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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422363/the-occhiolino-occ-mutant-zebrafish-a-model-for-development-of-the-optical-function-in-the-biological-lens
#1
Masamoto Aose, Tor H Linbo, Owen Lawrence, Tadashi Senoo, David W Raible, John I Clark
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish visual function depends on quality optics. An F3 screen for developmental mutations in the zebrafish nervous system was conducted in wild-type (wt) AB zebrafish exposed to 3 mM of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). RESULTS: Mutant offspring, identified in an F3 screen, were characterized by a small pupil, resulting from retinal hypertrophy or hyperplasia and a small lens. Deficits in visual function made feeding difficult after hatching at approximately 5-6 dpf (days post fertilization)...
April 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420873/viewing-immune-regulation-as-it-happens-in-vivo-imaging-for-investigation-of-regulatory-t-cell-function
#2
REVIEW
Michael J Hickey, Zachary Chow
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play indispensable roles in the immune system, in limiting excessive or inappropriate immune and inflammatory responses. They achieve this function via effects on other immune cells in the secondary lymphoid system, and in peripheral locations such as skin, gut and bone marrow. As for the more extensively-studied cellular players in the immune system, particularly dendritic cells and conventional T cells, in vivo imaging of Tregs via two-photon or multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been central to the development of understanding how these cells function...
April 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397809/second-harmonic-generation-imaging-of-corneal-stroma-after-infection-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Danielle M Robertson, Nathan A Rogers, W Matthew Petroll, Meifang Zhu
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic gram-negative organism that has the ability to cause blinding corneal infections following trauma and during contact lens wear. In this study, we investigated the directional movement and orientation of an invasive corneal isolate of P. aeruginosa in the corneal stroma during infection of ex vivo and in vivo rabbit corneas using multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Ex vivo, rabbit corneas were subject to three partial thickness wounds prior to inoculation...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389037/idiopathic-atrophoderma-of-pasini-and-pierini-a-case-study-of-collagen-and-elastin-texture-by-multiphoton-microscopy
#4
Gislaine Vieira-Damiani, Denise Lage, Patrícia Érica Christofoletti Daldon, Caroline Romanelli Tibúrcio Alves, Maria Letícia Cintra, Konradin Metze, Javier Adur, Vitor B Pelegati, Hernandes F Carvalho, Carlos Lenz Cesar
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of idiopathic atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini (IAPP) relies on typical clinical features, particularly distinctive pigmented ovular/round depressed plaques. Histologic examination often reveals no obvious changes, but patterns of collagen distribution, using multiphoton imaging and second harmonic generation can help track hidden details of tissue organization contributing to atrophy. OBJECTIVE: To identify histologic features that distinguish IAPP from unaffected skin...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381061/order-of-magnitude-multiphoton-signal-enhancement-based-on-characterization-of-absorption-spectra-of-immersion-oils-at-the-1700-nm-window
#5
Ke Wang, Wenhui Wen, Yuxin Wang, Kai Wang, Jiexing He, Jiaqi Wang, Peng Zhai, Yanfu Yang, Ping Qiu
To enhance signal levels in multiphoton microscopy (MPM) at the deep-tissue excitation window (1600-1820 nm) with oil immersion, we demonstrate: First, the absorption spectra of several commonly immersion oils are characterized, which were unknown before. Second, new material with lower absorption based on mixing is proposed. Third, optimal selection of excitation wavelength within this window is proposed based on absorption spectra characterization. Second and third harmonic generation imaging of mouse tissue corroborate our selection: 1600-nm excitation leads to notable orders-of-magnitude increase in MPM signal, compared with 1700-nm excitation, enabling 200-µm imaging depth of mouse skin while 1700-nm excitation could resolve virtually no structure...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381046/correction-of-spherical-aberration-in-multi-focal-multiphoton-microscopy-with-spatial-light-modulator
#6
Naoya Matsumoto, Alu Konno, Yasushi Ohbayashi, Takashi Inoue, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Kenji Uchimura, Kenji Kadomatsu, Shigetoshi Okazaki
We demonstrate that high-quality images of the deep regions of a thick sample can be obtained from its surface by multi-focal multiphoton microscopy (MMM). The MMM system incorporates a spatial light modulator to separate the excitation beam into a multi-focal excitation beam and modulate the pre-distortion wavefront to correct spherical aberration (SA) caused by a refractive index mismatch between the immersion medium and the biological sample. When fluorescent beads in transparent epoxy resin were observed using four SA-corrected focal beams, the fluorescence signal of the obtained images was ~52 times higher than that obtained without SA correction until a depth of ~1100 μm, similar to the result for single-focal multiphoton microscopy (SMM)...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381024/energetic-ultrafast-fiber-laser-sources-tunable-in-1030-1215-nm-for-deep-tissue-multi-photon-microscopy
#7
Wei Liu, Shih-Hsuan Chia, Hsiang-Yu Chung, Rüdiger Greinert, Franz X Kärtner, Guoqing Chang
We demonstrate an energy scalable approach to implement ultrafast fiber laser sources suitable for deep tissue multi-photon microscopy imaging. Enabled by fiber-optic nonlinearities (dominated by self-phase modulation), these unique ultrafast sources produce nearly transform-limited pulses of 50-90 fs in duration with the center wavelength tunable in the wavelength range of 1030-1215 nm. The resulting pulse energy can be scaled up to 20 nJ by optimizing fiber dispersion, shortening fiber length, and using large-mode-area fibers...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361968/photodynamic-dye-adsorption-and-release-performance-of-natural-zeolite
#8
Vladimir Hovhannisyan, Chen-Yuan Dong, Shean-Jen Chen
Clinoptilolite type of zeolite (CZ) is a promising material for biomedicine and pharmaceutics due to its non-toxicity, thermal stability, expanded surface area, and exceptional ability to adsorb various atoms and organic molecules into micropores. Using multiphoton microscopy, we demonstrated that individual CZ particles produce two-photon excited luminescence and second harmonic generation signal at femtosecond laser excitation, and adsorb photo-dynamically active dyes such as hypericin and methylene blue...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357604/affine-kinematics-in-planar-fibrous-connective-tissues-an-experimental-investigation
#9
C Jayyosi, J-S Affagard, G Ducourthial, C Bonod-Bidaud, B Lynch, S Bancelin, F Ruggiero, M-C Schanne-Klein, J-M Allain, K Bruyère-Garnier, M Coret
The affine transformation hypothesis is usually adopted in order to link the tissue scale with the fibers scale in structural constitutive models of fibrous tissues. Thanks to the recent advances in imaging techniques, such as multiphoton microscopy, the microstructural behavior and kinematics of fibrous tissues can now be monitored at different stretching within the same sample. Therefore, the validity of the affine hypothesis can be investigated. In this paper, the fiber reorientation predicted by the affine assumption is compared to experimental data obtained during mechanical tests on skin and liver capsule coupled with microstructural imaging using multiphoton microscopy...
March 29, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349473/visualizing-and-tracking-t-cell-motility-in-vivo
#10
Robert A Benson, James M Brewer, Paul Garside
Advanced cellular tracking and imaging techniques allow the dynamic nature of immune responses to be studied in detail and in a physiological context. Here we describe two methods applying multiphoton laser scanning microscopy to the visualization and tracking of fluorescently labeled CD4(+) T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) within the complex lymph node (LN) environment. Ex vivo imaging of LNs allows the study of cell populations without the need for skilled surgical techniques while providing comparable data...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349472/analysis-of-thymocyte-migration-cellular-interactions-and-activation-by-multiphoton-fluorescence-microscopy-of-live-thymic-slices
#11
Jessica N Lancaster, Lauren I R Ehrlich
Thymocytes migrate through discrete compartments within the thymus, engaging in cellular interactions essential for their differentiation into functional and self-tolerant T cells. Thus, understanding the temporal and spatial behavior of thymocytes within an intact thymic microenvironment is critical for elucidating processes governing T cell development. Towards this end, we describe methods for preparing thymic explant slices, in which the migration of thymocytes through three-dimensional space can be probed using time-lapse, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349471/introduction-to-homeostatic-migration
#12
Mark C Coles
Immune cell development and function occur in specialized immunological tissues, the function of which requires active cell migration and interactions between hematopoietic cells and underlying networks of stromal cells. These cells provide a scaffold on which immune cell migrate, provide microenvironments for efficient antigen presentation, and provide signals required for immune cell recruitment and survival. Technical advances in imaging technologies including multiphoton microscopy and 3D tissue reconstructions are being combined with computational approaches to provide new insights into the process of cell migration and function in immunological tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344061/compartmentation-of-mitochondrial-and-oxidative-metabolism-in-growing-hair-follicles-a-ring-of-fire
#13
John J Lemasters, Venkat K Ramshesh, Gregory L Lovelace, John Lim, Graham D Wright, Duane Harland, Thomas L Dawson
Little is known about the energetics of growing hair follicles, particularly in the mitochondrially abundant bulb. Here, mitochondrial and oxidative metabolism was visualized by multiphoton and light sheet microscopy in cultured bovine hair follicles and plucked human hairs. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretory granules were assessed with parameter-indicating fluorophores. In growing follicles, lower bulb epithelial cells had high viability, and mitochondria were polarized...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333369/in-vivo-multiphoton-microscopy-of-picosecond-laser-induced-optical-breakdown-in-human-skin
#14
Mihaela Balu, Griffin Lentsch, Dorota Z Korta, Karsten König, Kristen M Kelly, Bruce J Tromberg, Christopher B Zachary
IMPORTANCE: Improvements in skin appearance resulting from treatment with fractionated picosecond-lasers have been noted, but optimizing the treatment efficacy depends on a thorough understanding of the specific skin response. The development of non-invasive laser imaging techniques in conjunction with laser therapy can potentially provide feedback for guidance and optimizing clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the capability of multiphoton microscopy (MPM), a high-resolution, label-free imaging technique, to characterize in vivo the skin response to a fractionated non-ablative picosecond-laser treatment...
March 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329012/tracking-the-stochastic-fate-of-cells-of-the-renin-lineage-after-podocyte-depletion-using-multicolor-reporters-and-intravital-imaging
#15
Natalya V Kaverina, Hiroyuki Kadoya, Diana G Eng, Michael E Rusiniak, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, R Ariel Gomez, Jeffrey W Pippin, Kenneth W Gross, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Stuart J Shankland
Podocyte depletion plays a major role in focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Because cells of the renin lineage (CoRL) serve as adult podocyte and parietal epithelial cell (PEC) progenitor candidates, we generated Ren1cCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT and Ren1dCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT mice to determine CoRL clonality during podocyte replacement. Four CoRL reporters (GFP, YFP, RFP, CFP) were restricted to cells in the juxtaglomerular compartment (JGC) at baseline. Following abrupt podocyte depletion in experimental FSGS, all four CoRL reporters were detected in a subset of glomeruli at day 28, where they co-expressed de novo four podocyte proteins (podocin, nephrin, WT-1 and p57) and two glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) proteins (claudin-1, PAX8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327181/soluble-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-induces-calcium-dyshomeostasis-that-precedes-synapse-loss-in-the-living-mouse-brain
#16
Michal Arbel-Ornath, Eloise Hudry, Josiah R Boivin, Tadafumi Hashimoto, Shuko Takeda, Kishore V Kuchibhotla, Steven Hou, Carli R Lattarulo, Arianna M Belcher, Naomi Shakerdge, Pariss B Trujillo, Alona Muzikansky, Rebecca A Betensky, Bradley T Hyman, Brian J Bacskai
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β oligomers (oAβ) are thought to mediate neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and previous studies in AD transgenic mice suggest that calcium dysregulation may contribute to these pathological effects. Even though AD mouse models remain a valuable resource to investigate amyloid neurotoxicity, the concomitant presence of soluble Aβ species, fibrillar Aβ, and fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP) complicate the interpretation of the phenotypes. METHOD: To explore the specific contribution of soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) to calcium dyshomeostasis and synaptic morphological changes, we acutely exposed the healthy mouse brain, at 3 to 6 months of age, to naturally occurring soluble oligomers and investigated their effect on calcium levels using in vivo multiphoton imaging...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320907/a-velocity-map-imaging-study-of-methyl-non-resonant-multiphoton-ionization-from-the-photodissociation-of-ch3i-in-the-a-band
#17
Sonia Marggi Poullain, David V Chicharro, Luis Rubio-Lago, Alberto García-Vela, Luis Bañares
Chemical reaction dynamics and, particularly, photodissociation in the gas phase are generally studied using pump-probe schemes where a first laser pulse induces the process under study and a second one detects the produced fragments. Providing an efficient detection of ro-vibrationally state-selected photofragments, the resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) technique is, without question, the most popular approach used for the probe step, while non-resonant multiphoton ionization (NRMPI) detection of the products is scarce...
April 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303272/structural-and-functional-differences-between-aorta-and-vena-cava
#18
Jeffrey M Mattson, Yanhang Zhang
Elastin and collagen fibers are the major load-bearing extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents of the vascular wall. Arteries function differently than veins in the circulatory system, however as a result from several treatment options veins are subjected to sudden elevated arterial pressure. It is thus important to recognize the fundamental structure and function differences between a vein and an artery. Our research compared the relationship between biaxial mechanical function and ECM structure of porcine thoracic aorta and inferior vena cava...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287581/culture-of-adult-transgenic-zebrafish-retinal-explants-for-live-cell-imaging-by-multiphoton-microscopy
#19
Manuela Lahne, Ryne A Gorsuch, Craig M Nelson, David R Hyde
An endogenous regeneration program is initiated by Müller glia in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) retina following neuronal damage and death. The Müller glia re-enter the cell cycle and produce neuronal progenitor cells that undergo subsequent rounds of cell divisions and differentiate into the lost neuronal cell types. Both Müller glia and neuronal progenitor cell nuclei replicate their DNA and undergo mitosis in distinct locations of the retina, i.e. they migrate between the basal Inner Nuclear Layer (INL) and the Outer Nuclear Layer (ONL), respectively, in a process described as Interkinetic Nuclear Migration (INM)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271554/examination-of-wound-healing-after-curettage-by-multiphoton-tomography-of-human-skin-in-vivo
#20
S Springer, M Zieger, A Böttcher, J Lademann, M Kaatz
BACKGROUND: The multiphoton tomography (MPT) has evolved into a useful tool for the non-invasive investigation of morphological and biophysical characteristics of human skin in vivo. Until now, changes of the skin have been evaluated mainly by using clinical and histological techniques. In this study, the progress of wound healing was investigated by MPT over 3 weeks with a final examination after 24 months. Especially, the collagen degradation, reepithelization and tissue formation were examined...
March 7, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
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