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Lunwen Qian, Lee T Hickey, Andreas Stahl, Christian R Werner, Ben Hayes, Rod J Snowdon, Kai P Voss-Fels
In order to meet future food, feed, fiber, and bioenergy demands, global yields of all major crops need to be increased significantly. At the same time, the increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat and drought necessitates improvements in the environmental resilience of modern crop cultivars. Achieving sustainably increase yields implies rapid improvement of quantitative traits with a very complex genetic architecture and strong environmental interaction. Latest advances in genome analysis technologies today provide molecular information at an ultrahigh resolution, revolutionizing crop genomic research, and paving the way for advanced quantitative genetic approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michiel H In 't Zandt, Sabrina Beckmann, Ruud Rijkers, Mike S M Jetten, Mike Manefield, Cornelia U Welte
Coal mining is responsible for 11% of total anthropogenic methane emission thereby contributing considerably to climate change. Attempts to harvest coalbed methane for energy production are challenged by relatively low methane concentrations. In this study, we investigated whether nutrient and acetate amendment of a non-producing sub-bituminous coal well could transform the system to a methane source. We tracked cell counts, methane production, acetate concentration and geochemical parameters for 25 months in one amended and one unamended coal well in Australia...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Lisa Perrier, Lauriane Rouan, Sylvie Jaffuel, Anne Clément-Vidal, Sandrine Roques, Armelle Soutiras, Christelle Baptiste, Denis Bastianelli, Denis Fabre, Cécile Dubois, David Pot, Delphine Luquet
Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop worldwide. Its genetic diversity provides a large range of stem biochemical composition suitable for various end-uses as bioenergy or forage. Its drought tolerance enables it to reasonably sustain biomass production under water limited conditions. However, drought effect on the accumulation of sorghum stem biomass remains poorly understood which limits progress in crop improvement and management. This study aimed at identifying the morphological, biochemical and histological traits underlying biomass accumulation in the sorghum stem and its plasticity in response to water deficit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Juliana Vasco-Correa, Sami Khanal, Ashish Manandhar, Ajay Shah
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that can transform organic matter into a bioenergy source - biogas (composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide), while stabilizing waste. AD implementation around the world varies significantly, from small-scale household digesters in developing countries to large farm-scale or centralized digesters in developed countries. These differences in the implementation of AD technology are due to a complex set of conditions, including economic and environmental implications of the AD technology, and stimulus provided by a variety of polices and incentives related to agricultural systems, waste management, and renewable energy production...
September 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Huang Li, Yinghua Huang
Brown midrib (bmr) mutants in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses are associated with reduced lignin concentration, altered lignin composition and improved cell wall digestibility, which are desirable properties in biomass development for the emerging lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Studying bmr mutants has considerably expanded our understanding of the molecular basis underlying lignin biosynthesis and perturbation in grasses. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, identified and cloned a novel cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase allele (SbCAD2) that has an 8-bp deletion in its 5'-untranslated region (UTR), conferring the spontaneous brown midrib trait and lignin reduction in the sorghum germplasm line PI 595743...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dong Jiang, Mengmeng Hao, Jingying Fu, Guangjin Tian, Fangyu Ding
Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Caroline M Plugge
Biogas production represents a fascinating process for the recovery of nutrients and renewable energy from various organic waste streams. The process is of interest for the production of value-added chemicals by mixed cultures and can also be applied in combined bioenergy production systems. Strategies and opportunities for optimization of biogas quality and quantity are presented.
September 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Muhammad Sajjad Ahmad, Muhammad Aamer Mehmood, Syed Taha Haider Taqvi, Ali Elkamel, Chen-Guang Liu, Jianren Xu, Sawsan Abdulaziz Rahimuddin, Munazza Gull
This work was focused on understanding the pyrolysis of Typha latifolia. Kinetics, thermodynamics parameters and pyrolysis reaction mechanism were studied using thermogravimetric data. Based on activation energies and conversion points, two regions of pyrolysis were established. Region-I occurred between the conversion rate 0.1-0.4 with peak temperatures 538K, 555K, 556K at the heating rates of 10Kmin(-1), 30Kmin(-1), and 50Kmin(-1), respectively. Similarly, the Region-II occurred between 0.4 and 0.8 with peak temperatures of 606K, 621K, 623K at same heating rates...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Leichang Cao, Cheng Zhang, Huihui Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Gang Luo, Shicheng Zhang, Jianmin Chen
Hydrothermal liquefaction has been widely applied to obtain bioenergy and high-value chemicals from biomass in the presence of a solvent at moderate to high temperature (200-550°C) and pressure (5-25MPa). This article summarizes and discusses the conversion of agricultural and forestry wastes by hydrothermal liquefaction. The history and development of hydrothermal liquefaction technology for lignocellulosic biomass are briefly introduced. The research status in hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes is critically reviewed, particularly for the effects of liquefaction conditions on bio-oil yield and the decomposition mechanisms of main components in biomass...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Beatriz Temer, Leandro Vieira Dos Santos, Victor Augusti Negri, Juliana Pimentel Galhardo, Pedro Henrique Mello Magalhães, Juliana José, Cidnei Marschalk, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro Corrêa, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira
BACKGROUND: Second-generation ethanol production is a clean bioenergy source with potential to mitigate fossil fuel emissions. The engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for xylose utilization is an essential step towards the production of this biofuel. Though xylose isomerase (XI) is the key enzyme for xylose conversion, almost half of the XI genes are not functional when expressed in S. cerevisiae. To date, protein misfolding is the most plausible hypothesis to explain this phenomenon...
September 9, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
Ahmed Debez, Ikram Belghith, Jan Friesen, Carsten Montzka, Skander Elleuche
Due to steadily growing population and economic transitions in the more populous countries, renewable sources of energy are needed more than ever. Plant biomass as a raw source of bioenergy and biofuel products may meet the demand for sustainable energy; however, such plants typically compete with food crops, which should not be wasted for producing energy and chemicals. Second-generation or advanced biofuels that are based on renewable and non-edible biomass resources are processed to produce cellulosic ethanol, which could be further used for producing energy, but also bio-based chemicals including higher alcohols, organic acids, and bulk chemicals...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Hafiz Mamoon Rehman, Muhammad Imtiaz, Faheem Shehzad Baloch, Jeong Dong Lee, Seung Hwan Yang, Soo In Lee, Gyuhwa Chung
Soybean is a promising biomass resource for generation of second-generation biofuels. Despite the utility of soybean cellulosic biomass and post-processing residues in biofuel generation, there is no comprehensive information available on cell wall loosening and degradation related gene families. In order to achieve enhanced lignocellulosic biomass with softened cell walls and reduced recalcitrance, it is important to identify genes involved in cell wall polymer loosening and degrading. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of gene families involved in cell wall modifications is an efficient stratagem to find new candidate genes for soybean breeding for expanding biofuel industry...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Meng Li, Jun Wang, Fu Du, Boubacar Diallo, Guang Hui Xie
BACKGROUND: Due to its chemical composition and abundance, lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock source for global bioenergy production. However, chemical composition variations interfere with the success of any single methodology for efficient bioenergy extraction from diverse lignocellulosic biomass sources. Although chemical component distributions could guide process design, they are difficult to obtain and vary widely among lignocellulosic biomass types. Therefore, expensive and laborious "one-size-fits-all" processes are still widely used...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hongyun Liu, Jiajia Qin, Hui Fan, Jinjin Cheng, Lin Li, Zheng Liu
As a member of the GRAS gene family, SCARECROW-LIKE (SCL) genes encode transcriptional regulators that are involved in plant information transmission and signal transduction. In this study, 44 SCL genes including two SCARECROW genes in millet were identified to be distributed on eight chromosomes, except chromosome 6. All the millet genes contain motifs 6-8, indicating that these motifs are conserved during the evolution. SCL genes of millet were divided into eight groups based on the phylogenetic relationship and classification of Arabidopsis SCL genes...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Michele Poli, Silvio Salvi, Mingai Li, Claudio Varotto
Suitable reference gene selection in qRT-PCR is a key pre-requisite to produce reliable data in gene expression analyses. In this study, novel primers for six commonly used reference genes (AC1, TLF, Act2, TUB α, EF-1α and GAPDH) plus two new candidates (pDUF221 and RPN6) were designed and comparatively tested for expression stability under abiotic stresses (osmotic, heavy metal and heat shock) in shoot, root and their combination of Arundo donax L., a raising non-food energy crop. Expression stability rankings from the most to the least stable gene in each condition and in two tissues (young shoots and roots) were generated with geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper programs...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jiqing Gou, Chunxiang Fu, Sijia Liu, Chaorong Tang, Smriti Debnath, Amy Flanagan, Yaxin Ge, Yuhong Tang, Qingzhen Jiang, Preston R Larson, Jiangqi Wen, Zeng-Yu Wang
Grasses possess basal and aerial axillary buds. Previous studies have largely focused on basal bud (tiller) formation but scarcely touched on aerial buds, which may lead to aerial branch development. Genotypes with and without aerial buds were identified in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a dedicated bioenergy crop. Bud development was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Microarray, RNA-seq and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to identify regulators of bud formation...
September 6, 2017: New Phytologist
Oliver Rubel, Benjamin P Bowen
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a transformative imaging method that supports the untargeted, quantitative measurement of the chemical composition and spatial heterogeneity of complex samples with broad applications in life sciences, bioenergy, and health. While MSI data can be routinely collected, its broad application is currently limited by the lack of easily accessible analysis methods that can process data of the size, volume, diversity, and complexity generated by MSI experiments. The development and application of cutting-edge analytical methods is a core driver in MSI research for new scientific discoveries, medical diagnostics, and commercial-innovation...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Anne Luize Lupatini, Larissa de Oliveira Bispo, Luciane Maria Colla, Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa, Cristiane Canan, Eliane Colla
Spirulina platensis is considered an alternative and excellent source of protein [46-63% dry basis (DB)], having protein levels comparable to meat and soybeans. Thus, it can be considered an adequate ingredient to supply the necessity of this compound in the food industry. Its carbohydrates (8-14% DB) may also be a useful food ingredient or a potential source of bioenergy. Thus, extracting these compounds from the microalgae biomass will maximize its exploitation. Sonication can completely or partially degrade the microalgal cell wall, providing a useful technique to extract the protein and carbohydrate...
September 2017: Food Research International
Hima V Vangapandu, Mary L Ayres, Christopher A Bristow, William G Wierda, Michael J Keating, Kumudha Balakrishnan, Christine M Stellrecht, Varsha Gandhi
Peripheral blood chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells are replicationally quiescent mature B-cells. In short-term cultures, supporting stromal cells provide a survival advantage to CLL cells by inducing transcription and translation without promoting proliferation. We hypothesized that the stromal microenvironment augments malignant B cells' metabolism to enable the cells to cope with their energy demands for transcription and translation. We used extracellular flux analysis to assess the two major energy-generating pathways, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and glycolysis, in primary CLL cells in the presence of three different stromal cell lines...
August 29, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Lewis Dunnigan, Benjamin J Morton, Philip J van Eyk, Peter J Ashman, Xiangping Zhang, Philip Anthony Hall, Chi Wai Kwong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to the particulate matter (PM) during the combustion of raw pyrolysis volatiles (bio-oil and pyrogas mixture) generated from the pyrolysis of rice husk. Five different raw pyrolysis volatiles were produced at varying pyrolysis temperatures (400-800°C) and subsequently combusted in a laboratory-scale, continuous pyrolysis-combustion facility at 850°C. 15 priority pollutant PAH levels in the resulting biochar, bio-oil, and PM were evaluated...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
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