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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789506/design-and-efficacy-of-nanogels-formulations-for-intranasal-administration
#1
REVIEW
Blessing A Aderibigbe, Tobeka Naki
Nanogels are drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood-brain barrier and deliver drugs to the desired site when administered intranasally. They have been used as a drug delivery platform for the management of brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, migraine, schizophrenia and depression. nanogels have also been developed as vaccine carriers for the protection of bacterial infections such as influenza, meningitis, pneumonia and as veterinary vaccine carriers for the protection of animals from encephalomyelitis and mouth to foot disease...
May 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789196/understanding-and-manipulating-viral-immunity-antibody-immunodominance-enters-center-stage
#2
REVIEW
Davide Angeletti, Jonathan W Yewdell
Adaptive immune responses against antigenically variable viruses and cellular pathogens are efficient in many cases, but largely limited to the infecting or immunizing strain. A major factor that limits immunity is immunodominance (ID), the hierarchical focusing of adaptive immune responses on a subset of antigenic determinants. While CD8+ T cell ID has been extensively studied, studies of basic mechanisms of B cell ID are limited, despite the importance of antibodies (Abs) for durable protection against pathogens...
May 19, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788836/intracranial-hemorrhage-in-adults-on-ecmo
#3
Yiorgos Alexandros Cavayas, Lorenzo Del Sorbo, Eddy Fan
RATIONALE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use has exploded over the last decade. However, it remains invasive and associated with significant complications, including tamponade, infection, thrombosis, gas embolism and bleeding. The most dreaded complication is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this article, we review the literature on the incidence, diagnosis, risk factors, pathophysiology, prognosis, prevention and management of ICH in adults on ECMO. MAIN FINDINGS: We found a high incidence of ICH in the literature with a poor prognosis...
May 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781424/review-analysis-and-impact-of-co-circulating-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-in-bangladesh
#4
Rokshana Parvin, Jahan Ara Begum, Mohammed Nooruzzaman, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Thomas W Vahlenkamp
Almost the full range of 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been detected either in waterfowl, land-based poultry or in the environment in Bangladesh. AIV infections in Bangladesh affected a wide range of host species of terrestrial poultry. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 and low pathogenic AI H9N2 were found to co-circulate and be well entrenched in the poultry population, which has caused serious damage to the poultry industry since 2007...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773050/the-importance-of-complying-with-vaccination-protocols-in-developed-countries-anti-vax-hysteria-and-the-spread-of-severe-preventable-diseases
#5
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Laura Todi, Valentina Carusi, Michele Centrone, Alessandro Bonomo, Estelle E Newton, Domenico Schiavino, Eleonora Nucera
BACKGROUND: Vaccines are very effective medical tools for disease prevention and life span increase. Controversies have raised concern about their safety, from autism to polio vaccine contamination with simian virus 40 (SV-40). Hysteria surrounding vaccine-associated risks has resulted in a declining number of vaccinations in developed countries. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (e.g. measles) have occurred in Europe and North America, causing also some causalities. OBJECTIVES: In this review, data on safety and efficacy of vaccines are discussed, showing that the benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks and that it is important to comply with vaccination protocols, to avoid spreading of severe, preventable diseases...
May 17, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769256/early-use-of-antibiotics-for-at-risk-children-with-influenza-archie-protocol-for-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Kay Wang, Tricia Carver, Sharon Tonner, Malcolm G Semple, Alastair D Hay, Michael Moore, Paul Little, Christopher Butler, Andrew Farmer, Rafael Perera, Ly-Mee Yu, Susan Mallett, Jane Wolstenholme, Anthony Harnden
INTRODUCTION: Influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) create considerable burden on healthcare resources each winter. Children with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes mellitus and cerebral palsy are among those at greatest risk of clinical deterioration from influenza/ILI. The Antibiotics for at Risk CHildren with InfluEnza (ARCHIE) trial aims to determine whether early oral treatment with the antibiotic co-amoxiclav reduces the likelihood of reconsultation due to clinical deterioration in these 'at risk' children...
May 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765791/cutaneous-leukocytoclastic-vasculitis-following-influenza-vaccination-in-older-adults-report-of-bullous-purpura-in-an-octogenarian-after-influenza-vaccine-administration
#7
Stella X Chen, Philip R Cohen
The influenza vaccination is recommended annually for protection against influenza infection. Adults over 65 years of age are especially vulnerable to complications from influenza infection; in addition, they constitute the largest group of influenza vaccination recipients each year. Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis involves inflammation of small vessel walls by neutrophils. An 88-year-old man with a history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who developed bullous cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis 14 days after receiving the influenza vaccine is described and the characteristics of influenza-associated cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in older individuals are reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761622/host-heme-oxygenase-1-friend-or-foe-in-tackling-pathogens
#8
REVIEW
Nisha Singh, Zeeshan Ahmad, Navin Baid, Ashwani Kumar
Infectious diseases are a major challenge in management of human health worldwide. Recent literature suggests that host immune system could be modulated to ameliorate the pathogenesis of infectious disease. Heme oxygenase (HMOX1) is a key regulator of cellular signaling and it could be modulated using pharmacological reagents. HMOX1 is a cytoprotective enzyme that degrades heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and molecular iron. CO and biliverdin (or bilirubin derived from it) can restrict the growth of a few pathogens...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761104/platelets-in-immune-response-to-virus-and-immunopathology-of-viral-infections
#9
REVIEW
Eugenio D Hottz, Fernando A Bozza, Patrícia T Bozza
Platelets are essential effector cells in hemostasis. Aside from their role in coagulation, platelets are now recognized as major inflammatory cells with key roles in the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Activated platelets have key thromboinflammatory functions linking coagulation to immune responses in various infections, including in response to virus. Recent studies have revealed that platelets exhibit several pattern recognition receptors (PRR) including those from the toll-like receptor, NOD-like receptor, and C-type lectin receptor family and are first-line sentinels in detecting and responding to pathogens in the vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755452/influenza-virus-a-master-tactician-in-innate-immune-evasion-and-novel-therapeutic-interventions
#10
REVIEW
Alan Chen-Yu Hsu
Influenza is a contagion that has plagued mankind for many decades, and continues to pose concerns every year, with millions of infections globally. The frequent mutations and recombination of the influenza A virus (IAV) cast a looming threat that antigenically novel strains/subtypes will rise with unpredictable pathogenicity and fear of it evolving into a pandemic strain. There have been four major influenza pandemics, since the beginning of twentieth century, with the great 1918 pandemic being the most severe, killing more than 50 million people worldwide...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754466/temporal-trends-in-paediatric-bacterial-meningitis-in-a-tropical-australian-region-1992-2014
#11
Stephanie White, Hala Katf, Rob Baird, Joshua Francis
AIM: The epidemiology of community-acquired bacterial meningitis has changed following the introduction of routine immunisation against common causative organisms. Indigenous children living in the Northern Territory, Australia, have high rates of bacterial infections. This study describes changes in the epidemiology of childhood bacterial meningitis and the distribution of the burden of disease in the Top End. METHODS: A retrospective review of cases derived from hospital medical records and laboratory data was performed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747736/infections-in-pregnancy-and-the-role-of-vaccines
#12
REVIEW
Kimberly B Fortner, Claudia Nieuwoudt, Callie F Reeder, Geeta K Swamy
Pregnant women are at risk for infection and may have significant morbidity or mortality. Influenza, pertussis, zika, and cytomegalovirus produce mild or asymptomatic illness in the mother, but have profound implications for her fetus. Maternal immunization can prevent or mitigate infections in pregnant women and their infants. The Advisory Committee of Immunization Practices recommends 2 vaccines during pregnancy: inactivated influenza, and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis during pregnancy...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746496/pharyngeal-colonization-and-drug-resistance-profiles-of-morraxella-catarrrhalis-streptococcus-pneumoniae-staphylococcus-aureus-and-haemophilus-influenzae-among-hiv-infected-children-attending-art-clinic-of-felegehiwot-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#13
Wondemagegn Mulu, Endalew Yizengaw, Megbaru Alemu, Daniel Mekonnen, Derese Hailu, Kassaw Ketemaw, Bayeh Abera, Mulugeta Kibret
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic pharyngeal colonization by potential bacteria is the primary reservoir for bacterial species within a population and is considered a prerequisite for development of major childhood diseases such as sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. However, there is dearth of data on the colonization and drug resistance pattern of the main bacterial pathogens in the pharynx of HIV infected children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study determined the pharyngeal colonization and drug resistance profile of bacterial pathogens in HIV infected children attending ART clinic of Felegehiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Amhara Region, Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745939/antiviral-treatment-of-childhood-influenza-an-update
#14
Amaran Moodley, John S Bradley, David W Kimberlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Influenza virus can cause severe or life-threatening infection in children. This review provides an update on antiviral medications available to treat and prevent influenza in both healthy children and children with underlying medical conditions, and recommendations on their appropriate use in the outpatient and inpatient settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with influenza infection, a large number of children hospitalized with influenza do not receive specific antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736236/temporal-relationship-between-antibiotic-use-and-respiratory-virus-activities-in-the-republic-of-korea-a-time-series-analysis
#15
Sukhyun Ryu, Sojung Kim, Bryan I Kim, Eili Y Klein, Young Kyung Yoon, Byung Chul Chun
Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics increases resistance and reduces their effectiveness. Despite evidence-based guidelines, antibiotics are still commonly used to treat infections likely caused by respiratory viruses. In this study, we examined the temporal relationships between antibiotic usage and respiratory infections in the Republic of Korea. Methods: The number of monthly antibiotic prescriptions and the incidence of acute respiratory tract infections between 2010 and 2015 at all primary care clinics were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734964/best-practice-assessment-of-disease-modelling-for-infectious-disease-outbreaks
#16
Z F Dembek, T Chekol, A Wu
During emerging disease outbreaks, public health, emergency management officials and decision-makers increasingly rely on epidemiological models to forecast outbreak progression and determine the best response to health crisis needs. Outbreak response strategies derived from such modelling may include pharmaceutical distribution, immunisation campaigns, social distancing, prophylactic pharmaceuticals, medical care, bed surge, security and other requirements. Infectious disease modelling estimates are unavoidably subject to multiple interpretations, and full understanding of a model's limitations may be lost when provided from the disease modeller to public health practitioner to government policymaker...
May 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728118/recurrence-of-pericarditis-after-influenza-vaccination-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Riccardo Mei, Emanuel Raschi, Elisabetta Poluzzi, Igor Diemberger, Fabrizio De Ponti
BACKGROUND: This case report describes a patient with pericarditis likely attributed to influenza vaccination (positive rechallenge), with a literature review. CASE PRESENTATION: A 87-year old patient developed pericarditis after influenza vaccination, with acute chest pain, without ECG abnormalities or increased cardiac enzyme levels. Echocardiogram showed moderate pericardial effusion. Recovery was obtained through steroids One year later, few days after re-immunization, the patient experienced the same symptoms and was admitted to hospital with diagnosis of recurrence of pericarditis with severe pericardial effusion, again treated with steroids...
May 5, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724509/does-consecutive-influenza-vaccination-reduce-protection-against-influenza-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Jessica J Bartoszko, Isabella F McNamara, Oguz A Z Aras, Danielle A Hylton, Yuan B Zhang, Danya Malhotra, Sarah L Hyett, Rita E Morassut, Paulina Rudziak, Mark Loeb
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against influenza on an annual basis is widely recommended, yet recent studies suggest consecutive vaccination may reduce vaccine effectiveness (VE). PURPOSE: To assess whether when examining the entirety of existing data consecutive influenza vaccination reduces VE compared to current season influenza vaccination. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to April 26, 2017; citations of included studies...
April 30, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716771/estimating-the-annual-attack-rate-of-seasonal-influenza-among-unvaccinated-individuals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Mitchell P Somes, Robin M Turner, Liam J Dwyer, Anthony T Newall
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal influenza affects millions of people globally each year, causing significant morbidity and mortality. However, there remains substantial uncertainty about the attack rate (incidence) of influenza, particularly in unvaccinated individuals. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of vaccine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that reported on laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza in the placebo arm. We calculated the influenza attack rate from included studies as the number of laboratory-confirmed positive seasonal influenza cases in the placebo arm divided by the total number of subjects in this arm...
April 28, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716545/management-and-control-of-communicable-diseases-in-schools-and-other-child-care-settings-systematic-review-on-the-incubation-period-and-period-of-infectiousness
#20
Ida Czumbel, Chantal Quinten, Pierluigi Lopalco, Jan C Semenza
BACKGROUND: Information on the incubation period and period of infectiousness or shedding of infectious pathogens is critical for management and control of communicable diseases in schools and other childcare settings. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review (Pubmed and Embase) to identify and critically appraise all relevant published articles using incubation, infectiousness or shedding, and exclusion period as parameters for the search. No language, time, geographical or study design restrictions were applied...
May 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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