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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322404/in-vivo-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colitis-associated-cancer
#1
Ka Yee Fung, Tracy Putoczki
A single layer of epithelial cells separates luminal antigens from the host immune system throughout the gastrointestinal tract. A breakdown in the integrity of the epithelial barrier can lead to chronic inflammation, which is associated with numerous complications including cancer. Here we describe three experimental protocols to chemically induce acute and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) symptoms and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. These in vivo mouse models are based on the induction of damage to the colonic epithelium, resulting in an inflammatory and wound healing response...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313389/multi-target-stool-dna-test-in-the-surveillance-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#2
Pasquale Klepp, John B Kisiel, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Arne Røseth, Solveig N Andersen, Morten H Vatn, David A Ahlquist, Bjørn A Moum, Stephan Brackmann
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Colonoscopic surveillance is recommended in patients with longstanding inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as they are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Non-invasive surveillance may improve compliance and access. Multi-target stool DNA (MT-sDNA) has been validated for screening of sporadic CRC but has not been assessed in IBD. Our aim was to assess the performance of a MT-sDNA test in a real-life surveillance setting of patients with longstanding IBD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 192 IBD patients enrolled from two prospective cohorts submitted an EDTA buffered stool sample and underwent chromo- or white light colonoscopy...
January 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294595/should-asymptomatic-young-men-with-iron-deficiency-anemia-necessarily-undergo-endoscopy
#3
Nam Hee Kim, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Chong Il Sohn, Kyuyong Choi, Yoon Suk Jung
Background/Aims: There has been no evidence for the necessity of endoscopy in asymptomatic young men with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). To determine whether endoscopy should be recommended in asymptomatic young men with IDA, we compared the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) lesions between young men (< 50 years) with IDA and those without IDA. Methods: We conducted a case-control study on asymptomatic young men aged < 50 years who underwent both esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy as part of a health checkup between 2010 and 2014...
January 5, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275959/mtorc1-inactivation-promotes-colitis-induced-colorectal-cancer-but-protects-from-apc-loss-dependent-tumorigenesis
#4
Marta Brandt, Tatiana P Grazioso, Mohamad-Ali Fawal, Krishna S Tummala, Raul Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales, Cristian Perna, Nabil Djouder
Dietary habits that can induce inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are major colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors, but mechanisms linking nutrients, IBD, and CRC are unknown. Using human data and mouse models, we show that mTORC1 inactivation-induced chromosomal instability impairs intestinal crypt proliferation and regeneration, CDK4/6 dependently. This triggers interleukin (IL)-6-associated reparative inflammation, inducing crypt hyper-proliferation, wound healing, and CRC. Blocking IL-6 signaling or reactivating mTORC1 reduces inflammation-induced CRC, so mTORC1 activation suppresses tumorigenesis in IBD...
December 19, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272976/recent-advancements-in-nanoparticle-based-drug-delivery-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#5
Rahul Mittal, Amit P Patel, Vasanti M Jhaveri, Sae-In Samantha Kay, Luca H Debs, James M Parrish, Debbie R Pan, Desiree Nguyen, Jeenu Mittal, Rahul Dev Jayant
The emergent field of nanoparticles has presented a wealth of opportunities for improving the treatment of human diseases. Recent advances have allowed for promising developments in drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Modified delivery systems allow improved drug delivery over traditional pH, microbe, or receptor dependent models, while antibody association allows for more advanced imaging modalities. Nanoparticles have potential clinical application in the field of gastroenterology as they offer several advantages compared to the conventional treatment systems including target drug delivery, enhanced treatment efficacy, and reduced side effects...
December 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259973/mediterranean-diet-prevention-of-colorectal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Micah G Donovan, Ornella I Selmin, Tom C Doetschman, Donato F Romagnolo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230115/interval-colorectal-cancers-at-ochsner-medical-center-where-do-we-stand
#7
Felicia Humphrey, Mariella Gastañaduy, James Smith, Charles B Whitlow
Background: An interval colorectal cancer is a cancer diagnosed prior to the recommended follow-up time from a previously negative colonoscopy. These cancers are thought to arise from a rapidly growing cancer, missed cancer, or incompletely resected adenomas. Our study aimed to identify interval cancers diagnosed during a 4-year period and to identify any potential risk factors associated with these cancers. Secondly, we compared our interval colorectal cancer rate with other published rates...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216349/developing-a-standard-set-of-patient-centred-outcomes-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-international-cross-disciplinary-consensus
#8
Andrew H Kim, Charlotte Roberts, Brian G Feagan, Rupa Banerjee, Willem Bemelman, Keith Bodger, Marc Derieppe, Axel Dignass, Richard Driscoll, Ray Fitzpatrick, Janette Gaarentstroom-Lunt, Peter D Higgins, Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Jillian Meissner, Marian O'Connor, Zhi-Hua Ran, Corey A Siegel, Helen Terry, Welmoed K van Deen, C Janneke van der Woude, Alandra Weaver, Suk-Kyun Yang, Bruce E Sands, Séverine Vermeire, Simon Pl Travis
Background and Aims: Success in delivering value-based healthcare involves measuring outcomes that matter most to patients. Our aim was to develop a minimum Standard Set of patient-centred outcome measures for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for use in different healthcare settings. Methods: An international working group (n=25) representing patients, patient associations, gastroenterologists, surgeons, specialist nurses, IBD registries and patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) methodologists participated in a series of teleconferences incorporating a modified Delphi process...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215479/major-abdominal-and-perianal-surgery-in-crohn-s-disease-long-term-follow-up-of-australian-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
James W T Toh, Nelson Wang, Christopher J Young, Matthew J F X Rickard, Anil Keshava, Peter Stewart, Viraj Kariyawasam, Rupert Leong
BACKGROUND: Most patients with Crohn's disease still require surgery despite significant advances in medical therapy, surveillance, and management strategies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess surgical strategies and outcomes in Crohn's disease, including surgical recurrence and emergency surgery. DESIGN: This was a multicenter, retrospective review of a prospectively collected database. SETTINGS: A specialist-referred cohort of patients with Crohn's disease between 1970 and 2009 was studied...
January 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214422/emu-oil-improves-clinical-indicators-of-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#10
Lauren C Chartier, Gordon S Howarth, Ian C Lawrance, Debbie Trinder, Scott J Barker, Suzanne Mashtoub
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ulcerative colitis is a remitting and relapsing inflammatory bowel disorder. Current treatments are limited, and if poorly controlled, colitis may progress to colorectal cancer. Previously, Emu Oil protected the intestine in experimental models of gut damage. We aimed to determine whether Emu Oil could reduce the severity of chronic colitis and prevent the onset of neoplasia in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were injected (day 0) with azoxymethane, followed by ad libitum access to three dextran sulfate sodium/water cycles (7 days of dextran sulfate sodium and 14 days of water)...
December 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205426/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-thiopurines-decrease-the-risk-of-colorectal-neoplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
M J Lu, X Y Qiu, X Q Mao, X T Li, H J Zhang
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a high risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. AIM: To investigate whether thiopurines can decrease the risk of developing colorectal neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 24 observational studies involving 76,999 participants to evaluate the risks of developing colorectal neoplasia in IBD patients receiving thiopurine treatment...
December 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203393/pyrin-inflammasome-regulates-tight-junction-integrity-to-restrict-colitis-and-tumorigenesis
#12
Deepika Sharma, Ankit Malik, Clifford S Guy, Rajendra Karki, Peter Vogel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) increase risk for colorectal cancer. Mutations in the Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV or pyrin) are associated with hereditary autoinflammatory disease and severe IBD. Expression of MEFV, a sensor protein that the initiates assembly of the inflammasome complex, is increased in colon biopsies from patients with IBD. We investigated the role of pyrin in intestinal homeostasis in mice. METHODS: Mefv-/- mice and C57/BL6 mice (controls) were given azoxymethane followed by multiple rounds of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis and tumorigenesis...
December 1, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189972/plasma-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-nested-case-control-study-in-the-multiethnic-cohort
#13
Jessica S Citronberg, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Unhee Lim, Kristine R Monroe, Meredith A J Hullar, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Johanna W Lampe
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin found on the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, increases inflammatory response signaling and may play a role in the pathogenesis of several adverse outcomes, including inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. While LPS is hypothesized to be associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, there are relatively few human studies which have examined this association. METHODS: We examined the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of LPS, in 1,638 participants (819 CRC cases and 819 controls) matched on multiple factors, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, from the Multiethnic Cohort study...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189768/inflammatory-bowel-disease-adversely-impacts-colorectal-cancer-surgery-short-term-outcomes-and-health-care-resource-utilization
#14
Mitchell Ramsey, Somashekar G Krishna, Peter P Stanich, Syed Husain, Edward J Levine, Darwin Conwell, Alice Hinton, Cheng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to patients without IBD. There is a lack of population-based data evaluating the in-patient surgical outcomes of CRC in IBD patients. We sought to compare the hospital outcomes of CRC surgery between patients with and without IBD. METHODS: We used the National Inpatient Sample (2008-2012) and Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD, 2013) and selected all adult patients (age ≥18 years) with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) who underwent CRC surgery...
November 30, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189428/wake-up-call-to-clinicians-the-impact-of-sleep-dysfunction-on-gastrointestinal-health-and-disease
#15
Parth J Parekh, Edward C Oldfield, David A Johnson
Sleep dysfunction is an epidemic affecting a large portion of the adult population. Recent studies have linked sleep dysfunction with an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (eg, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6), the implications of which can have a profound impact on a variety of gastrointestinal disease. In particular, sleep dysfunction seems to accelerate disease states characterized by inflammation (eg, gastroesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia, chronic liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154194/micrornas-in-intestinal-barrier-function-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-related-cancers-their-effects-and-therapeutic-potentials
#16
REVIEW
Esmerina Tili, Jean-Jacques Michaille, Victoria Piurowski, Brooke Rigot, Carlo M Croce
The initiation and development or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated colorectal cancers, have been linked to inflammation. MicroRNAs are non-coding regulators of gene expression that have gained great attention due to their capability to regulate the expression of a number of target transcripts. It is now generally admitted that microRNAs are instrumental in gut pathologies, in particular through their targeting of transcripts encoding proteins of the intestinal barrier (IB) and their regulators...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147110/colorectal-malignancy-in-a-prospective-irish-inflammatory-bowel-disease-population-15-years-since-diagnosis-comparison-with-the-ec-ibd-cohort
#17
Mary Shuhaibar, Colm O'Morain
Background and Aim: As part of the EC-IBD prospective inception cohort study, we had unique opportunity to follow up our patients since diagnosis in the early 1990s. Patients and Methods: All patients from the greater Dublin area (n = 192) were followed up from inception between 1991 and 1993 until the 30 September 2009. Patients who developed malignancies were logged electronically with verification of the site and histology. Results: Of the initial 192 patients, 133 were included in the 15-year follow-up...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133254/characteristics-and-progression-of-preclinical-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
Iago Rodríguez-Lago, Olga Merino, Irene Azagra, Ainara Maiz, Eva Zapata, Rebeca Higuera, Isabel Montalvo, María Fernández-Calderón, Paz Arreba, Juan Carrascosa, Ainara Iriarte, Isabel Portillo, Urko Aguirre, Manuel Barreiro-de Acosta, Miguel Muñoz-Navas, José Luis Cabriada
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease usually diagnosed after the appearance of gastrointestinal symptoms. Little is known about IBD progression during its early and even preclinical phases. We aimed to determine the number of new incidental diagnoses of IBD in an older population, and evaluate disease progression from its early stages. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 31,005 colonoscopies performed during colorectal cancer screening of patients with positive results from fecal immunochemical tests, at 11 centers in the Basque Country (Spain) from 2009 through 2014...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129972/inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer
#19
Apple G Long, Emma T Lundsmith, Kathryn E Hamilton
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in both men and women in the United States, resulting in over 55,000 deaths annually. Environmental and genetic factors influence the development of CRC, and inflammation is a critical hallmark of cancer that may arise from a variety of factors. Purpose of review: While patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of developing CRC, sporadic CRCs may engender or be potentiated by inflammation as well. In this review, we focus on recent advances in basic and translational research utilizing murine models to understand the contribution of inflammatory signaling pathways to CRC...
August 2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118756/th17-cell-and-epithelial-cell-crosstalk-during-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-carcinogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Jan Kempski, Leonie Brockmann, Nicola Gagliani, Samuel Huber
The intestine is colonized by hundreds of different species of commensal bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Therefore, the intestinal immune system is constantly being challenged by foreign antigens. The immune system, the commensal microbiota, and the intestinal epithelial surface have to maintain a tight balance to guarantee defense against potential pathogens and to prevent chronic inflammatory conditions at the same time. Failure of these mechanisms can lead to a vicious cycle in which a perpetual tissue damage/repair process results in a pathological reorganization of the normal mucosal surface...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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