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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643205/role-of-host-genes-in-influenza-virus-replication
#1
Megan L Shaw, Silke Stertz
At every step of their replication cycle influenza viruses depend heavily on their host cells. The multifaceted interactions that occur between the virus and its host cell determine the outcome of the infection, including efficiency of progeny virus production, tropism, and pathogenicity. In order to understand viral disease and develop therapies for influenza it is therefore pertinent to study the intricate interplay between influenza viruses and their required host factors. Here, we review the current knowledge on host cell factors required by influenza virus at the different stages of the viral replication cycle...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641373/estimating-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-the-test-negative-design-using-alternative-control-groups-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Shuo Feng, Benjamin J Cowling, Heath Kelly, Sheena G Sullivan
One important assumption in case-control studies is that control selection should be independent of exposure. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that virus interference might lead to a correlation between receipt of influenza vaccination and increased risk of infection with other respiratory viruses. We investigated if such a phenomenon might affect a commonly used study design to estimate influenza vaccination effectiveness (VE). We searched publications in Medline, PubMed and Web of Science. Twelve studies were identified reporting VE estimates using the test-negative design by three alternative control groups: (1) all patients testing negative for influenza, VEFLU-, (2) patients who tested positive for other respiratory viruses, VEORV+, or (3) patients who tested negative for all viruses tested, VEPAN-...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640889/contrasting-academic-and-lay-press-print-coverage-of-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#3
Mark D Kieh, Elim M Cho, Ian A Myles
Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636443/personal-protective-equipment-supply-chain-lessons-learned-from-recent-public-health-emergency-responses
#4
Anita Patel, Maryann M D'Alessandro, Karen J Ireland, W Greg Burel, Elaine B Wencil, Sonja A Rasmussen
Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632771/avian-influenza-in-latin-america-a-systematic-review-of-serological-and-molecular-studies-from-2000-2015
#5
Alejandra Afanador-Villamizar, Carlos Gomez-Romero, Andres Diaz, Julian Ruiz-Saenz
Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629336/erratum-to-incidence-of-influenza-virus-infection-among-pregnant-women-a-systematic-review
#6
Mark A Katz, Bradford D Gessner, Jeanene Johnson, Becky Skidmore, Marian Knight, Niranjan Bhat, Helen Marshall, David J Horne, Justin R Ortiz, Deshayne B Fell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628919/effect-of-influenza-vaccination-on-risk-of-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Kyu Rae Lee, Jeong Hun Bae, In Cheol Hwang, Kyoung Kon Kim, Heuy Sun Suh, Ki Dong Ko
BACKGROUND: Despite the presence of a strong association between influenza infection and stroke, whether influenza vaccination reduces the risk of stroke is yet a matter of controversy. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether influenza vaccination protects against stroke. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from database inception date to November 18, 2016, without language restrictions, to identify studies investigating the effect of influenza vaccination on subsequent risk of stroke...
June 21, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628185/epidemiology-and-prevention-of-influenza-in-children-in-argentina-and-brazil
#8
(no author information available yet)
A group of influenza experts from Argentina and Brazil got together to discuss the burden of influenza in children, review current vaccine coverage rates in both countries, analyze vaccine effectiveness, and discuss strategies to improve prevention. Active surveillance of respiratory viruses is carried out nationwide in both countries. Years 2014 and 2015 were mild influenza seasons; influenza virus type A/H3N2 prevailed, whereas type B represented less than 30% of isolates. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is included in National Immunization Programs for 1) children 6 months to 2 years old in Argentina; 2) children 6 months to 5 years old in Brazil; and 3) all high-risk individuals...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619009/measuring-influenza-laboratory-capacity-use-of-a-tool-to-measure-improvements
#10
Pam Kennedy, Tricia Aden, Po Yung Cheng, Ann Moen
BACKGROUND: To collect information, identify training needs, and assist with influenza capacity building voluntary laboratory capacity assessments were conducted using a standardized tool in CDC cooperative agreement countries. To understand the usefulness of comparing results from repeat assessments and to determine if targeted training supported improvements, this paper details comparison of assessment results of conducting 17 repeat laboratory assessments between 2009 and 2013. METHODS: Laboratory assessments were conducted by SMEs in 17 laboratories (16 countries)...
June 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617077/factors-affecting-immune-responses-to-the-influenza-vaccine
#11
Maria R Castrucci
Annual administration of the seasonal influenza vaccine is strongly recommended to reduce the burden of disease, particularly for persons at the highest risk for the viral infection. Even during years when there is a good match between the vaccine and circulating strains, host-related factors such as age, preexisting immunity, genetic polymorphisms, and the presence of chronic underlying conditions may compromise influenza vaccine responsiveness. The application of new methodologies and large-scale profiling technologies are improving the ability to measure vaccine immunogenicity and our understanding of the immune mechanisms by which vaccines induce protective immunity...
June 15, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616365/streptococcus-pneumoniae-otitis-media-pathogenesis-and-how-it-informs-our-understanding-of-vaccine-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Hakansson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatically, can sense potentially "threatening" changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the nasopharynx to other sites, and protection against the host immune system...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613092/a-systematic-review-of-the-health-economic-consequences-of-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccination
#13
P T de Boer, B M van Maanen, Oliver Damm, Bernhard Ultsch, Franklin C K Dolk, Pascal Crépey, Richard Pitman, J C Wilschut, M J Postma
Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) contain antigens derived from an additional influenza type B virus as compared with currently used trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs). This should overcome a potential reduced vaccine protection due to mismatches between TIV and circulating B viruses. In this study, we systematically reviewed the available literature on health economic evaluations of switching from TIV to QIV. Areas Covered: The databases of Medline and Embase were searched systematically to identify health economic evaluations of QIV versus TIV published before September 2016...
June 14, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609250/recognition-of-viral-rna-by-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-the-induction-of-innate-immunity-and-excessive-inflammation-during-respiratory-viral-infections
#14
Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Takahisa Kouwaki, Tsukasa Seya, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against virus infection that triggers the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, resulting in the induction of innate immune responses. Viral RNA in endosomes is recognized by Toll-like receptors, and cytoplasmic viral RNA is recognized by RIG-I-like receptors. The host innate immune response is critical for protection against virus infection...
June 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609228/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-an-innovative-immunization-practice-model-designed-to-improve-population-health-results-of-the-project-impact-immunizations-pilot
#15
Benjamin M Bluml, Kelly A Brock, Scott Hamstra, Lisa Tonrey
The goal of the initiative was to evaluate the impact of an innovative practice model on identification of unmet vaccination needs and vaccination rates. This was accomplished through a prospective, multisite, observational study in 8 community pharmacy practices with adults receiving an influenza vaccine with a documented vaccination forecast review from October 22, 2015 through March 22, 2016. When patients presented for influenza vaccinations, pharmacists utilized immunization information systems (IIS) data at the point of care to identify unmet vaccination needs, educate patients, and improve vaccination rates...
June 13, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604586/influenza-omics-and-the-host-response-recent-advances-and-future-prospects
#16
REVIEW
Joshua D Powell, Katrina M Waters
Influenza A viruses (IAV) continually evolve and have the capacity to cause global pandemics. Because IAV represents an ongoing threat, identifying novel therapies and host innate immune factors that contribute to IAV pathogenesis is of considerable interest. This review summarizes the relevant literature as it relates to global host responses to influenza infection at both the proteome and transcriptome level. The various-omics infection systems that include but are not limited to ferrets, mice, pigs, and even the controlled infection of humans are reviewed...
June 10, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604266/immunogenicity-safety-and-tolerability-of-intradermal-influenza-vaccines
#17
Ivan F N Hung, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Intradermal influenza vaccination has been studied for more than 80 years. The revived interest in this strategy of vaccination is a result of the innovative technologies in needle design allowing more precise injection and making the device easier to use. Furthermore, clinical trials on these novel devices have demonstrated significant dose sparing effects, improved immunogenicity and very few adverse effects. This review compares intradermal vaccination with various devices with subcutaneous and intramuscular vaccination...
June 12, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601824/a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluations-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-for-the-elderly-population-in-the-european-union
#18
Gemma E Shields, Jamie Elvidge, Linda M Davies
OBJECTIVES: The Council of the European Union (EU) has recommended that action should be taken to increase influenza vaccination in the elderly population. The aims were to systematically review and critically appraise economic evaluations for influenza vaccination in the elderly population in the EU. METHODS: Electronic searches of the NHS Economic Evaluation, Health Technology Assessment, MEDLINE and Embase databases were run to identify full economic evaluations...
June 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596841/targeting-endosomal-acidification-by-chloroquine-analogs-as-a-promising-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-emerging-viral-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Md Abdul Alim Al-Bari
Emerging viruses such as HIV, dengue, influenza A, SARS coronavirus, Ebola, and other viruses pose a significant threat to human health. Majority of these viruses are responsible for the outbreaks of pathogenic lethal infections. To date, there are no effective therapeutic strategies available for the prophylaxis and treatment of these infections. Chloroquine analogs have been used for decades as the primary and most successful drugs against malaria. Concomitant with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium strains and a subsequent decrease in the use as antimalarial drugs, other applications of the analogs have been investigated...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592581/the-stop-ab-trial-protocol-efficacy-and-safety-of-discontinuing-patient-antibiotic-treatment-when-physicians-no-longer-consider-it-necessary
#20
Carl Llor, Ana Moragas, Carolina Bayona, Josep M Cots, José M Molero, Joana Ribas, Julio Francisco Fóthy, Isabel Gutiérrez, Coro Sánchez, Jesús Ortega, Javier Arranz, Jenifer Botanes, Purificación Robles
INTRODUCTION: Since 2011, the Spanish Society of Family Medicine has recommended general practitioners (GPs) to ask their patients to stop taking antibiotics when they suspect a viral infection. However, this practice is seldom used because uncertainty about diagnosis, and fear of consequences of discontinuing antibiotic therapy, as well as perceived pressure to continue prescribing antibiotics and potential conflict with patients are more of a concern for GPs than antibiotic resistance...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
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