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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728948/automated-gesture-tracking-in-head-fixed-mice
#1
A Giovannucci, E A Pnevmatikakis, B Deverett, T Pereira, J Fondriest, M J Brady, S S-H Wang, W Abbas, P Parés, D Masip
BACKGROUND: The preparation consisting of a head-fixed mouse on a spherical or cylindrical treadmill offers unique advantages in a variety of experimental contexts. Head fixation provides the mechanical stability necessary for optical and electrophysiological recordings and stimulation. Additionally, it can be combined with virtual environments such as T-mazes, enabling these types of recording during diverse behaviors. NEW METHOD: In this paper we present a low-cost, easy-to-build acquisition system, along with scalable computational methods to quantitatively measure behavior (locomotion and paws, whiskers, and tail motion patterns) in head-fixed mice locomoting on cylindrical or spherical treadmills...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720960/levels-and-formation-of-%C3%AE-dicarbonyl-compounds-in-beverages-and-the-preventive-effects-of-flavonoids
#2
Chen Wang, Yongling Lu, Qiju Huang, Tiesong Zheng, Shengmin Sang, Lishuang Lv
ABSTRACT: Methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO), α-dicarbonyl compounds found in the Maillard reaction, progressively and irreversibly modify proteins. Beverages are an exogenous source of α-dicarbonyl compounds and may potentially increase MGO and GO levels in vivo. Using GC-FID method, we detected the MGO and GO contents of 86 beverages in Chinese supermarkets. The highest MGO and GO 587.5 µg/100 mL and 716.7 µg/100 mL respectively found in soyamilk and coffee. Herbal beverages, which contained bioactive components, had lower average levels of MGO (48...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716748/a-transparent-wound-dressing-based-on-bacterial-cellulose-whisker-and-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate
#3
Zeng Di, Zhijun Shi, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Sixiang Li, Guang Yang
The current study was aimed to develop a transparent wound dressing comprised of bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogel coated with silver (Ag) nanoparticles. Briefly, different concentrations of BC whiskers (BCWs) were added into the HEMA solution to form PHEMA/BCWs hydrogel with volume ratio of monomer HEMA and BCWs as 7:3 and 1:1. The addition of BCWs into PHEMA matrix improved its equilibrium water content and light transmittance about 20%-40% and 10%, respectively...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711550/chitosan-whisker-grafted-with-oligo-lactic-acid-nanoparticles-via-a-green-synthesis-pathway-potential-as-a-transdermal-drug-delivery-system
#4
Visuta Engkagul, I-Yanut Klaharn, Amornpun Sereemaspun, Suwabun Chirachanchai
Chitosan whisker (CSWK) grafted with oligo(lactic acid) (OLA) nanoparticles (NPs) in water is developed to aid transferring therapeutic agents through the skin in a transdermal drug delivery system. Although several works in the past have shown grafting of poly(lactic acid) onto chitosan, the present work shows a green grafting system for the first time. The nano-sized CSWK provided effective conjugation of lactic acid even in a heterogeneous water-based system followed by polycondensation to form OLA. The OLA chain length is controlled by the lactic acid content and modulates the lipophilicity of CSWK-OLA...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702736/changes-in-the-axon-terminals-of-primary-afferents-from-a-single-vibrissa-in-the-rat-trigeminal-nuclei-after-active-touch-deprivation-or-exposure-to-an-enriched-environment
#5
Julia Fernández-Montoya, Yasmina B Martin, Pilar Negredo, Carlos Avendaño
Lasting modifications of sensory input induce structural and functional changes in the brain, but the involvement of primary sensory neurons in this plasticity has been practically ignored. Here, we examine qualitatively and quantitatively the central axonal terminations of a population of trigeminal ganglion neurons, whose peripheral axons innervate a single mystacial vibrissa. Vibrissa follicles are heavily innervated by myelinated and unmyelinated fibers that exit the follicle mainly through a single deep vibrissal nerve...
July 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701638/antibacterial-activity-cytotoxicity-and-mechanical-behavior-of-nano-enhanced-denture-base-resin-with-different-kinds-of-inorganic-antibacterial-agents
#6
Rongrong Chen, Zhihui Han, Zhuoli Huang, Junu Karki, Chenxin Wang, Bangshang Zhu, Xiuyin Zhang
Silanized aluminum borate whiskers (ABWs) of 4 wt%, silanized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2) of 2 wt% were mixed with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) powder to get ZrO2-ABWs/PMMA composites. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), silver-supported titanium dioxide (Ag/TiO2), silver-supported zirconium phosphate (Novaron) and tetrapod-like zinc oxide whiskers (T-ZnOw) antibacterial agents of 3 wt% were mixed with ZrO2-ABWs/PMMA composites respectively to fabricate standard specimens. Plaque biofilms on the specimens surface were investigated for colony-forming units (CFUs)...
July 12, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689354/functional-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-traumatic-peripheral-nerve-muscle-injury-model
#7
Renate Wanner, Manuel Gey, Alireza Abaei, Daniela Warnecke, Luisa de Roy, Lutz Dürselen, Volker Rasche, Bernd Knöll
Traumatic injuries to human peripheral nerves are frequently associated with damage to nerve surrounding tissues including muscles and blood vessels. Currently, most rodent models of peripheral nerve injuries (e.g., facial or sciatic nerve) employ surgical nerve transection with scissors or scalpels. However, such an isolated surgical nerve injury only mildly damages neighboring tissues and weakly activates an immune response. In order to provide a rodent nerve injury model accounting for such nerve-associated tissue damage and immune cell activation, we developed a drop tower-based facial nerve trauma model in mice...
July 8, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674699/long-term-deficits-in-cortical-circuit-function-after-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest-and-resuscitation-in-developing-rats
#8
Jason W Middleton, Daniel J Simons, Jennifer W Simmons, Robert S B Clark, Patrick M Kochanek, Michael Shoykhet
Cardiac arrest is a common cause of global hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Poor neurologic outcome among cardiac arrest survivors results not only from direct cellular injury but also from subsequent long-term dysfunction of neuronal circuits. Here, we investigated the long-term impact of cardiac arrest during development on the function of cortical layer IV (L4) barrel circuits in the rat primary somatosensory cortex. We used multielectrode single-neuron recordings to examine responses of presumed excitatory L4 barrel neurons to controlled whisker stimuli in adult (8 ± 2-mo-old) rats that had undergone 9 min of asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation during the third postnatal week...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663200/%C3%A2-bilateral-discrimination-of-tactile-patterns-without-whisking-in-freely-running-rats-%C3%A2
#9
Pauline Kerekes, Aurélie Daret, Daniel E Shulz, Valérie Ego-Stengel
A majority of whisker discrimination tasks in rodents are carried out on head-fixed animals, to facilitate tracking or control of the sensory inputs. However, head fixation critically restrains the behavior and thus the incoming stimuli compared to those occurring in natural conditions. In this study, we asked whether freely-behaving rats can discriminate fine tactile patterns while running, in particular when stimuli are presented simultaneously on both sides of the snout.We developed a two-alternative forced-choice task in an automated modified T-maze...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663199/behavioral-consequences-of-a-bifacial-map-in-the-mouse-somatosensory-cortex
#10
Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Shuxin Zhao, Alain Chédotal, Reha S Erzurumlu
The whisker system is an important sensory organ with extensive neural representations in the brain of the mouse. Patterned neural modules (barrelettes) in the ipsilateral principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (PrV) correspond to the whiskers. Axons of the PrV barrelette neurons cross the midline, and confer the whisker-related patterning to the contralateral ventroposteromedial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus, and subsequently to the cortex. In this way, specific neural modules called barreloids and barrels in the contralateral thalamus and cortex represent each whisker...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659764/associative-memory-extinction-is-accompanied-by-decayed-plasticity-at-motor-cortical-neurons-and-persistent-plasticity-at-sensory-cortical-neurons
#11
Rui Guo, Rongjing Ge, Shidi Zhao, Yulong Liu, Xin Zhao, Li Huang, Sodong Guan, Wei Lu, Shan Cui, Shirlene Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
Associative memory is essential for cognition, in which associative memory cells and their plasticity presumably play important roles. The mechanism underlying associative memory extinction vs. maintenance remains unclear, which we have studied in a mouse model of cross-modal associative learning. Paired whisker and olfaction stimulations lead to a full establishment of odorant-induced whisker motion in training day 10, which almost disappears if paired stimulations are not given in a week, and then recovers after paired stimulation for an additional day...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659457/effect-of-whisker-geometry-on-contact-force-produced-by-vibrissae-moving-at-different-velocities
#12
George E Carvell, Daniel J Simons
Rats and mice are able to perform a variety of subtle tactile discriminations using their mystacial vibrissae. Increasingly, the design and interpretation of neurophysiological and behavioral studies are inspired by and linked to a more precise understanding of the detailed physical properties of the whiskers and their associated hair follicles. Here we used a piezoelectric sensor (bimorph) to examine how contact forces are influenced by the geometry of individual whisker hairs. For a given point along a whisker, bimorph signals are linearly related to whisker movement velocity...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658619/peripheral-sensory-deprivation-restores-critical-period-like-plasticity-to-adult-somatosensory-thalamocortical-inputs
#13
Seungsoo Chung, Ji-Hyun Jeong, Sukjin Ko, Xin Yu, Young-Hwan Kim, John T R Isaac, Alan P Koretsky
Recent work has shown that thalamocortical (TC) inputs can be plastic after the developmental critical period has closed, but the mechanism that enables re-establishment of plasticity is unclear. Here, we find that long-term potentiation (LTP) at TC inputs is transiently restored in spared barrel cortex following either a unilateral infra-orbital nerve (ION) lesion, unilateral whisker trimming, or unilateral ablation of the rodent barrel cortex. Restoration of LTP is associated with increased potency at TC input and reactivates anatomical map plasticity induced by whisker follicle ablation...
June 27, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642168/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-as-integrative-hub-for-whisker-sensorimotor-information
#14
REVIEW
Hemanth Mohan, Roel de Haan, Huibert D Mansvelder, Christiaan P J de Kock
Our daily life consists of a continuous interplay between incoming sensory information and outgoing motor plans. Particularly during goal-directed behavior and active exploration of the sensory environment, brain circuits are merging sensory and motor signals. This is referred to as sensorimotor integration and is relevant for locomotion, vision or tactile exploration. The somatosensory (tactile) system is an attractive modality to study sensorimotor integration in health and disease, motivated by the need for revolutionary technology that builds upon conceptual understanding of sensorimotor integration, such as brain-machine-interfaces and neuro-prosthetics...
June 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641104/constructing-the-external-world
#15
Jiseok Lee, Alison L Barth
In this issue of Neuron, Pluta et al. (2017) find a novel map of external space in primary somatosensory cortex, generated by multi-whisker interactions during active touch.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640666/first-report-of-an-adult-tapeworm-cestoda-diphyllobothriidea-in-a-southern-sea-otter-enhydra-lutris-nereis
#16
Colleen Young, Melissa A Miller, Roman Kuchta, Jan Brabec, Seth D Newsome, Murray Dailey
We present a novel case of an intestinal cestode infection in a southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). The cestode species Diplogonoporus tetrapterus was confirmed genetically. Stable isotope analysis of whiskers collected from the sea otter did not confirm the consumption of fish as the route of exposure.
June 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635332/50-ethanol-extract-of-orthosiphon-stamineus-modulates-genotoxicity-and-clastogenicity-induced-by-mitomycin-c
#17
Dhamraa Waleed Al-Dualimi, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Sarah Furqan Faisal Al-Shimary, Amal Aziz Al-Saadi, Raghdaa Al Zarzour, Muhammad Asif, Chern Ein Oon, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
Herbal products contain a variety of compounds which may be useful in protecting against cellular damage caused by mutagens. Orthosiphon stamineus (O.s) also known as Cat whiskers. The herb has been shown anti-oxidative properties and can modulate key cellular proteins that have cytoprotective effect. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1)) of 50% ethanol extract of O.s (Et. O.s) on micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), Polychromatic to normachromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE), Mitotic index (MI), and Chromosomal aberration (CA) in Bab/c mice...
June 21, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630880/prominent-lateral-spread-of-imaged-evoked-activity-beyond-cortical-columns-in-barrel-cortex-provides-foundation-for-coding-whisker-identity
#18
Nathan S Jacobs, Ron D Frostig
The posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF) of a rat primary somatosensory cortex exquisitely demonstrates topography and columnar organization, defining features of sensory cortices in the mammalian brain. Optical imaging and neuronal recordings in rat PMBSF demonstrate how evoked cortical activity following single whisker stimulation also rapidly spreads laterally into surrounding cortices, disregarding columnar and modality boundaries. The current study quantifies the spatial prominence of such lateral activity spreads by demonstrating that functional connectivity between laterally spaced cortical locations is actually stronger than between vertically spaced cortical locations...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630879/imaging-cajal-s-neuronal-avalanche-how-wide-field-optical-imaging-of-the-point-spread-advanced-the-understanding-of-neocortical-structure-function-relationship
#19
REVIEW
Ron D Frostig, Cynthia H Chen-Bee, Brett A Johnson, Nathan S Jacobs
This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622442/muscular-basis-of-whisker-torsion-in-mice-and-rats
#20
Sebastian Haidarliu, Knarik Bagdasarian, Namrata Shinde, Ehud Ahissar
Whisking mammals move their whiskers in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral directions with simultaneous rolling about their long axes (torsion). Whereas muscular control of the first two types of whisker movement was already established, the anatomic muscular substrate of the whisker torsion remains unclear. Specifically, it was not clear whether torsion is induced by asymmetrical operation of known muscles or by other largely unknown muscles. Here, we report that mystacial pads of newborn and adult rats and mice contain oblique intrinsic muscles (OMs) that connect diagonally adjacent vibrissa follicles...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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