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Rajeev Kr Sharma, Rajesh Kumar, Anirudh P Singh
Herein, we report a greener, total chlorine free, ultrasonic physicochemical process of extraction and purification of cellulose micro-whiskers from rice husk. The initial step involves the treatment of the rice husk with a concentrated aqueous alkali solution for the duration of 6 h at 80 °C in round bottom flask in order to completely dissolve lignin and silica. After alkali pretreatment, the product obtained was thoroughly washed with distilled water, filtered and dried. The dried product was subjected to mechanical treatment followed by a bleaching process...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Kelcilene B R Teodoro, Rafaela C Sanfelice, Luiz H C Mattoso, Daniel S Correa
Cellulose, the main component of plant cell walls, is a biopolymer widely used for industrial applications, including, food, paper and textile fabrication. More recently, hybrid materials composed of cellulose nanostructures and metal nanoparticles have been applied in diverse areas such as medical and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, cellulose-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) hybrid material was synthesized and the influence of cellulose, employed as a stabilizer agent, was investigated. Specifically, cellulose whiskers (CCW) were extracted from commercial cotton fibers by acid hydrolysis route, while the AgNPs were synthesized by reducing silver salt using sodium citrate and/or sodium borohydride in the presence of CCW...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Tianxiang Nan, Jianguang Yang, Bing Chen
Tin was electrodeposited from chloride solutions using a membrane cell under ultrasonic waves. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CHR), and chronopotentiometry were applied to investigate the electrochemical mechanism of tin electrodeposition under ultrasonic field. Chronoamperometry curves showed that the initial process of tin electrodeposition followed the diffusion controlled three-dimensional nucleation and grain growth mechanism. The analysis of the cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry diagrams showed that the application of ultrasound can change the tin membrane electro-deposition reaction from diffusion to electrochemical control, and the optimum parameters for tin electrodeposition were H+ concentration 3...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Valerie B O'Leary, Marie O'Connell, Inga Antyborzec, Vasilis Ntziachristos, J Oliver Dolly, Saak V Ovsepian
Acute and chronic trigeminal (TG) neuropathies are the cause of considerable distress, with limited treatments available at present. Nociceptive neurons enriched with the vanilloid type 1 receptor (VR1) partake in pain sensation and sensitization in the TG system. While VR1 blockers with anti-nociceptive potential are of substantial medical interest, their use remains limited due to poor selectivity and lack of cell-targeting capabilities. This study describes a methodology for the alleviation of nociception via targeted depletion of VR1 in TG sensory neurons in rats...
February 9, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
David Y Chung, Homa Sadeghian, Tao Qin, Sevda Lule, Hang Lee, Fahri Karakaya, Stacy Goins, Fumiaki Oka, Mohammad A Yaseen, Thijs Houben, Else A Tolner, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Michael J Whalen, Sava Sakadžic, Cenk Ayata
Cortical spreading depolarization (SD) is the electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura, and a critical contributor to secondary damage after brain injury. Experimental models of SD have been used for decades in migraine and brain injury research; however, they are highly invasive and often cause primary tissue injury, diminishing their translational value. Here we present a non-invasive method to trigger SDs using light-induced depolarization in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in neurons (Thy1-ChR2-YFP)...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Yaming Zhang, Dejun Zeng, Bo Wang, Jianfeng Yang
Mullite whisker frameworks were fabricated by vapor-solid reaction with SiO2, Al2O3 and AlF3 powders as the whisker forming agent at high temperatures. The effects of heating temperature and soaking time on the weight loss, liner shrinkage, porosity, microstructure and compressive strength were investigated. The results showed that with the increasing of the sintering temperature and soaking time, the weight loss and liner shrinkage of the samples increased and the porosities decreased due to the accelerated vapor-solid reaction, resulting in strong bonding and grain growth of the mullite frameworks...
February 9, 2018: Nanotechnology
Gabriel Villalobos
By means of a computational model, we study the relation between two complementary views of gelation, rheological tests against the characterization of a network of consecutive particles. The model we propose consists of slender, plane, colloidal sized particles, which we name laths, which self-assemble into long ordered aggregates of several particles; called whiskers in the literature. Within a whisker, the interaction potential is a minimum when: the planes of two consecutive laths are aligned, thus favoring their alignment; when the center of three consecutive laths lie in a straight line, thus favoring stacking; and when the center of two consecutive laths are located at a certain distance, which mimics excluded volume...
2018: PloS One
Irene Chaves-Coira, Margarita L Rodrigo-Angulo, Angel Nuñez
Sensory processing in the cortex should integrate inputs arriving from receptive fields located on both sides of the body. This role could be played by the corpus callosum through precise projections between both hemispheres. However, different studies suggest that cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain (BF) could also contribute to the synchronization and integration of cortical activities. Using tracer injections and optogenetic techniques in transgenic mice, we investigated whether the BF cells project bilaterally to sensory cortical areas, and have provided anatomical evidence to support a modulatory role for the cholinergic projections in sensory integration...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Stefano Tarantini, Noa M Valcarcel-Ares, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Gabor A Fulop, Peter Hertelendy, Tripti Gautam, Eszter Farkas, Aleksandra Perz, Peter S Rabinovitch, William E Sonntag, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari
Moment-to-moment adjustment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) via neurovascular coupling has an essential role in maintenance of healthy cognitive function. In advanced age, increased oxidative stress and cerebromicrovascular endothelial dysfunction impair neurovascular coupling, likely contributing to age-related decline of higher cortical functions. There is increasing evidence showing that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a critical role in a range of age-related cellular impairments, but its role in neurovascular uncoupling remains unexplored...
February 6, 2018: Aging Cell
Dmitrii Suchkov, Lyaila Sharipzyanova, Marat Minlebaev
During development, activity in the somatosensory cortex is characterized by intermittent oscillatory bursts at gamma (early gamma-oscillations, EGOs) and alpha-beta (spindle-bursts, SBs) frequencies. Here, we explored the topography of EGOs and SBs in the neighbor barrels of the whisker-related barrel cortex of neonatal rats (P4-7) during responses evoked by simultaneous activation of multiple whiskers as it occurs during natural conditions. We found that brief simultaneous deflection of all whiskers evoked complex neuronal responses comprised of EGOs and SBs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Andrew W Kraft, Adam Q Bauer, Joseph P Culver, Jin-Moo Lee
Recovery after stroke, a major cause of adult disability, is often unpredictable and incomplete. Behavioral recovery is associated with functional reorganization (remapping) in perilesional regions, suggesting that promoting this process might be an effective strategy to enhance recovery. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying remapping after brain injury and the consequences of its modulation are poorly understood. Focal sensory loss or deprivation has been shown to induce remapping in the corresponding brain areas through activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc)-mediated synaptic plasticity...
January 31, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Isabelle Scheyltjens, Samme Vreysen, Chris Van den Haute, Victor Sabanov, Detlef Balschun, Veerle Baekelandt, Lutgarde Arckens
Unilateral vision loss through monocular enucleation (ME) results in partial reallocation of visual cortical territory to another sense in adult mice. The functional recovery of the visual cortex occurs through a combination of spared-eye potentiation and cross-modal reactivation driven by whisker-related, somatosensory inputs. Brain region-specific intracortical inhibition was recently recognized as a crucial regulator of the cross-modal component, yet the contribution of specific inhibitory neuron subpopulations remains poorly understood...
January 25, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Seong Jun Mun, Hu Sun Yim, Kyeong Ho Han, Jae Min Park
This study was conducted to investigate egg development and larvae morphological development of catfish and to provide basic data to clarify the genetic relationship with Siluriformes fish. The mother fish that was used in this study was caught in the stream of Nakdong River in Uiseong-gun, Gyeongbuk. The temperature range of the breeding was 23.0-25.0℃ (mean 24.0±1.0℃) and egg size was 1.62-1.70 mm (mean 1.66±0.05, n=30). Eggs of catfish began hatching at 54 hours and 40 minutes after fertilization. Immediately after hatching, the total length of larvae was 3...
December 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Nouk Tanke, J Gerard G Borst, Arthur R Houweling
A single whisker stimulus elicits action potentials in a sparse subset of neurons in somatosensory cortex. The precise contribution of these neurons to the animal's perception of a whisker stimulus is unknown. Here we show that single-cell stimulation in rat barrel cortex of both sexes influences the psychophysical detection of a near-threshold whisker stimulus in a cell type-dependent manner, without affecting false alarm rate. Counterintuitively, stimulation of single fast-spiking putative inhibitory neurons increased detection performance...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jonathan T Reeder, Tong Kang, Sarah Rains, Walter Voit
A batch-assembly technique for forming 3D electronics on shape memory polymer substrates is demonstrated and is used to create dense, highly sensitive, multimodal arrays of electronic whiskers. Directed air flow at temperatures above the substrate's glass transition temperature transforms planar photolithographically defined resistive sensors from 2D precursors into shape-tunable, deterministic 3D assemblies. Reversible 3D assembly and flattening is achieved by exploiting the shape memory properties of the substrate, enabling context-driven shape reconfiguration to isolate/enhance specific sensing modes...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yulong Liu, Rongjing Ge, Xin Zhao, Rui Guo, Li Huang, Shidi Zhao, Sudong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
The capabilities of learning and memory in parents are presumably transmitted to their offsprings, in which genetic codes and epigenetic regulations are thought as molecular bases. As neural plasticity occurs during memory formation as cellular mechanism, we aim to examine the correlation of activity strengths at cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons to the transgenerational inheritance of learning ability. In a mouse model of associative learning, paired whisker and odor stimulations led to odorant-induced whisker motion, whose onset appeared fast (high learning efficiency, HLE) or slow (low learning efficiency, LLE)...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Chao Zhang, Stephen D Campbell, Sabine H Dickens, Bin Yang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the remineralization of natural human dentin caries with an experimental whisker-reinforced Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Teeth with moderate active dentin caries were prepared with caries-disclosing dye and hand instruments, restored with ART or resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC), and then wet sliced into 120-μm sections with 15 sections in each group. After taking transverse microradiographs and implementing digital image analysis to determine the "mineral-loss-before," each section was incubated in artificial saliva solution (pH = 7...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Eiichi Inami, Mikio Shimasaki, Hideki Yorimitsu, Toyo Kazu Yamada
An important step toward molecule-based electronics is to realize a robust and well-ordered molecular network at room temperature. To this end, one key challenge is tuning the molecule-substrate electronic interactions that influence not only the molecular selfassembly but also the stability of the resulting structures. In this study, we investigate the film formation of π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine molecules on a 3d-bcc-Fe(001) whisker substrate at 300 K by using ultra-high-vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric A Finkel, Daniel H O'Connor
How the brain maps sensory information to adaptive behavior remains unresolved. A new study in this issue of Neuron (Le Merre et al., 2017) uncovers learning-related recruitment of higher cortical areas into the rapid sensory processing stream that links a whisker stimulus to rewarded action.
January 3, 2018: Neuron
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