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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923742/neuronal-adaptation-in-the-somatosensory-system-of-rodents
#1
REVIEW
I Lampl, Y Katz
The sensory systems in animals constantly monitor the environment and process salient and relevant features while subtracting background activity. This process requires continuous recalibration of neuronal gain based on recent history. Adaptation has been postulated to be the key mechanism by which neurons rapidly tune their response curves to represent the entire dynamic range of external inputs. Rodents heavily rely on their vibrissa system while gathering information about their surroundings using whisking...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921068/voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-of-mouse-neocortex-during-a-whisker-detection-task
#2
Alexandros Kyriakatos, Vijay Sadashivaiah, Yifei Zhang, Alessandro Motta, Matthieu Auffret, Carl C H Petersen
Sensorimotor processing occurs in a highly distributed manner in the mammalian neocortex. The spatiotemporal dynamics of electrical activity in the dorsal mouse neocortex can be imaged using voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) with near-millisecond temporal resolution and [Formula: see text] spatial resolution. Here, we trained mice to lick a water reward spout after a 1-ms deflection of the C2 whisker, and we imaged cortical dynamics during task execution with VSD RH1691. Responses to whisker deflection were highly dynamic and spatially highly distributed, exhibiting high variability from trial to trial in amplitude and spatiotemporal dynamics...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921067/parallel-pathways-from-whisker-and-visual-sensory-cortices-to-distinct-frontal-regions-of-mouse-neocortex
#3
Varun Sreenivasan, Alexandros Kyriakatos, Celine Mateo, Dieter Jaeger, Carl C H Petersen
The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919250/the-impact-of-health-information-technologies-on-quality-improvement-methodologies-efficiency-throughput-and-financial-outcomes-a-retrospective-observational-study
#4
Raed H AlHazme, Syed S Haque, Hal Wiggin, Arif M Rana
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether or not the utilization of Health Information Technologies (HITs) in Quality Improvement Methodologies (QIMs) has impacts on QIMs' efficiency, throughput and financial outcomes at healthcare organizations and physician practices in the United States. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study that was conducted between the years of 2014 and 2015 and relied on two data sources: the Dorenfest Institute dataset and the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Analytics data source...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913253/vibrissal-paralysis-produces-increased-corticosterone-levels-and-impairment-of-spatial-memory-retrieval
#5
William E Patarroyo, Milady García-Perez, Marisol Lamprea, Alejandro Múnera, Julieta Troncoso
This research was aimed at establishing how the absence of active whisking in rats affects acquisition and recovery of spatial memory. The mystacial vibrissae were irreversibly paralyzed by cutting the facial nerve's mandibular and buccal branches bilaterally in the facial nerve lesion group (N=14); control animals were submitted to sham-surgery (N=15). Sham-operated (N=11) and facial nerve-lesioned (N=10) animals were trained (one session, eight acquisition trials) and tested 24hours later in a circular Barnes maze...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884737/botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-alleviates-mechanical-hypersensitivity-associated-with-infraorbital-nerve-constriction-injury-in-rats
#6
Noboru Noma, Kosuke Watanabe, Yuka Sato, Yoshiki Imamura, Yumiko Yamamoto, Reio Ito, Mitsuru Maruno, Kohei Shimizu, Koichi Iwata
We investigated the effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) on mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia associated with infraorbital nerve constriction (ION-CCI) in rats. ION-CCI rats received a subcutaneous BoNT-A injection into the whisker pad area on day 7 postoperatively and underwent pain assessment on days 14 and 21 postoperatively. Rats were assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=5 each): ION-CCI+BoNT-A 20pg (low-dose group), ION-CCI+BoNT-A 200pg (high-dose group), ION-CCI+saline, and Sham. Mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were evaluated preoperatively (baseline) and on days 7, 14, and 21 postoperatively...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881718/variations-in-vibrissal-geometry-across-the-rat-mystacial-pad-base-diameter-medulla-and-taper
#7
Hayley Belli, Anne En-Tzu Yang, Chris Bresee, Mitra J Z Hartmann
Many rodents tactually sense the world through active motions of their vibrissae (whiskers), which are regularly arranged in rows and columns (arcs) on the face. The present study quantifies several geometric parameters of rat whiskers that determine the tactile information acquired. Findings include: 1) A meta-analysis of seven studies shows that whisker base diameter varies with arc length, with a surprisingly strong dependence on the whisker's row position within the array. 2) The length of the whisker medulla varies linearly with whisker length, and the medulla's base diameter varies linearly with whisker base diameter...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881135/cat-s-whiskers-orthosiphon-stamineus-tea-modulates-arthritis-pathogenesis-via-the-angiogenesis-and-inflammatory-cascade
#8
Yasser M Tabana, Fouad Saleih R Al-Suede, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Saad S Dahham, Loiy E Ahmed Hassan, Saba Khalilpour, Mohamad Taleb-Agha, Doblin Sandai, Aman S Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
BACKGROUND: Orthosiphon stamineus is used traditionally to treat gout, arthritis, and inflammatory related conditions. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of the plant have been scientifically investigated. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the potential of the 50% ethanol extract of O. stamineus (EOS) to treat rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Anti-arthritic activity was assessed using the in vitro heat denaturation test and the (FCA)-induced arthritis model...
November 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869114/a-radial-map-of-multi-whisker-correlation-selectivity-in-the-rat-barrel-cortex
#9
Luc Estebanez, Julien Bertherat, Daniel E Shulz, Laurent Bourdieu, Jean-François Léger
In the barrel cortex, several features of single-whisker stimuli are organized in functional maps. The barrel cortex also encodes spatio-temporal correlation patterns of multi-whisker inputs, but so far the cortical mapping of neurons tuned to such input statistics is unknown. Here we report that layer 2/3 of the rat barrel cortex contains an additional functional map based on neuronal tuning to correlated versus uncorrelated multi-whisker stimuli: neuron responses to uncorrelated multi-whisker stimulation are strongest above barrel centres, whereas neuron responses to correlated and anti-correlated multi-whisker stimulation peak above the barrel-septal borders, forming rings of multi-whisker synchrony-preferring cells...
November 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847470/pupil-dynamics-reflect-behavioral-choice-and-learning-in-a-go-nogo-tactile-decision-making-task-in-mice
#10
Christian R Lee, David J Margolis
The eye's pupil undergoes dynamic changes in diameter associated with cognitive effort, motor activity and emotional state, and can be used to index brain state across mammalian species. Recent studies in head-fixed mice have linked arousal-related pupil dynamics with global neural activity as well as the activity of specific neuronal populations. However, it has remained unclear how pupil dynamics in mice report trial-by-trial performance of behavioral tasks, and change on a longer time scale with learning...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837565/cryopreservation-of-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-maintains-differentiation-and-hair-growth-potential
#11
Robert M Hoffman, Satoshi Kajiura, Wenluo Cao, Fang Liu, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828404/enhancing-light-emission-in-flexible-ac-electroluminescent-devices-by-tetrapod-like-zinc-oxide-whiskers
#12
Li Wen, Nishuang Liu, Siliang Wang, Hui Zhang, Wanqiu Zhao, Zhichun Yang, Yumei Wang, Jun Su, Luying Li, Fei Long, Zhengguang Zou, Yihua Gao
Flexible alternating current electroluminescent devices (ACEL) are more and more popular and widely used in liquid-crystal display back-lighting, large-scale architectural and decorative lighting due to their uniform light emission, low power consumption and high resolution. However, presently how to acquire high brightness under a certain voltage are confronted with challenges. Here, we demonstrate an electroluminescence (EL) enhancing strategy that tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (T-ZnOw) are added into the bottom electrode of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) instead of phosphor layer in flexible ACEL devices emitting blue, green and orange lights, and the brightness is greatly enhanced due to the coupling between the T-ZnOw and ZnS phosphor dispersed in the flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer...
October 3, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798633/vibrissa-motor-cortex-activity-suppresses-contralateral-whisking-behavior
#13
Christian Laut Ebbesen, Guy Doron, Constanze Lenschow, Michael Brecht
Anatomical, stimulation and lesion data implicate vibrissa motor cortex in whisker motor control. Work on motor cortex has focused on movement generation, but correlations between vibrissa motor cortex activity and whisking are weak. The exact role of vibrissa motor cortex remains unknown. We recorded vibrissa motor cortex neurons during various forms of vibrissal touch, which were invariably associated with whisker protraction and movement. Free whisking, object palpation and social touch all resulted in decreased cortical activity...
October 31, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795220/-descriptive-statistics
#14
Mario Enrique Rendón-Macías, Miguel Ángel Villasís-Keever, María Guadalupe Miranda-Novales
Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots...
October 2016: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785761/using-physiological-monitoring-data-for-performance-feedback-an-initiative-using-thermoregulation-metrics
#15
Matthias Görges, Nicholas C West, Simon D Whyte
BACKGROUND: Feedback of performance data can improve professional practice and outcomes. Vital signs are not routinely used for quality improvement because of their limited access. Intraoperative hypothermia has been associated with deleterious effects, including surgical site infections and bleeding. We speculated that providing feedback could help keep temperature monitoring and management a priority in the anesthesiologist's mind, thereby improving perioperative temperature management...
October 26, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782201/the-mechanical-behavior-dependence-on-the-tib-whisker-realignment-during-hot-working-in-titanium-matrix-composites
#16
Fengcang Ma, Ping Liu, Wei Li, Xinkuan Liu, Xiaohong Chen, Ke Zhang, Deng Pan, Weijie Lu
Low-cost TiB whiskers reinforced titanium matrix composite (TMCs) was fabricated with enhanced mechanical performances using in situ technologies and hot working. Morphologies observation indicates that needle-like TiB whiskers with a hexagonal transverse section grow along the [010] direction due to B27 crystal structure and its growth mechanism. Mechanical properties tests show that the mechanical behavior of the TiB whiskers reinforced TMCs is dependent on the deformation amplitudes applied in hot-working...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779826/mystacial-whisker-layout-and-musculature-in-the-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-a-social-diurnal-mammal
#17
Robyn A Grant, Mariane G Delaunay, Sebastian Haidarliu
All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared to terrestrial, diurnal mammals...
October 25, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770940/new-strategy-for-design-and-fabrication-of-polymer-hydrogel-with-tunable-porosity-as-artificial-corneal-skirt
#18
Danfeng Cao, Yingchao Zhang, Zhanchen Cui, Yuanyuan Du, Zuosen Shi
In order to obtain an ideal material using for artificial corneal skirt, a porous polymer hydrogel containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and butyl acrylate was prepared through one-step radical polymerization method and the usage of CaCO3 whisker as porogen. The physical-chemical properties of the fabricated polymer hydrogel can be adjusted by CaCO3 whisker content, such as pore size, porosity, water content of materials and surface topography. Then a series of cell biology experiments of human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were carried out to evaluate its properties as an artificial corneal skirt, such as the adhesion of cells on the materials with different pore size and porosity, the apoptosis on materials with different characteristics, the distribution of the cells on the material surface...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760816/thalamic-state-control-of-cortical-paired-pulse-dynamics
#19
Clarissa J Whitmire, Daniel C Millard, Garrett B Stanley
Sensory stimulation drives complex interactions across neural circuits as information is encoded and then transmitted from one brain region to the next. In the highly interconnected thalamocortical circuit, these complex interactions elicit repeatable neural dynamics in response to temporal patterns of stimuli that provide insight into the circuit properties that generated them. Here, using a combination of in-vivo voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of cortex, single unit recording in thalamus, and optogenetics to manipulate thalamic state in the rodent vibrissa pathway, we probed the thalamocortical circuit with simple temporal patterns of stimuli delivered either to the whiskers on the face (sensory stimulation) or to the thalamus directly via electrical or optogenetic inputs (artificial stimulation)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749825/layer-4-fast-spiking-interneurons-filter-thalamocortical-signals-during-active-somatosensation
#20
Jianing Yu, Diego A Gutnisky, S Andrew Hires, Karel Svoboda
We rely on movement to explore the environment, for example, by palpating an object. In somatosensory cortex, activity related to movement of digits or whiskers is suppressed, which could facilitate detection of touch. Movement-related suppression is generally assumed to involve corollary discharges. Here we uncovered a thalamocortical mechanism in which cortical fast-spiking interneurons, driven by sensory input, suppress movement-related activity in layer 4 (L4) excitatory neurons. In mice locating objects with their whiskers, neurons in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) fired in response to touch and whisker movement...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
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