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mediastinal shift

William Spencer Cheyne, Alexandra Mackenzie Williams, Megan Harper, Neil Derek Eves
COPD is associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH), increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and large increases in negative intrathoracic pressure (nITP). The individual and interactive effect of these stressors on left ventricular (LV) filling, emptying and geometry, and the role of direct ventricular interaction (DVI) in mediating these interactions have not been fully elucidated. Twenty healthy subjects were exposed to the following stressors alone and in combination: 1) inspiratory resistive loading of -20 cmH2O (nITP), 2) expiratory resistive loading to cause dynamic hyperinflation (DH), and 3) normobaric-hypoxia to increase PVR (hPVR)...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
P Chaveeva, V Stratieva, H Shivachev, S Aktash, M Panova, A Shterev
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To present a case of macrocystic type cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM) treated with thoraco-amniotic shunt and to review the published data to evaluate the efficiency of thoraco-amniotic shunts for drainage of (CCAM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This wass case reported of a fetus with a large thoracic cyst, major mediastinal shift and polyhidramnion treated with thoraco-amniotic shunting. We identified 8 cases diagnosed with CCAM and only one case met the criteria for fetal surgery...
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
Mai Lykkegaard Schmidt, Lone Hoffmann, Marianne Marquard Knap, Torben Riis Rasmussen, Birgitte Holst Folkersen, Jakob Toftegaard, Ditte Sloth Møller, Per Rugård Poulsen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Involved mediastinal lymph nodes (LNs) are often included in the radiotherapy target for lung cancer patients. Their motion may differ from the primary tumor motion, possibly undermining the loco-regional control. This study determines the detailed differential target motion throughout the treatment course. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten lung cancer patients with 2-4 fiducial markers implanted in LN targets received IMRT with a daily pre-treatment cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan...
August 2, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Magdalena Litwińska, Ewelina Litwińska, Katarzyna Janiak, Anna Piaseczna-Piotrowska, Ewa Gulczyńska, Krzysztof Szaflik
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of thoracoamniotic shunts for drainage of macrocystic-type congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 12 fetuses with a large thoracic cyst treated with thoracoamniotic shunting between 2004 and 2014 in a tertiary fetal therapy center. Medline was searched to identify cases of CCAM treated with thoracoamniotic shunting. RESULTS: In all cases the thoracic cyst was associated with major mediastinal shift, the CCAM volume ratio (CVR) was >1...
August 5, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Yoon Kyung Kim, Jeung Sook Kim, Kyung Won Lee, Chin A Yi, Jin Mo Koo, Soon-Hee Jung
OBJECTIVE: To compare the multidetector CT (MDCT) features of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and metastatic pleural disease (MPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors reviewed the MDCT images of 167 patients, 103 patients with MPM and 64 patients with MPD. All 167 cases were pathologically confirmed by sonography-guided needle biopsy of pleura, thoracoscopic pleural biopsy, or open thoracotomy. CT features were evaluated with respect to pleural effusion, pleural thickening, invasion of other organs, lung abnormality, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal shifting, thoracic volume decrease, asbestosis, and the presence of pleural plaque...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Tuğçe Tural-Kara, Halil Özdemir, Ergin Çiftçi, Erdal İnce
Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare disease, which is characterized by pulmoner hyperinflation. Depending on the degree of bronchial obstruction, the clinical presentation may be variable. We report a rare case with congenital lobar emphysema in a 38-days-old male infant who presented with severe respiratory distress and hypertension. Air trapping in the left upper lung and significant mediastinal shift to the right were observed on the chest x-ray. Emphysematous changes were detected on the thorax computed tomography and considered as congenital lobar emphysema...
July 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
W Schummer, A Hottenrott, C Nissel
This article presents the case of a 43 year old woman with right-sided lung cancer. She underwent transpericardial pneumonectomy. After an uneventfull surgery, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit for postoperative monitoring. She was hemodynamically stable and had already been extubated in the OR.On postoperative chest X‑ray a mediastinal shift to the operated side as well as a herniation of the heart into the right chest cavity was detected. While the patient remained hemodynamically stable a computed tomography of the chest was performed which confirmed the diagnosis of cardiac herniation and torsion...
July 5, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Melissa Thompson, Stephen Wills, Roger W Byard
Diaphragmatic defects are a relatively common and benign finding in adults which may be congenital or secondarily acquired. The case files at Forensic Sciences South Australia were reviewed over a 10-year period from July 2005 to June 2015 for all adult (>17 years) cases in which diaphragmatic hernias were identified at postmortem examination that had either caused or contributed to death. Five cases were found: age range 49-90 years (average 67.2 years); male:female ratio 2:3. Herniated organs included the stomach (N = 3), small (N = 3) and large intestines (N = 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Brett W Carter, Myrna C B Godoy, Carol C Wu, Jeremy J Erasmus, Mylene T Truong
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States, and accurate staging of disease plays an important role in the formulation of treatment strategies and optimization of patient outcomes. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has recently proposed changes to the upcoming eighth edition of the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM-8) staging system used for lung cancer. This revised classification is based on significant differences in patient survival identified on analysis of a new large international database of lung cancer cases...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Mohammad Vaziri, Kamelia Rad
Thymolipomas are rare tumors of the anterior mediastinum containing both thymic stroma and an abundance of fat. We present a 40-year-old man with no underlying disease who presented with cough and progressive dyspnea. Clinical evaluation revealed a giant mass of lipid density filling almost the entire left hemithorax with mediastinal shift. Total excision of the 40 × 33 × 8 cm mass weighing 4 kg was performed via a left thoracotomy and the histopathologic diagnosis of the mass was reported as thymolipoma...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Shintaro Koizumi, Seiichi Yamaguchi, Soichi Asano, Hisanori Fujita, Tomonori Sueta, Shigeyasu Takeuchi
A 78-year-old man presented with back pain and shock and was transferred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a ruptured aortic dissection in which the false lumen was thrombosed with an ulcer-like projection, and the mid-esophagus was shifted to the right due to a mediastinal hematoma. He underwent emergency thoracic endovascular aortic repair of the descending thoracic aorta. One week later, esophageal necrosis occurred, and he died of mediastinitis and sepsis on postoperative day 16. Although esophageal necrosis is a rare and fatal complication after thoracic endovascular aortic repair, a management strategy has not yet been established...
June 9, 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Muhammad Abdullah, Paul Stonelake
A very rare case of traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is reported in a 65-year-old woman who presented 46 years after her initial thoracoabdominal injury with tension faecopneumothorax caused by a perforated colon in the chest cavity. She presented in a critical condition with severe respiratory distress, sepsis and acute kidney injury. She had a long-standing history of bronchial asthma with respiratory complications and had experienced progressive shortness of breath for the past year. A recent CT scan had excluded the presence of a diaphragmatic hernia but showed a significantly raised left hemidiaphragm...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Hui Jun Lim, Chong Hee Lim
Congenital bullous emphysema is defined as large bullae involving at least one-third of a hemithorax. We describe the case of a 32-year-old female who presented with increasing shortness of breath. Radiological investigations revealed severe emphysema with hyperexpansion of the right lung and a mediastinal shift to the left. A lung perfusion scan showed reduced perfusion in the right lung. The patient underwent a right pneumonectomy with a diagnosis of congenital bullous emphysema. She was doing well 6 years later...
July 2016: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Michael R Mallmann, Viola Graham, Bettina Rösing, Ingo Gottschalk, Andreas Müller, Ulrich Gembruch, Annegret Geipel, Christoph Berg
OBJECTIVE: To assess predictors for survival and complications among a relatively large cohort of fetuses with hydrothorax treated by thoracoamniotic shunting. METHODS: All cases with hydrothorax treated by thoracoamniotic shunting in a 10-year period (2002-2011) in two centers were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 78 fetuses with hydrothorax treated with thoracoamniotic shunting were included in the study. Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 25...
May 13, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Rakesh K Chawla, Arun Madan, Aditya Chawla, Harsh Nandini Arora, Kiran Chawla
Unilateral opaque lung with ipsilateral mediastinal shift is an uncommon cause of respiratory distress in newborn which can be found on simple radiograph of the chest. Pulmonary agenesis is a rare cause of unilateral opaque lung in the newborn. Nearly 50% cases of pulmonary agenesis are associated with other congenital defects including cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems. We report an infant with agenesis of the right lung associated with other congenital anomalies.
October 2015: Indian Journal of Chest Diseases & Allied Sciences
Sadık Volkan Emren, Selcen Yakar Tülüce, Kamil Tülüce
UNLABELLED: The congenital unilateral agenesis of pulmonary artery is a congenital cardiovascular anomaly rarely seen in adulthood. A 21-year-old asymptomatic male was admitted to our hospital to obtain a routine health report to accompany a job application. Posteroanterior chest radiograph revealed a mediastinal shift to the left, with increased radiopacity in the left lung and increased radiolucency in the right lung. Thoracoabdominal computed tomography revealed hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery...
November 2015: Acta Cardiol Sin
Amitabh Das Shukla, Neha Agrawal, Alok Chandra, Shreenivasa Anantha, Abhinav Chaudhary
Pulmonary agenesis, a rare congenital condition, is incompatible with life when present bilateral, while unilateral agenesis is usually detected in infancy or early childhood. Rare asymptomatic patients may reach adulthood undiagnosed, with signs mimicking common conditions presenting as radiopaque hemithorax with ipsilateral mediastinal shift. Here, we describe a case of a young lady, with history of consanguinity, who presented with complaints, suggestive of lower respiratory tract infection, and was investigated and diagnosed to be a case of right-side pulmonary agenesis with large ostium secondum atrial septal defect...
April 2016: Respirology Case Reports
Y T Liew, Elizabeth Yenn Lynn Lim, A B Zulkiflee, N Prepageran
Descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) is a rapidly progressive disease from the spread of cervical infection. Transcervical and transthoracic drainage was the recognized traditional surgical approach to achieve adequate clearance of infection. Non-invasive vacuum-assisted dressing is a new technique where applied negative pressure can help remove infective fluid and to promote wound healing. A 60-year-old man presented with odynophagia, fever and anterior neck swelling for 2 weeks. He was diagnosed to have anterior neck abscess and underwent surgical drainage...
March 25, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Pradipta Parida, Nirmal Shanmugasundaram Nirmal, Surianarayanan Gopalakrishnan, Sunil Kumar Saxena
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and radiological findings to make early diagnosis of foreign body (FB) aspiration in children. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 45 children below 12 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of FB aspiration undergone rigid bronchoscopy from September 2008 to may 2010. RESULTS: Bronchoscopy was positive for FB in 37 children. The results of these 37 children (15 female and 22 male) were analyzed...
2015: Otolaryngologia Polska. the Polish Otolaryngology
Ryan Yates, Jun Zhang
The diagnosis of lung cancer in pregnancy is rare. Most cases are quite advanced and have dismal outcomes despite treatment. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Stage IIIA (T3N2M0) squamous-cell carcinoma of the lung with lymphoepithelioma-like features at the 18(th) week of pregnancy. A chest CT revealed a large right hilar mass with obliteration of the right main bronchus and resulting collapse of the right lung with mediastinal shift to the right. A transbronchial biopsy of the mass and a subcarinal lymph node confirmed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with lymphoepithelioma-like features...
2015: Curēus
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