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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645050/hierarchical-whisker-on-sheet-nicop-with-adjustable-surface-structure-for-efficient-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#1
Zhicheng Cai, Aiping Wu, Haijing Yan, Yinglu Xiao, Congfang Chen, Chungui Tian, Lei Wang, Ruihong Wang, Honggang Fu
We have reported the synthesis of hierarchical whisker-on-sheet (HWS) NiCoP anchored on Ni foam with adjustable surface structure for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The HWS NiCoP was obtained by controllable phosphidation of HWS Ni-Co-carbonates hydroxide precursor grown on Ni foam (NF). The experimental parameters were optimally tuned to understand the formation process of the precursor and to regulate the microstructure of the materials. The test results indicated that the HWS NiCoP/NF can produce a current density of 10 mA cm-2 (η10) at a low overpotential of 59 mV and a current density of 100 mA cm-2 (η100) at an overpotential of 220 mV for HER...
April 12, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644786/potential-role-of-the-pancreatic-hormone-insulin-in-resetting-human-peripheral-clocks
#2
Jun Kajimoto, Ritsuko Matsumura, Koichi Node, Makoto Akashi
Mammalian circadian rhythms are phase-adjusted and amplified by external cues such as light and food. While the light input pathway via the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced circadian resetting remains undefined, particularly in humans. Animal studies have indicated that insulin, a pancreatic hormone that is secreted rapidly in response to feeding, is an input factor for a few peripheral clocks, such as liver and adipose tissue. In this study, using plucked and cultured hair follicles as a representative human peripheral clock, we examined the effect of insulin on circadian characteristics of clock gene expression...
April 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643363/publisher-correction-triparental-plants-provide-direct-evidence-for-polyspermy-induced-polyploidy
#3
Thomas Nakel, Dawit G Tekleyohans, Yanbo Mao, Golo Fuchert, Dieu Vo, Rita Groß-Hardt
This Article contained errors in Fig. 3 that were brought to our attention by the authors during the production process but, inadvertently, were not corrected before publication. The tick marks on the y-axis in panels b, f, and k, and the median line in the box-and-whisker plot for biparental diploid plants (BP) in panel i were shifted downwards by up to 2 mm. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
April 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621356/quantifying-the-three-dimensional-facial-morphology-of-the-laboratory-rat-with-a-focus-on-the-vibrissae
#4
Hayley M Belli, Chris S Bresee, Matthew M Graff, Mitra J Z Hartmann
The morphology of an animal's face will have large effects on the sensory information it can acquire. Here we quantify the arrangement of cranial sensory structures of the rat, with special emphasis on the mystacial vibrissae (whiskers). Nearly all mammals have vibrissae, which are generally arranged in rows and columns across the face. The vibrissae serve a wide variety of important behavioral functions, including navigation, climbing, wake following, anemotaxis, and social interactions. To date, however, there are few studies that compare the morphology of vibrissal arrays across species, or that describe the arrangement of the vibrissae relative to other facial sensory structures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616982/a-fast-intracortical-brain-machine-interface-with-patterned-optogenetic-feedback
#5
Aamir Abbasi, Dorian Goueytes, Daniel E Shulz, Valerie Ego-Stengel, Luc Estebanez
OBJECTIVE: The development of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) brings a new perspective to patients with a loss of autonomy. By combining online recordings of brain activity with a decoding algorithm, patients can learn to control a robotic arm in order to perform simple actions. However, in contrast to the vast amounts of somatosensory information channeled by limbs to the brain, current BMIs are devoid of touch and force sensors. Patients must therefore rely solely on vision and audition, which are maladapted to the control of a prosthesis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615867/stable-density-and-dynamics-of-dendritic-spines-of-cortical-neurons-across-the-estrous-cycle-while-expressing-differential-levels-of-sensory-evoked-plasticity
#6
Bailin H Alexander, Heather M Barnes, Emma Trimmer, Andrew M Davidson, Benard O Ogola, Sarah H Lindsey, Ricardo Mostany
Periodic oscillations of gonadal hormone levels during the estrous cycle exert effects on the female brain, impacting cognition and behavior. While previous research suggests that changes in hormone levels across the cycle affect dendritic spine dynamics in the hippocampus, little is known about the effects on cortical dendritic spines and previous studies showed contradictory results. In this in vivo imaging study, we investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on the density and dynamics of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex of mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614842/microstructure-and-mechanical-behaviors-of-titanium-matrix-composites-containing-in-situ-whiskers-synthesized-via-plasma-activated-sintering
#7
Yi Sun, Jian Zhang, Guoqiang Luo, Qiang Shen, Lianmeng Zhang
In this paper, titanium matrix composites with in situ TiB whiskers were synthesized by the plasma activated sintering technique; crystalline boron and amorphous boron were used as reactants for in situ reactions, respectively. The influence of the sintering process and the crystallography type of boron on the microstructure and mechanical properties of composites were studied and compared. The densities were evaluated using Archimedes' principle. The microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized by SEM, XRD, EBSD, TEM, a universal testing machine, and a Vickers hardness tester...
April 2, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590621/supra-barrel-distribution-of-directional-tuning-for-global-motion-in-the-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#8
María Eugenia Vilarchao, Luc Estebanez, Daniel E Shulz, Isabelle Férézou
Rodents explore their environment with an array of whiskers, inducing complex patterns of whisker deflections. Cortical neuronal networks can extract global properties of tactile scenes. In the primary somatosensory cortex, the information relative to the global direction of a spatiotemporal sequence of whisker deflections can be extracted at the single neuron level. To further understand how the cortical network integrates multi-whisker inputs, we imaged and recorded the mouse barrel cortex activity evoked by sequences of multi-whisker deflections generating global motions in different directions...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584719/dynamic-cues-for-whisker-based-object-localization-an-analytical-solution-to-vibration-during-active-whisker-touch
#9
Roman Vaxenburg, Isis Wyche, Karel Svoboda, Alexander L Efros, Samuel Andrew Hires
Vibrations are important cues for tactile perception across species. Whisker-based sensation in mice is a powerful model system for investigating mechanisms of tactile perception. However, the role vibration plays in whisker-based sensation remains unsettled, in part due to difficulties in modeling the vibration of whiskers. Here, we develop an analytical approach to calculate the vibrations of whiskers striking objects. We use this approach to quantify vibration forces during active whisker touch at a range of locations along the whisker...
March 27, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580410/reinforcement-of-thermoplastic-chitosan-hydrogel-using-chitin-whiskers-optimized-with-response-surface-methodology
#10
Guohui Sun, Xin Zhang, Zixian Bao, Xuqian Lang, Zhongzheng Zhou, Yang Li, Chao Feng, Xiguang Chen
To strengthen the mechanical strength of thermo-sensitive hydroxybutyl chitosan (HBC) hydrogel, chitin whiskers were used as sticker to fabricate reinforced HBC (HBCW) hydrogel by using response surface methodology. Unlike the intrinsic network of HBC hydrogel, HBCW hydrogel showed a laminar shape with firm structure. The preparation condition was optimized by three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design. The maximum mechanical strength (1011.11 Pa) was achieved at 50 °C, when the concentrations of HBC and chitin whiskers were 5...
June 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577788/barrels-xxx-meeting-report-barrels-in-baltimore
#11
Hyeyoung Shin, Malamati Bitzidou, Fernando Palaguachi, Joshua C Brumberg
The Barrels meeting annually brings together researchers focused on the rodent whisker to cortical barrel system prior to the Society for Neuroscience meeting. The 2017 meeting focused on the classification of cortical interneurons, the role interneurons have in shaping brain dynamics, and finally on the circuitry underlying oral sensations. The meeting highlighted the latest advancements in this rapidly advancing field.
March 26, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572803/nerve-growth-and-interaction-in-gelfoam-%C3%A2-histoculture-a-nervous-system-organoid
#12
Robert M Hoffman, Sumiyuki Mii, Jennifer Duong, Yasuyuki Amoh
Nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells reside mainly in the bulge area (BA) of the hair follicle but also in the dermal papilla (DP). The BA appears to be origin of HAP stem cells. Long-term Gelfoam® histoculture was established of whiskers isolated from transgenic mice, in which there is nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP). HAP stem cells trafficked from the BA toward the DP area and extensively grew out onto Gelfoam® forming nerve-like structures. These fibers express the neuron marker β-III tubulin-positive fibers and consisted of ND-GFP-expressing cells and extended up to 500 mm from the whisker nerve stump in Gelfoam® histoculture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554354/application-of-lean-principles-to-neurosurgical-procedures-the-case-of-lumbar-spinal-fusion-surgery-a-literature-review-and-pilot-series
#13
Jesse J Liu, Jeffrey S Raskin, Fran Hardaway, Katherine Holste, Sarah Brown, Ahmed M Raslan
BACKGROUND: Delivery of higher value healthcare is an ultimate government and public goal. Improving efficiency by standardization of surgical steps can improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and lead to higher value healthcare. Lean principles and methodology have improved timeliness in perioperative medicine; however, process mapping of surgery itself has not been performed. OBJECTIVE: To apply Plan/Do/Study/Act (PDSA) cycles methodology to lumbar posterior instrumented fusion (PIF) using lean principles to create a standard work flow, identify waste, remove intraoperative variability, and examine feasibility among pilot cases...
March 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540763/fetal-extracellular-matrix-nerve-wraps-locally-improve-peripheral-nerve-remodeling-after-complete-transection-and-direct-repair-in-rat
#14
Tanchen Ren, Anne Faust, Yolandi van der Merwe, Bo Xiao, Scott Johnson, Apoorva Kandakatla, Vijay S Gorantla, Stephen F Badylak, Kia M Washington, Michael B Steketee
In peripheral nerve (PN) injuries requiring surgical repair, as in PN transection, cellular and ECM remodeling at PN epineurial repair sites is hypothesized to reduce PN functional outcomes by slowing, misdirecting, or preventing axons from regrowing appropriately across the repair site. Herein this study reports on deriving and analyzing fetal porcine urinary bladder extracellular matrix (fUB-ECM) by vacuum assisted decellularization, fabricating fUBM-ECM nerve wraps, and testing fUB-ECM nerve wrap biocompatibility and bioactivity in a trigeminal, infraorbital nerve (ION) branch transection and direct end-to-end repair model in rat...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538620/camkii-dependent-endoplasmic-reticulum-fission-by-whisker-stimulation-and-during-cortical-spreading-depolarization
#15
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
April 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537813/cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-expression-in-the-barrel-field-region-is-associated-with-mouse-learning
#16
Ewa Siucinska, Wojciech Brutkowski, Tytus Bernas
We found previously that fear conditioning by combined stimulation of a row B facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) leads to expansion of the cortical representation of the "trained" row, labeled with 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), in the layer IIIb/IV of the adult mouse the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) 24 h later. We have observed that these learning-dependent plastic changes are manifested by increased expression of somatostatin, cholecystokinin (SST+, CCK+) but not parvalbumin (PV+) immunopositive interneurons We have expanded this research and quantified a numerical value of CB1-expressing and PV-expressing GABAergic axon terminals (CB1+ and PV+ immunopositive puncta) that innervate different segments of postsynaptic cells in the barrel hollows of S1 cortex...
March 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521087/magnetic-submicron-mullite-coatings-with-oriented-sic-whiskers
#17
Zhaoxi Chen, James Townsend, Pavel Aprelev, Yu Gu, Ruslan Burtovyy, Igor Luzinov, Konstantin G Kornev, Fei Peng
Addressing the challenge of making ceramic thin films with the in-plane-oriented nanorods, we propose to decorate the nanorods with magnetic nanoparticles and orient them using the external magnetic field. As an illustration, the mullite thin films with embedded and oriented SiC nanorods were synthesized. The SiC nanorods were decorated with the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A two-step processing route was developed when the nanorods are first oriented in a sacrificial polymer layer. Then, the polymer film with the aligned nanorods was removed by heat-treatment...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519481/somatosensory-maps
#18
Samuel Harding-Forrester, Daniel E Feldman
Somatosensory areas containing topographic maps of the body surface are a major feature of parietal cortex. In primates, parietal cortex contains four somatosensory areas, each with its own map, with the primary cutaneous map in area 3b. Rodents have at least three parietal somatosensory areas. Maps are not isomorphic to the body surface, but magnify behaviorally important skin regions, which include the hands and face in primates, and the whiskers in rodents. Within each map, intracortical circuits process tactile information, mediate spatial integration, and support active sensation...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519465/the-evolution-of-parietal-cortex-in-primates
#19
Jon H Kaas, Hui-Xin Qi, Iwona Stepniewska
Many of the adaptive changes in the functional organization of parietal cortex of humans emerged in past in the early primates as they depended on visually guided forelimb use to grasp branches and food. Currently, human, apes and some monkeys have four well-defined subdivisions of anterior parietal cortex, areas 3a, 3b, 1 and 2 of Brodmann. In some of the smaller monkeys, and in stepsirrine primates (galagos, lemurs, and lorises), especially areas 1 and 2 are less developed, and the existence of an area 2 is questionable...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515377/whisker-and-nose-tactile-sense-guide-rat-behavior-in-a-skilled-reaching-task
#20
Pierantonio Parmiani, Cristina Lucchetti, Gianfranco Franchi
Skilled reaching is a complex movement in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food for eating. Video-recordings analysis of control rats enables us to distinguish several components of skilled reaching: Orient, approaching the front wall of the reaching box and poking the nose into the slot to locate the food pellet; Transport, advancing the forelimb through the slot to reach-grasp the pellet; and Withdrawal of the grasped food to eat. Although food location and skilled reaching is guided by olfaction, the importance of whisker/nose tactile sense in rats suggests that this too could play a role in reaching behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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