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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549561/lateral-thalamic-control-of-nociceptive-response-after-whisker-pad-injection-of-varicella-zoster-virus
#1
Phillip Kramer, Crystal Stinson, Mikhail Umorin, Mohong Deng, Mahesh Rao, Larry Bellinger, Michael B Yee, Paul R Kinchington
Pain is a common complication of herpes zoster (HZ) infection which results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). A third of HZ patients' progress to a chronic pain state known as post herpetic neuralgia (PHN), and about a quarter of these patients' have orofacial pain. The mechanisms controlling the pain responses are not understood. Studies suggest central pathways involving the thalamus could control pain related to HZ, and studies in our lab suggest vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the lateral thalamus influences orofacial pain...
May 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546281/neurons-within-the-trigeminal-mesencephalic-nucleus-encode-for-the-kinematic-parameters-of-the-whisker-pad-macrovibrissae
#2
Ombretta Mameli, Marcello A Caria, Francesca Biagi, Marco Zedda, Vittorio Farina
It has been recently shown in rats that spontaneous movements of whisker pad macrovibrissae elicited evoked responses in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Me5). In the present study, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical experiments were performed in anesthetized rats to evaluate whether, besides the whisker displacement per se, the Me5 neurons are also involved in encoding the kinematic properties of macrovibrissae movements, and also whether, as reported for the trigeminal ganglion, even within the Me5 nucleus exists a neuroanatomical representation of the whisker pad macrovibrissae...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528964/inhibitory-interneurons-and-their-circuit-motifs-in-the-many-layers-of-the-barrel-cortex
#3
Dirk Feldmeyer, Guanxiao Qi, Vishalini Emmenegger, Jochen F Staiger
Recent years have seen substantial progress in studying the structural and function properties of GABAergic interneurons and their roles in the neuronal networks of barrel cortex. Although GABAergic interneurons represent only about 12% of the total number of neocortical neurons, they are extremely diverse with respect to their structural and functional properties. It has become clear that barrel cortex interneurons not only serve the maintenance of an appropriate excitation/inhibition balance but also are directly involved in sensory processing...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526578/barrel-cortex-what-is-it-good-for
#4
REVIEW
Maik C Stüttgen, Cornelius Schwarz
The rodent whisker system, with barrel cortex as its most prominent structure, has evolved into a powerful model system to study sensory processing. However, despite the vast amount of data collected on barrel cortex neural activity patterns, as well as its circuitry and plasticity, the precise behavioral and cognitive operations for which this structure is needed are still elusive. Proposed functions of barrel cortex include detection, discrimination, coordination of whisker movements during exploratory locomotion or active touch, and associative learning...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522222/neurochemical-correlates-of-functional-plasticity-in-the-mature-cortex-of-the-brain-of-rodents
#5
REVIEW
Ewa Siucinska
It is commonly accepted that increase of input to sensory structures in mammals is known to produce marked changes in cortical recipient areas. This paper reviews the data concerning manifestations of changes in primary somatosensory cortex of adult animals caused by classical conditioning with reinforcement: aversive (whisker-shock) and appetitive (whisker-water) trainings. These include: anatomical, electrophysiological responses, receptor autoradiography, expression of GABA, GAD at mRNA and protein levels, expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta and inhibitory synaptogenesis in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse...
May 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521137/a-map-of-anticipatory-activity-in-mouse-motor-cortex
#6
Tsai-Wen Chen, Nuo Li, Kayvon Daie, Karel Svoboda
Activity in the mouse anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) instructs directional movements, often seconds before movement initiation. It is unknown whether this preparatory activity is localized to ALM or widely distributed within motor cortex. Here we imaged activity across motor cortex while mice performed a whisker-based object localization task with a delayed, directional licking response. During tactile sensation and the delay epoch, object location was represented in motor cortex areas that are medial and posterior relative to ALM, including vibrissal motor cortex...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521136/dopamine-depletion-impairs-bilateral-sensory-processing-in-the-striatum-in-a-pathway-dependent-manner
#7
M Ketzef, G Spigolon, Y Johansson, A Bonito-Oliva, G Fisone, G Silberberg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic innervation, particularly to the striatum. PD patients often exhibit sensory impairments, yet the underlying network mechanisms are unknown. Here we examined how dopamine (DA) depletion affects sensory processing in the mouse striatum. We used the optopatcher for online identification of direct and indirect pathway projection neurons (MSNs) during in vivo whole-cell recordings. In control mice, MSNs encoded the laterality of sensory inputs with larger and earlier responses to contralateral than ipsilateral whisker deflection...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514943/sex-differences-underlying-orofacial-varicella-zoster-associated-pain-in-rats
#8
Crystal Stinson, Mohong Deng, Michael B Yee, Larry L Bellinger, Paul R Kinchington, Phillip R Kramer
BACKGROUND: Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster...
May 17, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514232/ppar%C3%AE-agonists-attenuate-trigeminal-neuropathic-pain
#9
Danielle N Lyons, Liping Zhang, Robert J Danaher, Craig S Miller, Karin N Westlund
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma isoform (PPARγ), in trigeminal neuropathic pain utilizing a novel mouse trigeminal inflammatory compression (TIC) injury model. The study determined that the PPARγ nuclear receptor plays a significant role in trigeminal nociception transmission, evidenced by: (1) Intense PPARγ immunoreactivity is expressed 3 weeks after TIC nerve injury in the spinal trigeminal caudalis, the termination site of trigeminal nociceptive nerve fibers...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505558/oncoplastic-techniques-attitudes-and-changing-practice-amongst-breast-and-plastic-surgeons-in-great-britain
#10
T Challoner, J Skillman, K Wallis, M Vourvachis, L Whisker, J Hardwicke
PURPOSE: The availability, acceptability and practice of oncoplastic surgery has increased over the last 5 years. This study aims to describe how the breast and plastic surgical workforce has adapted to provide oncoplastic breast surgery. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to members of the Association of Breast Surgery and BAPRAS, and results compared to a survey completed in 2010. RESULTS: In 2010, 228 respondents completed the survey compared to 237 in 2015, of whom 204 were consultants (105 General or Breast Surgeons and 99 Plastic Surgeons)...
May 12, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504117/surround-integration-organizes-a-spatial-map-during-active-sensation
#11
Scott R Pluta, Evan H Lyall, Greg I Telian, Elena Ryapolova-Webb, Hillel Adesnik
During active sensation, sensors scan space in order to generate a representation of the outside world. However, since spatial coding in sensory systems is typically addressed by measuring receptive fields in a fixed, sensor-based coordinate frame, the cortical representation of scanned space is poorly understood. To address this question, we probed spatial coding in the rodent whisker system using a combination of two-photon imaging and electrophysiology during active touch. We found that surround whiskers powerfully transform the cortical representation of scanned space...
May 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498957/global-tactile-coding-in-rat-barrel-cortex-in-the-absence-of-local-cues
#12
Todor V Gerdjikov, Caroline G Bergner, Cornelius Schwarz
Although whisker-related perception is based predominantly on local, near-instantaneous coding, global, intensive coding, which integrates the vibrotactile signal over time, has also been shown to play a role given appropriate behavioral conditions. Here, we study global coding in isolation by studying head-fixed rats that identified pulsatile stimuli differing in pulse frequency but not in pulse waveforms, thus abolishing perception based on local coding. We quantified time locking and spike counts as likely variables underpinning the 2 coding schemes...
May 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497359/the-pattern-of-thalamocortical-and-brain-stem-projections-to-the-vibrissae-related-sensory-and-motor-cortices-in-de-whiskered-congenital-hypothyroid-rats
#13
Mohammad Reza Afarinesh, Gila Behzadi
The present study is designed to investigate the plastic organization of the thalamo-cortical (TC) and brain stem afferents of whisker primary sensory (wS1) and motor (wM1) cortical areas in congenital hypothyroid (CH) pups following whisker deprivation (WD) from neonatal to adolescence period. Maternal hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water from early embryonic day 16 to postnatal day (PND) 60. Pregnant rats were divided into intact and CH groups (n = 8). In each group, the total whiskers of pups (4 of 8) were trimmed continuously from PND 1 to PND 60...
May 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491905/genetically-expressed-voltage-sensor-arclight-for-imaging-large-scale-cortical-activity-in-the-anesthetized-and-awake-mouse
#14
Peter Y Borden, Alex D Ortiz, Christian Waiblinger, Audrey J Sederberg, Arthur E Morrissette, Craig R Forest, Dieter Jaeger, Garrett B Stanley
With the recent breakthrough in genetically expressed voltage indicators (GEVIs), there has been a tremendous demand to determine the capabilities of these sensors in vivo. Novel voltage sensitive fluorescent proteins allow for direct measurement of neuron membrane potential changes through changes in fluorescence. Here, we utilized ArcLight, a recently developed GEVI, and examined the functional characteristics in the widely used mouse somatosensory whisker pathway. We measured the resulting evoked fluorescence using a wide-field microscope and a CCD camera at 200 Hz, which enabled voltage recordings over the entire cortical region with high temporal resolution...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476949/angiotensin-iv-receptors-mediate-the-cognitive-and-cerebrovascular-benefits-of-losartan-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Jessika Royea, Luqing Zhang, Xin-Kang Tong, Edith Hamel
The use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) correlates with reduced onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanism depicting how ARBs, such as losartan, restore cerebrovascular and cognitive deficits in AD is unknown. Here, we propose a mechanism underlying losartan's benefits by selectively blocking the effects of Angiotensin IV (AngIV) at its receptor (AT4R) with divalinal in mice overexpressing the AD-related Swedish and Indiana mutations of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP mice) and wild-type mice...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476311/transcranial-functional-ultrasound-imaging-in-freely-moving-awake-mice-and-anesthetized-young-rats-without-contrast-agent
#16
Elodie Tiran, Jérémy Ferrier, Thomas Deffieux, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Sophie Pezet, Zsolt Lenkei, Mickaël Tanter
Functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging by ultrasensitive Doppler detection of blood volume was previously reported to measure adult rat brain activation and functional connectivity with unmatched spatiotemporal sampling (100 μm, 1 ms), but skull-induced attenuation of ultrasonic waves imposed skull surgery or contrast agent use. Also, fUS feasibility remains to be validated in mice, a major pre-clinical model organism. In the study described here, we performed full-depth ultrasensitive Doppler imaging and 3-D Doppler tomography of the entire mouse brain under anesthesia, non-invasively through the intact skull and skin, without contrast agents...
May 2, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472678/characterisation-of-progressive-motor-deficits-in-whisker-movements-in-r6-2-q175-and-hdh-knock-in-mouse-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#17
Huw Garland, Nigel I Wood, Elizabeth A Skillings, Peter J Detloff, A Jennifer Morton, Robyn A Grant
BACKGROUND: Motor dysfunction is a major component of the Huntington's disease (HD) phenotype, both in patients and animal models. Motor function in mice is usually measured using tests that involve a novel environment, or require a degree of learning, which creates potential confounds in animals, such as anxiety and/or learning. NEW METHOD: We propose that studying whisker control provides a more naturalistic way to measure motor function in HD mice. To this end we tested three strains of HD mice; R6/2 (CAG250), zQ175 and Hdh (CAG50, 150 and 250) mice...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465227/bovine-lactoferrin-reduces-extra-territorial-facial-allodynia-hyperalgesia-following-a-trigeminal-nerve-injury-in-the-rat
#18
Kayo Horie, Mineo Watanabe, Chea Chanbora, Tetsuya Awada, Ryo Kunimatsu, Takashi Uchida, Takashi Takata, Kotaro Tanimoto
There is an urgent clinical need for an effective therapeutic agent to treat neuropathic pain. This study explored whether intrathecal administration of bovine lactoferrin (bLF), in combination with signal transduction pathway inhibition or an inflammatory cytokine production, results in reduced allodynia/hyperalgesia in the whisker pad area following mental nerve transection (MNT) in rats. Rats were intrathecally infused with bLF, lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS), an antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), or interleukin (IL)-18 binding protein (BP)...
April 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460564/effect-of-tpmpa-gabac-receptor-antagonist-on-neuronal-response-properties-in-rat-barrel-cortex
#19
Elham Mohammadi, Ali Shamsizadeh, Elham Salari, Iman Fatemi, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Ali Roohbakhsh
GABAC receptors are ligand-gated chloride channels and have important roles in some neurological functions like vision. Recent investigations demonstrated that these receptors are also expressed in the somatosensory cortex. In this study, we investigated the effect of (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) (GABAC receptor antagonist) on the properties of the neuronal response to natural stimuli (whisker deflection) in deep layers of rat barrel cortex. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats, weighing 230-260 g, were used in this study...
May 1, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458714/antiaging-and-anxiolytic-effects-of-combinatory-formulas-based-on-four-medicinal-herbs
#20
Rui Li, Wingman Chan, Waikin Mat, Yiucheong Ho, Rigil K Yeung, Shuiying Tsang, Hong Xue
The objective of the present study was to search for medicinal-herb combinations based on Radix Bupleurum chinense DC ("B"), Rhizoma Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang ("Y"), Caulis Polygonum multiflorum Thunb ("P"), and Flos Albizia julibrissin Durazz ("A") for antiaging, anxiolytic, and sedative effects. Application of the D-galactose induced accelerated-aging model employing male ICR mice showed that oral administration of some combinations of B, Y, P, and A significantly improved spatial memory in Y-maze test and reduced brain levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 based on immunoassays and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde, based on the thiobarbituric acid test, and the loss of whiskers, indicating antiaging and antineurodegeneration effects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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