therapeutic options are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: DTG has been tested in large clinical trials in treatment-naïve patients, showing noninferiority to raltegravir and superiority compared with efavirenz and ritonavir-boosted darunavir, respectively...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515234/a-methodological-approach-for-assessing-the-uptake-of-core-outcome-sets-using-clinicaltrials-gov-findings-from-a-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Jamie J Kirkham, Mike Clarke, Paula R Williamson
Objective To assess the uptake of the rheumatoid arthritis core outcome set using a new assessment method of calculating uptake from data in clinical trial registry entries.Design Review of randomised trials.Setting ClinicalTrials.gov.Subjects 273 randomised trials of drug interventions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov between 2002 and 2016. Full publications were identified for completed studies from information in the trial registry or from an internet search using Google and the citation database Web of Science...
May 17, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515222/zebrafish-models-for-functional-and-toxicological-screening-of-nanoscale-drug-delivery-systems-promoting-preclinical-applications
#20
Keon Yong Lee, Gun Hyuk Jang, Cho Hyun Byun, Minhong Jeun, Peter Searson, Kwan Hyi Lee
Preclinical screening with animal models is an important initial step in clinical translation of new drug delivery systems. However, establishing efficacy, biodistribution, and biotoxicity of complex, multicomponent systems in small animal models can be expensive and time consuming. Zebrafish models represent an alternative for preclinical studies of nanoscale drug delivery systems. These models allow easy optical imaging, large sample size, and organ-specific studies, and hence an increasing number of preclinical studies are employing zebrafish models...
May 17, 2017: Bioscience Reports
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