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colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922695/strategies-for-detecting-colon-cancer-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
REVIEW
William A Bye, Tran M Nguyen, Claire E Parker, Vipul Jairath, James E East
BACKGROUND: Patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with the general population. This review assessed the evidence that endoscopic surveillance may prolong life by allowing earlier detection of CRC or its pre-cursor lesion, dysplasia, in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of cancer surveillance programs for diagnosis of IBD-associated colorectal cancer and in reducing the mortality rate from colorectal cancer in patients with IBD...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914591/mucosa-associated-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-colitis-associated-cancer
#2
Mathias L Richard, Giuseppina Liguori, Bruno Lamas, Giovanni Brandi, Gregory da Costa, Thomas W Hoffmann, Massimo Pierluigi Di Simone, Carlo Calabrese, Gilberto Poggioli, Philippe Langella, Massimo Campieri, Harry Sokol
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota has also been recognized as potentially involved in aggravating or favoring the tumor development. However, very little is known on the structure and role of the microbiota in colitis associated cancer (CAC), an important complication of IBD in human. Here we analyzed the bacterial and fungal composition of the mucosa associated microbiota of patients suffering CAC, sporadic cancer (SC) and of healthy subjects (HS) by barcode sequences analysis on the following cohort: 7 CAC patients, 10 SC patients and 10 HS using 16S (MiSeq) and ITS2 (pyrosequencing) sequencing, for bacteria and fungi respectively...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905524/first-experience-in-colorectal-surgery-with-a-new-robotic-platform-with-haptic-feedback
#3
Antonino Spinelli, Giulia David, Stefano Gidaro, Michele Carvello, Matteo Sacchi, Marco Montorsi, Isacco Montroni
The use of robotic techniques is increasing in colorectal surgery. Recently, the Senhance(™) surgical robotic system was introduced as a novel robotic platform designed to overcome some of the limits of standard laparoscopy. This study describes the initial, single center experience, evaluating feasibility and safety of the new robotic system in performing colorectal surgical procedures. METHODS: From June 2015 to November 2016, perioperative data of the first 45 patients who underwent robotic colorectal surgery with the SenhanceTM surgical robotic system were collected and analyzed...
September 14, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894048/the-role-of-bile-acids-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bowel-diseases
#4
Magdalena Panek-Jeziorna, Agata Mulak
Bile acids not only play a cardinal role in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins, but also significantly affect gastrointestinal motor, sensory and secretory functions, intestinal barrier permeability and the regulation of the inflammatory response. The results of recent studies have revealed complex interactions between bile acids and the gut microbiota. In addition, bile acids also play a role of signaling molecules regulating the activity of lipid and glucose metabolic pathways, as well as a role of ligands for transcription factors...
August 24, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884228/expression-of-atf6-as-a-marker-of-pre-cancerous-atypical-change-in-ulcerative-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-a-potential-role-in-the-management-of-dysplasia
#5
Marie Hanaoka, Toshiaki Ishikawa, Megumi Ishiguro, Michiyo Tokura, Shinichi Yamauchi, Akifumi Kikuchi, Hiroyuki Uetake, Masamichi Yasuno, Tatsuyuki Kawano
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is important in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), but it is often difficult to distinguish LGD from inflammatory regenerative epithelium. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in inflammatory bowel disease and malignancies. We aimed to identify a UPR-related gene that is involved in the development of non-UC and UC-associated colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate whether the target gene is useful for the diagnosis of LGD...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879209/colorectal-cancer-associated-with-strongyloides-stercoralis-colitis
#6
Carmine Catalano, Joshua Aron, Raghav Bansal, Anatoly Leytin
Strongyloides stercoralis colitis is a severe but easily curable disease with a high mortality rate if left untreated. Strongyloidiasis can persist up to several decades and may lead to a chronic colitis similar to that seen in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the two are often confused. Chronic colitis from IBD is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, so it is plausible that chronic colitis from strongyloidiasis may carry a similar risk. Our case report associates chronic Strongyloides colitis and colorectal cancer...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877044/novel-insights-into-microbiome-in-colitis-and-colorectal-cancer
#7
Ye Yang, Christian Jobin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbiota is a major player in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we summarize the key advances achieved in the past 18 months (ending June 2017) toward a better understanding of the role of microbiota in colitis and CRC development. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence shows the essential role of intestinal barrier function (e.g. mucus, IgA, LCN2, LYPD8) in protecting against bacteria-induced inflammation and tumor development...
September 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876560/what-is-the-diagnostic-yield-of-colonoscopy-in-patients-with-a-referral-diagnosis-of-constipation-in-south-africa
#8
M Mjoli, V Govindasamy, T E Madiba
BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common problem for referral to surgical and colorectal units. Its association with colorectal cancer is controversial. Some authors have found an increased incidence while others have not. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other significant colonoscopic pathologies in patients undergoing colonoscopy for constipation. METHOD: All colonoscopy reports for constipation were retrieved from our database from January 2011 to 30 June 2014...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874956/use-and-barriers-to-chromoendoscopy-for-dysplasia-surveillance-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
Richa Shukla, Mark Salem, Jason K Hou
Traditionally, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been thought to be at increased risk of developing colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Although there are recent data suggesting that rates of colitis-associated cancer in IBD patients is declining, current guidelines still recommend regular dysplasia surveillance for early detection and prevention of neoplasia in patients with IBD. White-light endoscopy with random biopsies has been the traditional approach for dysplasia detection; however, newer technologies and approaches have emerged...
August 16, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869601/role-of-smad-proteins-in-colitis-associated-cancer-from-known-to-the-unknown
#10
REVIEW
P Chandrasinghe, B Cereser, M Moorghen, I Al Bakir, N Tabassum, A Hart, J Stebbing, J Warusavitarne
Small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) proteins are a family of signal transduction molecules in transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) ligand pathways that have been found to have a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Long standing IBD predisposes individuals to colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC), an entity that possess unique characteristics compared to hereditary and sporadic cancer. The ligands of the TGFβ super family along with SMADs have also been implicated in several aspects of colorectal cancer formation...
September 4, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865167/colorectal-surveillance-after-segmental-resection-for-young-onset-colorectal-cancer-is-there-evidence-for-extended-resection
#11
V N Kozak, M F Kalady, M M Gamaleldin, J Liang, J M Church
AIM: Although sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) usually occurs in patients over 50, recent evidence suggests that the incidence is increasing in younger patients. Such patients are theoretically at high risk of metachronous neoplasia and may be candidates for extended, prophylactic, colectomy. This study aimed to define the risk of metachronous cancer/adenomas during follow-up of younger patients who underwent segmental colectomy for CRC. METHOD: A CRC database was used to identify patients aged less than 50 who underwent surgery for CRC between 1994 and 2010...
September 2, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852270/the-role-of-proinflammatory-pathways-in-the-pathogenesis-of-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Chengxin Luo, Hu Zhang
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The risk factors of CRC in IBD patients include long disease duration, extensive colitis, severe histological inflammation, and coexistence with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Several molecular pathways that contribute to sporadic CRC are also involved in the pathogenesis of colitis-associated CRC. It is well established that long-standing chronic inflammation is a key predisposing factor of CRC in IBD...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846107/nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor-2-has-a-differential-impact-on-mct1-and-mct4-lactate-carrier-expression-in-colonic-epithelial-cells-a-condition-favoring-metabolic-symbiosis-between-colorectal-cancer-and-stromal-cells
#13
K Diehl, L-A Dinges, O Helm, N Ammar, D Plundrich, A Arlt, C Röcken, S Sebens, H Schäfer
Malignant tumors, such as colorectal cancer (CRC), are heterogeneous diseases characterized by distinct metabolic phenotypes. These include Warburg- and reverse Warburg phenotypes depending on differential distribution of the lactate carrier proteins monocarboxylate transporter-4 and -1 (MCT4 and MCT1). Here, we elucidated the role of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) as the key regulator of cellular adaptation to inflammatory/environmental stress in shaping the metabolism toward a reverse Warburg phenotype in malignant and premalignant colonic epithelial cells...
August 28, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843957/association-of-aneuploidy-and-flat-dysplasia-with-development-of-high-grade-dysplasia-or-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Jia-Huei Tsai, Peter S Rabinovitch, Danning Huang, Thomas Small, Aras N Mattis, Sanjay Kakar, Won-Tak Choi
There is controversy over how to best manage patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and flat low-grade dysplasia (fLGD) in the colon. We performed a retrospective analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colon tissues with fLGD from 37 patients undergoing surveillance colonoscopy for IBD, from 1990 to 2015 at the University of California at San Francisco Medical Center, to determine whether detection of aneuploidy is associated with later development of high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or colorectal cancer (CRC)...
August 23, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839872/advanced-imaging-in-colonoscopy-contemporary-approach-to-dysplasia-surveillance-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Iosif Beintaris, Matt Rutter
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD)) is a chronic relapsing/remitting condition characterised by intestinal inflammation. One of the main concerns in patients with longstanding ulcerative and Crohn's colitis is development of colonic dysplasia and colorectal cancer (CRC), a risk higher than that of the general population. Colonoscopy surveillance programmes have been developed by major societies worldwide to improve early dysplasia detection and treatment, thus preventing progression to colorectal cancer...
October 2016: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838412/intestinal-and-nonintestinal-cancer-risks-for-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Sushil K Garg, Fernando S Velayos, John B Kisiel
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that confers a higher risk of cancer than in the general population. New, large, population-based studies in the past decade show that patients with CD are at higher risk of colorectal, small bowel, melanoma, and cervical cancer. Patients who use thiopurines are at additional risk of development of lymphoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Preventive surveillance for cancers of the colorectum, skin, and uterine cervix is advised.
September 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815035/long-term-follow-up-reveals-high-incidence-of-colorectal-cancer-in-indian-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Sawan Bopanna, Saurabh Kedia, Prasenjit Das, S Dattagupta, V Sreenivas, V Pratap Mouli, Rajan Dhingra, Rajesh Pradhan, N Suraj Kumar, Dawesh P Yadav, Govind Makharia, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: As the magnitude of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in India is low, magnitude of CRC in ulcerative colitis (UC) is also considered low. As a result, screening for CRC in UC although advocated may not be followed everywhere. We report our data of UC-related CRC from a low-incidence area of sporadic CRC. METHODS: A total of 1012 patients with left-sided colitis/pancolitis having more than one full-length colonoscopy performed at least a year after the onset of symptoms were included in retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained case records...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803403/endoscopic-surveillance-in-long-standing-colitis
#18
REVIEW
Brigid S Boland, Amandeep Shergill, Tonya Kaltenbach
There is a relative increase in the risk of colon cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affecting the colon, and endoscopic surveillance is advocated to mitigate this risk. The current standard practice is to survey this high-risk patient population using colonoscopy. Chromoendoscopy with targeted biopsies has emerged as the colonoscopy modality recommended by the major societies to optimize dysplasia detection. Studies over the past year support the improved yield from targeted as compared to random biopsies and improved dysplasia detection from chromoendoscopy as compared to white light endoscopy...
August 12, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802875/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Tom H Karlsen, Trine Folseraas, Douglas Thorburn, Mette Vesterhus
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare disorder characterized by multi-focal bile duct strictures and progressive liver disease. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is usually present and there is a high risk of cholangiocarcinoma and colorectal cancer. With no effective medical therapy, most patients ultimately require liver transplantation, after which disease recurrence may occur. With limited therapeutic options and lack of proven surveillance strategies, patients experience significant unmet needs...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797636/modulating-effect-of-inositol-hexaphosphate-on-arachidonic-acid-dependent-pathways-in-colon-cancer-cells
#20
Małgorzata Kapral, Joanna Wawszczyk, Stanisław Sośnicki, Katarzyna Jesse, Ludmiła Węglarz
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) are key enzymes of arachidonic acid metabolism. Their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a naturally occurring phytochemical, on the expression of genes encoding COX and LOX isoforms and synthesis of their products (PGE2 and LTB4) in colon cancer cell line Caco-2 stimulated with pro-inflammatory agents (IL-1β/TNFα)...
August 8, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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