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Danfeng Cao, Yingchao Zhang, Zhanchen Cui, Yuanyuan Du, Zuosen Shi
In order to obtain an ideal material using for artificial corneal skirt, a porous polymer hydrogel containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and butyl acrylate was prepared through one-step radical polymerization method and the usage of CaCO3 whisker as porogen. The physical-chemical properties of the fabricated polymer hydrogel can be adjusted by CaCO3 whisker content, such as pore size, porosity, water content of materials and surface topography. Then a series of cell biology experiments of human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were carried out to evaluate its properties as an artificial corneal skirt, such as the adhesion of cells on the materials with different pore size and porosity, the apoptosis on materials with different characteristics, the distribution of the cells on the material surface...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Clarissa J Whitmire, Daniel C Millard, Garrett B Stanley
Sensory stimulation drives complex interactions across neural circuits as information is encoded and then transmitted from one brain region to the next. In the highly interconnected thalamocortical circuit, these complex interactions elicit repeatable neural dynamics in response to temporal patterns of stimuli that provide insight into the circuit properties that generated them. Here, using a combination of in-vivo voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging of cortex, single unit recording in thalamus, and optogenetics to manipulate thalamic state in the rodent vibrissa pathway, we probed the thalamocortical circuit with simple temporal patterns of stimuli delivered either to the whiskers on the face (sensory stimulation) or to the thalamus directly via electrical or optogenetic inputs (artificial stimulation)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jianing Yu, Diego A Gutnisky, S Andrew Hires, Karel Svoboda
We rely on movement to explore the environment, for example, by palpating an object. In somatosensory cortex, activity related to movement of digits or whiskers is suppressed, which could facilitate detection of touch. Movement-related suppression is generally assumed to involve corollary discharges. Here we uncovered a thalamocortical mechanism in which cortical fast-spiking interneurons, driven by sensory input, suppress movement-related activity in layer 4 (L4) excitatory neurons. In mice locating objects with their whiskers, neurons in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) fired in response to touch and whisker movement...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Katarzyna Lebida, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
Experience and learning in adult primary somatosensory cortex are known to affect neuronal circuits by modifying both excitatory and inhibitory transmission. Synaptic plasticity phenomena provide a key substrate for cognitive processes, but precise description of the cellular and molecular correlates of learning is hampered by multiplicity of these mechanisms in various projections and in different types of neurons. Herein, we investigated the impact of associative learning on neuronal plasticity in distinct types of postsynaptic neurons by checking the impact of classical conditioning (pairing whisker stroking with tail shock) on the spike timing-dependent plasticity (t-LTP and t-LTD) in the layer IV to II/III vertical pathway of the mouse barrel cortex...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yasuo Morimoto, Norihiro Kobayashi
We reported the evaluations of the carcinogenicity of fluoro-edinite, silicon carbide, and carbon nanotubes performed by IARC working group in October 2014. For carbon nanotubes (CNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-7 was classified as Group 2B, and MWCNTs without MWCNT-7 and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were classified as not classifiable in terms of their carcinogenicity to humans. There is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity for MWCNT-7 in experimental animals, limited evidence for other MWCNTs, and inadequate evidence for SWCNTs...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Vincent Jacob, Akinori Mitani, Taro Toyoizumi, Kevin Fox
Whisker trimming causes substantial reorganisation of neuronal response properties in barrel cortex. However, little is known about experience-dependent rerouting of sensory processing following sensory deprivation. To address this, we performed in vivo intracellular recordings from L2/3, L4, L5-regular-spiking (L5RS), and L5-intrinsic-bursting (L5IB) neurones and measured their multi-whisker receptive field at the level of spiking activity, membrane potential and synaptic conductance before and after sensory deprivation...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Thomas Deneux, Amiram Grinvald
Spontaneous internal activity plays a major role in higher brain functions. The question of how it modulates sensory evoked activity and behavior has been explored in anesthetized rodents, cats, monkeys and in behaving human subjects. However, the complementary question of how a brief sensory input modulates the internally generated activity in vivo remains unresolved, and high-resolution mapping of these bidirectional interactions was never performed. Integrating complementary methodologies, at population and single cells levels, we explored this question...
October 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Jesus Martin-Cortecero, Angel Nuñez
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in higher functions such as memory and attention. In order to demonstrate sensory responses in the mPFC, we used electrophysiological recordings of urethane-anesthetized rats to record somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) or auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by whisker deflections and click stimulation, respectively. Contralateral whisker stimulation or auditory stimuli were also applied to study sensory interference in the mPFC. Interference with other sensory stimuli or recent stimulation history reduced whisker responses in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices of the ventral mPFC...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Lise Pascale, Marco Truccato, Lorenza Operti, Angelo Agostino
High-Tc superconducting cuprates (HTSC) such as YBa2Cu3O7 - x (YBCO) are promising candidates for solid-state THz applications based on stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) with atomic thickness. In view of future exploitation of IJJs, high-quality superconducting YBCO tape-like single crystals (whiskers) have been synthesized from Ca-Al-doped precursors in the presence of Te. The main aim of this paper is to determine the importance of the simultaneous use of Al, Te and Ca in promoting YBCO whiskers growth with good superconducting properties (Tc = 79-84 K)...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Jaylyn Waddell, Tianqi Yang, Eric Ho, Kristen A Wellmann, Sandra M Mooney
Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals...
2016: Brain Sciences
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002549.].
September 2016: PLoS Biology
Qianqian Wang, Siyu Chen, Dajun Chen
The objective of current study was to prepare an injectable hydrogel with great mechanical properties and biological compatibility, which could be more suitable to be applied as tissue engineering scaffold. Chitin nano-whiskers (CNWs) were introduced into chitosan/β-glycerophosphate disodium salt (CS/GP) injectable hydrogel. The effects of CNWs contents and gelation temperatures on gelation speed and mechanical properties of the composite hydrogels were characterized and discussed. The maximum values of tensile strength and elongation at break were both more than 4 times larger than that of neat CS/GP hydrogel...
September 14, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ramon Reig, Gilad Silberberg
Individual striatal neurons integrate somatosensory information from both sides of the body, however, the afferent pathways mediating these bilateral responses are unclear. Whereas ipsilateral corticostriatal projections are prevalent throughout the neocortex, contralateral projections provide sparse input from primary sensory cortices, in contrast to the dense innervation from motor and frontal regions. There is, therefore, an apparent discrepancy between the observed anatomical pathways and the recorded striatal responses...
September 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Ariane Le Gros, Philippe Clergeau, Dario Zuccon, Raphaël Cornette, Blake Mathys, Sarah Samadi
The Red-whiskered bulbul is a very successful invasive bird species. Morphological differences have been reported among individuals inhabiting the humid and dry coasts of Reunion Island, in a 30-year-old population. This suggests a capacity for rapid local adaptation which could explain the general invasive success of this species. However, the origin and invasion history of this population is unknown. It is therefore not possible to establish with certainty the cause of these morphological differences. Here, we investigated the invasion history of populations of Red-whiskered bulbul established on Reunion Island, Mauritius and Oahu (three geographically similar tropical islands) to assess the link between invasion history and morphological changes in these populations...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Jin Cheng, Sadhna Sahani, Torben Johann Hausrat, Jenq-Wei Yang, Haichao Ji, Nikolai Schmarowski, Heiko Endle, Xinfeng Liu, Yunbo Li, Rahel Böttche, Konstantin Radyushkin, Hans M Maric, Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Zoltán Molnár, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Thorsten Trimbuch, Olaf Ninnemann, Jisen Huai, Wei Fan, Barbara Visentin, Roger Sabbadini, Kristian Strømgaard, Albrecht Stroh, Heiko J Luhmann, Matthias Kneussel, Robert Nitsch, Johannes Vogt
Precise connection of thalamic barreloids with their corresponding cortical barrels is critical for processing of vibrissal sensory information. Here, we show that PRG-2, a phospholipid-interacting molecule, is important for thalamocortical axon guidance. Developing thalamocortical fibers both in PRG-2 full knockout (KO) and in thalamus-specific KO mice prematurely entered the cortical plate, eventually innervating non-corresponding barrels. This misrouting relied on lost axonal sensitivity toward lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which failed to repel PRG-2-deficient thalamocortical fibers...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Nicholas E Bush, Sara A Solla, Mitra Jz Hartmann
We describe recent advances in quantifying the three-dimensional (3D) geometry and mechanics of whisking. Careful delineation of relevant 3D reference frames reveals important geometric and mechanical distinctions between the localization problem ('where' is an object) and the feature extraction problem ('what' is an object). Head-centered and resting-whisker reference frames lend themselves to quantifying temporal and kinematic cues used for object localization. The whisking-centered reference frame lends itself to quantifying the contact mechanics likely associated with feature extraction...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Gábor Veres, Annamária Fejes-Szabó, Dénes Zádori, Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Anna M László, Attila Bajtai, István Mándity, Márton Szentirmai, Zsuzsanna Bohár, Klaudia Laborc, István Szatmári, Ferenc Fülöp, László Vécsei, Árpád Párdutz
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) has well-established protective properties against glutamatergic neurotransmission, which plays an essential role in the activation and sensitization process during some primary headache disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two KYNA analogs, N-(2-N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (KA-1) and N-(2-N-pyrrolidinylethyl)-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-2-carboxamide hydrochloride (KA-2), in the orofacial formalin test of trigeminal pain. Following pretreatment with KA-1 or KA-2, rats were injected with subcutaneous formalin solution in the right whisker pad...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Pei Feng, Shuping Peng, Ping Wu, Chengde Gao, Wei Huang, Youwen Deng, Cijun Shuai
In this study, the mechanical strength and modulus of poly(L-lacti acid) (PLLA) scaffolds were enhanced with the mechanical properties of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and tetraneedlelike ZnO whiskers (T-ZnOw). The adhesion and proliferation of cells were improved as well as osteogenic differentiation of stem cells was increased. Their dispersion statues in PLLA matrix were improved through a space network structure constructed by three-dimensional T-ZnOw supporting two-dimensional BNNSs. The results showed that the compressive strength, modulus and Vickers hardness of the scaffolds with incorporation of 1 wt% BNNSs and 7 wt% T-ZnOw together were about 96...
2016: Scientific Reports
Y Jiao, L J Huang, T B Duan, S L Wei, B Kaveendran, L Geng
Novel Ti6Al4V alloy matrix composites with a controllable two-scale network architecture were successfully fabricated by reaction hot pressing (RHP). TiB whiskers (TiBw) were in-situ synthesized around the Ti6Al4V matrix particles, and formed the first-scale network structure (FSNS). Ti5Si3 needles (Ti5Si3) precipitated in the β phase around the equiaxed α phase, and formed the secondary-scale network structure (SSNS). This resulted in increased deformation compatibility accompanied with enhanced mechanical properties...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alexander van der Bourg, Jenq-Wei Yang, Vicente Reyes-Puerta, Balazs Laurenczy, Martin Wieckhorst, Maik C Stüttgen, Heiko J Luhmann, Fritjof Helmchen
Rodent rhythmic whisking behavior matures during a critical period around 2 weeks after birth. The functional adaptations of neocortical circuitry during this developmental period remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized stimulus-evoked neuronal activity across all layers of mouse barrel cortex before, during, and after the onset of whisking behavior. Employing multi-electrode recordings and 2-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized mice, we tested responses to rostro-caudal whisker deflections, axial "tapping" stimuli, and their combination from postnatal day 10 (P10) to P28...
September 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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