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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741863/development-of-quality-metrics-for-ambulatory-pediatric-cardiology-infection-prevention
#1
Jonathan N Johnson, Cindy S Barrett, Wayne H Franklin, Eric M Graham, Nancy J Halnon, Brandy A Hattendorf, Catherine D Krawczeski, James J McGovern, Matthew J O'Connor, Amy H Schultz, Jeffrey M Vinocur, Devyani Chowdhury, Jeffrey B Anderson
INTRODUCTION: In 2012, the American College of Cardiology's (ACC) Adult Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Council established a program to develop quality metrics to guide ambulatory practices for pediatric cardiology. The council chose five areas on which to focus their efforts; chest pain, Kawasaki Disease, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch, and infection prevention. Here, we sought to describe the process, evaluation, and results of the Infection Prevention Committee's metric design process...
July 25, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739424/respiratory-viruses-in-transplant-recipients-more-than-just-a-cold-clinical-syndromes-and-infection-prevention-principles
#2
REVIEW
Salma Abbas, Jillian E Raybould, Sangeeta Sastry, Oveimar de la Cruz
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to provide updated information on the clinical spectrum, treatment options, and infection prevention strategies for respiratory viral infections (RVI) in both solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE and Pubmed databases for literature regarding the aforementioned aspects of RVIs, with focus on respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738364/risk-factors-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#3
Jordi Almirall, Mateu Serra-Prat, Ignasi Bolíbar, Valentina Balasso
We performed a systematic review of the literature to establish conclusive evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies) the primary outcome of which was to assess risk factors for CAP in both hospitalized and ambulatory adult patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were selected. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale specific for cohort and case-control designs was used for quality assessment. Twenty-nine studies (20 case-control, 8 cohort, and 1 cross-sectional) were selected, with 44...
July 25, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737468/economic-evaluations-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-hib-vaccine-a-systematic-review
#4
Bunchai Chongmelaxme, Maythika Hammanee, Wariya Phooaphirak, Surachai Kotirum, Raymond Hutubessy, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
AIMS: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines but only China and Thailand have not used Hib vaccination in their national immunization programs. This systematic review aimed to update published economic evaluations of Hib vaccinations and to determine factors that potentially affected their cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Searching was performed from the inception until December 2015 using 13 databases: CAB direct; CEA registry; EconLit; EMBASE; E-library; NHSEED; PAHO; POPLINE; PubMed; Redalyc project; RePEc; SciELO and WHOLIS...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737040/potential-of-small-molecule-fungal-metabolites-in-antiviral-chemotherapy
#5
Biswajit G Roy
Various viral diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, influenza, and hepatitis, have emerged as leading causes of human death worldwide. Scientific endeavor since invention of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of pox virus in 1967 resulted in better understanding of virus replication and development of various novel therapeutic strategies. Despite considerable advancement in every facet of drug discovery process, development of commercially viable, safe, and effective drugs for these viruses still remains a big challenge...
July 23, 2017: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734617/epidemiology-evolution-and-pathogenesis-of-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-five-epidemic-waves-since-2013-in-china
#6
REVIEW
Shuo Su, Min Gu, Di Liu, Jie Cui, George F Gao, Jiyong Zhou, Xiufan Liu
H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730517/selective-igm-deficiency-clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-17-patients-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Zita Chovancova, Pavlina Kralickova, Alena Pejchalova, Marketa Bloomfield, Jana Nechvatalova, Marcela Vlkova, Jiri Litzman
PURPOSE: Primary selective IgM deficiency (sIgMD) is a primary immunodeficiency with unclear pathogenesis and a low number of published cases. METHODS: We reviewed clinical and laboratory manifestations of 17 sIgMD patients. Serum IgM, IgG, and its subclasses, IgA, IgE, antibodies against tetanus toxoid, pneumococcal polysaccharides and Haemophilus influenzae type b, isohemagglutinins, and T and B lymphocyte subsets, expressions of IgM on B cells and B lymphocyte production of IgM were compared with previously reported case reports and a small series of patients, which included 81 subjects in total...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724343/vero-cell-technology-for-rapid-development-of-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccines-for-emerging-viral-diseases
#8
P Noel Barrett, Sara J Terpening, Doris Snow, Ronald R Cobb, Otfried Kistner
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721831/transient-production-of-recombinant-pharmaceutical-proteins-in-plants-evolution-and-perspectives
#9
Lilya Kopertekh, Joachim Schiemann
During the last two decades the production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants evolved from proof of concept to established technology adopted by several biotechnological companies. This progress is particularly based on intensive research starting stable genetic transformation and moving to transient expression. Due to its advantages in yield and speed of protein production transient expression platforms became leading plant-based manufacturing technology. Current transient expression methods rely on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of expression vectors into plant cells...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718836/the-biological-activities-of-sesterterpenoid-type-ophiobolins
#10
REVIEW
Wei Tian, Zixin Deng, Kui Hong
Ophiobolins (Ophs) are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A-W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#11
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708952/influenza-vaccination-during-pregnancy-for-prevention-of-influenza-confirmed-illness-in-the-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Marta C Nunes, Shabir A Madhi
Infants younger than 6 months of age are at particular risk for serious illness from influenza infection. Currently available influenza vaccines are, however, not licensed for use in infants <6 months old. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy elicits robust antibody responses in the women that will protect the infants against influenza infection during the first few months of life. We aimed to determine the impact of influenza vaccination during pregnancy to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and influenza-associated hospitalisations in infants <6 months old...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707578/acute-otitis-media-in-children
#13
Alexander Kc Leung, Alex H C Wong
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media is a common childhood infection. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. OBJECTIVE: To review in depth the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, complications and particularly treatment of acute otitis media in children. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "acute otitis media". Patents were searched using the key term "acute otitis media" from www...
July 12, 2017: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702311/the-evidence-for-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-as-a-causative-agent-of-childhood-pneumonia
#14
EDITORIAL
Mary P E Slack
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was a major cause of bacterial pneumonia in children prior to the introduction of Hib-conjugate vaccines. The widespread use of Hib-conjugate vaccines has resulted in a significant decline in the number of cases of invasive Hib disease, including bacteraemic pneumonia, in areas where the vaccine has been implemented. In many countries, non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHI) is now the most common cause of invasive haemophilus infection in all ages. NTHI are a recognized cause of bacteraemic and non-bacteraemic pneumonia in children and in adults...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701087/epidemiological-characteristics-associated-with-uptake-of-pneumococcal-vaccine-among-older-adults-living-in-the-community-in-singapore-results-from-the-national-health-surveillance-survey-2013
#15
Li Wei Ang, Jeffery Cutter, Lyn James, Kee Tai Goh
AIMS: In Singapore, pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for the elderly (i.e. those ≥65 years of age) and people with chronic medical conditions. We investigated epidemiological characteristics associated with the uptake of pneumococcal vaccine based on a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of community-living adults aged ≥50 years. METHODS: The data were obtained from the National Health Surveillance Survey (NHSS) 2013. Associations between pneumococcal vaccination and sociodemographic and health-related variables were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700416/mandatory-influenza-vaccination-for-all-healthcare-personnel-a-review-on-justification-implementation-and-effectiveness
#16
Tiffany L Wang, Ling Jing, Joseph A Bocchini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As healthcare-associated influenza is a serious public health concern, this review examines legal and ethical arguments supporting mandatory influenza vaccination policies for healthcare personnel, implementation issues and evidence of effectiveness. RECENT FINDINGS: Spread of influenza from healthcare personnel to patients can result in severe harm or death. Although most healthcare personnel believe that they should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that only 79% of personnel were vaccinated during the 2015-2016 season...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699543/a-signal-detection-method-for-temporal-variation-of-adverse-effect-with-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system-data
#17
Yi Cai, Jingcheng Du, Jing Huang, Susan S Ellenberg, Sean Hennessy, Cui Tao, Yong Chen
BACKGROUND: To identify safety signals by manual review of individual report in large surveillance databases is time consuming; such an approach is very unlikely to reveal complex relationships between medications and adverse events. Since the late 1990s, efforts have been made to develop data mining tools to systematically and automatically search for safety signals in surveillance databases. Influenza vaccines present special challenges to safety surveillance because the vaccine changes every year in response to the influenza strains predicted to be prevalent that year...
July 5, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691237/influenza-in-long-term-care-facilities
#18
Louise E Lansbury, Caroline S Brown, Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam
Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised...
July 10, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686621/risk-of-bias-and-confounding-of-observational-studies-of-zika-virus-infection-a-scoping-review-of-research-protocols
#19
Ludovic Reveiz, Michelle M Haby, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Carlos E Pinzón-Flores, Vanessa Elias, Emma Smith, Mariona Pinart, Nathalie Broutet, Francisco Becerra-Posada, Sylvain Aldighieri, Maria D Van Kerkhove
INTRODUCTION: Given the severity and impact of the current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Americas, numerous countries have rushed to develop research studies to assess ZIKV and its potential health consequences. In an effort to ensure that studies are comprehensive, both internally and externally valid, and with reliable results, the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, Institut Pasteur, the networks of Fiocruz, the Consortia for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology (CONSISE) and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) have generated six standardized clinical and epidemiological research protocols and questionnaires to address key public health questions on ZIKV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686396/-recommendations-for-the-vaccination-of-pregnant-women-a-booster-injection
#20
Yolanda Mueller, Christiane Sigrid Eberhardt, Alessandro Diana, Begoña Martinez De Tejada
For several decades we have avoided the immunisation of pregnant women, with the only exception being that of the tetanus vaccination in the absence of a previous basic immunisation. Nowadays, it is strongly advised to give several vaccines specifically during pregnancy : maternal immunisations against pertussis and influenza have been shown to prevent complications in both the foetus and the newborn as well as the woman during pregnancy and after delivery. This article aims to review these recommendations, their rationale and to address potential concerns that are often raised by physicians and patients...
October 12, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
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