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Henrique Vieira de Mendonça, Jean Pierre Henry Balbaud Ometto, Marcelo Henrique Otenio, Alberto José Delgado Dos Reis, Isabel Paula Ramos Marques
New data on biogas production and treatment of cattle wastewater were registered using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) hybrid reactor under mesophilic temperature conditions (37 °C). The reactor was operated in semi-continuous mode with hydraulic retention times of 6, 5, 3 and 2 days and organic loading rates of 3.8, 4.6, 7.0 and 10.8 kg CODt m(-3) d(-1). Biogas volumes of 0.6-0.8 m(3) m(-3) d(-1) (3.8-4.6 kg CODt m(-3) d(-1)) and 1.2-1.4 m(3) m(-3) d(-1) (7.0-10.8 kg CODt m(-3) d(-1)), with methane concentrations between 69 and 75%, were attained...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Lixiang Cheng, Yuping Wang, Yueshan Liu, Qingquan Zhang, Huihui Gao, Zhang Feng
Among the multiple environmental signals and hormonal factors regulating potato tuberization, gibberellins (GAs) are important components of the signaling pathways in these processes. To understand the GAs-signaling response mechanism of potato tuberization, a comparative proteomics approach was applied to analyze proteome change of potato tuberization in vitro subjected to a range of exogenous GA3 treatments (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 μΜ) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Quantitative image analyses showed that a total of 37 protein spots have their abundance significantly altered more than 2-fold...
November 14, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Richard A Muhlack, Ravichandra Potumarthi, David W Jeffery
Grapes are one of the most cultivated fruits worldwide, with one third of total production used in winemaking. Both red and white winemaking processes result in substantial quantities of solid organic waste, such as grape marc (pomace) and stalks, which requires suitable disposal. Grape marc accounts for approximately 10-30% of the mass of grapes crushed and contains unfermented sugars, alcohol, polyphenols, tannins, pigments, and other valuable products. Being a natural plant product rich in lignocellulosic compounds, grape marc is also a promising feedstock for renewable energy production...
November 10, 2017: Waste Management
P Schröder, B Beckers, S Daniels, F Gnädinger, E Maestri, N Marmiroli, M Mench, R Millan, M M Obermeier, N Oustriere, T Persson, C Poschenrieder, F Rineau, B Rutkowska, T Schmid, W Szulc, N Witters, A Sæbø
The rapid increase of the world population constantly demands more food production from agricultural soils. This causes conflicts, since at the same time strong interest arises on novel bio-based products from agriculture, and new perspectives for rural landscapes with their valuable ecosystem services. Agriculture is in transition to fulfill these demands. In many countries, conventional farming, influenced by post-war food requirements, has largely been transformed into integrated and sustainable farming...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Susanna Pollastri, Andreas Savvides, Massimo Pesando, Erica Lumini, Maria Grazia Volpe, Elif Aylin Ozudogru, Antonella Faccio, Fausta De Cunzo, Marco Michelozzi, Maurizio Lambardi, Vasileios Fotopoulos, Francesco Loreto, Mauro Centritto, Raffaella Balestrini
AM symbiosis did not strongly affect Arundo donax performances under salt stress, although differences in the plants inoculated with two different fungi were recorded. The mechanisms at the basis of the improved tolerance to abiotic stresses by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been investigated mainly focusing on food crops. In this work, the potential impact of AM symbiosis on the performance of a bioenergy crop, Arundo donax, under saline conditions was considered. Specifically, we tried to understand whether AM symbiosis helps this fast-growing plant, often widespread in marginal soils, withstand salt...
November 9, 2017: Planta
Jia Gao, Bin Zhao, Shuting Dong, Peng Liu, Baizhao Ren, Jiwang Zhang
Maize is one of the most important crops globally that provides food, feed, and bioenergy. However, shading stress threatens maize production. In this study, we investigated the effects of shading on photosynthate accumulation and distribution of summer maize in the field. Zhengdan958 (ZD958) and Denghai 605 (DH605) were used as experimental materials in a field experiment running from 2013 to 2015. Shading treatments were applied over different growth stages: from the tassel stage (VT) to physiological maturity (R6) (S1), from the six-leaf stage (V6) to VT (S2), and from emergence stage (VE) to R6 (S3)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mollee Dworkin, Shaojun Xie, Malay Saha, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Venu Kal Kalavacharla
BACKGROUND: Switchgrass is a crop with many desirable traits for bioenergy production. Plant genomes have high DNA methylation levels throughout genes and transposable elements and DNA methylation is known to play a role in silencing transposable elements. Here we analyzed methylomes in two switchgrass genotypes AP13 and VS16. AP13 is derived from a lowland ecotype and VS16, typically considered drought-tolerant, is derived from an upland ecotype, both genotypes are tetraploid (2n = 4× = 36)...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, Eric Trably, Sanjeet Mehariya, Nicolas Bernet, Jonathan W C Wong, Hélène Carrere
Food waste (FW) management by biological process is more attractive and eco-friendly approach than thermo-chemical conversion or landfilling. However, FW composition and physico-chemical and biological characteristics affect the overall biological process in terms of product yield and degradation rate. To overcome this major bottle-neck, the pretreatment of FW is proposed. Therefore this review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the importance of pretreatment of FW with respect to FW management by anaerobic digestion (AD) and dark fermentation (DF)...
September 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Graeme Allinson
Arundo donax (giant reed) has great potential for bioenergy biomass production in constructed wetlands. Large scale use of A. donax in constructed wetlands will require the use of either established plants sourced from nurseries, or the use of cuttings or rhizomes and stems from mother plants derived from nurseries or wild stands. The results of this study suggest that cuttings and rhizomes are not sensitive to salinity up to an EC ~ 4500 µS cm(- 1). Plants used to establish a constructed wetland should have stems of at least 300 mm length, with well established roots...
October 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Qingbao Ding, Ling Oua
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates (NTPs) play an important role in cells in the transfer of phosphate groups or bioenergy. In vivo, they are ready to be produced, regenerated and consumed in different kinds of metabolic pathways, and their concentrations are strictly controlled. NTPs are useful reagents that take part in many biosynthetic processes. However, NTPs are expensive and unstable, which greatly increases the cost of the final product if a large amount of NTPs is used directly in biosynthesis...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ozgul Calicioglu, Goksel N Demirer
This study comparatively evaluated the effect of co-substrates on anaerobic digestion (AD) and biochemical methane potential of wastewater-derived microalgal biomass, with an emphasis on carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) and substrate-to-inoculum (S:I) ratios. A semi-continuous photobioreactor was inoculated with Chlorella vulgaris and the nutrient recovery potential was investigated. Then, the derived microalgal slurry was subjected to AD in the absence and presence of co-substrates, namely, model kitchen waste (MKW) and waste activated sludge (WAS)...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
Yanrong Liu, Kexin Wang, Dayong Li, Jianping Yan, Wanjun Zhang
MicroRNA393 (miR393) family is one of the conserved miRNA families in the plant kingdom. MiR393 was reported to positively regulate rice tillering and abiotic stress resistances through auxin signaling pathway. However, little is known about the function of miR393 in switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), an important bioenergy C4 grass plant. We tested the expression level of miR393 and its four putative target genes ( PvAFB1 , PvAFB2 , PvAFB3 and PvTIR1 ) in switchgrass, and found these genes were all responded to cold stress and exogenous NAA treatment...
October 23, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Elda España-Gamboa, Jorge Arturo Domínguez-Maldonado, Raul Tapia-Tussell, Jose Silvano Chale-Canul, Liliana Alzate-Gaviria
In Mexico, the corn tortilla is a food of great economic importance. Corn tortilla production generates about 1500-2000 m(3) of wastewater per 600 tons of processed corn. Although this wastewater (also known as nejayote) has a high organic matter content, few studies in Mexico have analyzed its treatment. This study presents fresh data on the potential methane production capacity of nejayote in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system using an Anaerobic-Packed Column Reactor (APCR) to optimize the acidogenic phase and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to enhance the methanogenic process...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alya Limayem, Andrew Micciche, Bina Nayak, Shyam Mohapatra
Algae biomass-fed wastewaters are a promising source of lipid and bioenergy manufacture, revealing substantial end-product investment returns. However, wastewaters would contain lytic pathogens carrying drug resistance detrimental to algae yield and environmental safety. This study was conducted to simultaneously decipher through high-throughput advanced Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial community profile found in a single sample that was directly recovered from the local wastewater systems...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tong Si, Huimin Zhao
The United States is a leading nation in the development of synthetic biology, an emerging engineering discipline to create, control and reprogram biological systems. With strategic investment from its government agencies, the U.S. has established numerous research centers and programs in synthetic biology, enabling significant advances in foundational tool development and practical applications ranging from bioenergy, biomanufacturing, to biomedicine. To maintain its leadership in synthetic biology, U.S, has conducted several roadmap studies to provide strategic visions and action recommendations...
December 2016: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Nicholas J Weise, Syed T Ahmed, Fabio Parmeggiani, James L Galman, Mark S Dunstan, Simon J Charnock, David Leys, Nicholas J Turner
The suite of biological catalysts found in Nature has the potential to contribute immensely to scientific advancements, ranging from industrial biotechnology to innovations in bioenergy and medical intervention. The endeavour to obtain a catalyst of choice is, however, wrought with challenges. Herein we report the design of a structure-based annotation system for the identification of functionally similar enzymes from diverse sequence backgrounds. Focusing on an enzymatic activity with demonstrated synthetic and therapeutic relevance, five new phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzymes were discovered and characterised with respect to their potential applications...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christopher L Davey, Paul Robson, Sarah Hawkins, Kerrie Farrar, John C Clifton-Brown, Iain S Donnison, Gancho T Slavov
Miscanthus has potential as a bioenergy crop but the rapid development of high-yielding varieties is challenging. Previous studies have suggested that phenology and canopy height are important determinants of biomass yield. Furthermore, while genome-wide prediction was effective for a broad range of traits, the predictive ability for yield was very low. We therefore developed models clarifying the genetic associations between spring emergence, consequent canopy phenology and dry biomass yield. The timing of emergence was a moderately strong predictor of early-season elongation growth (genetic correlation >0...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Fei Zhang, Fengwu Bai, Xinqing Zhao
Production of bioenergy and bio-based chemicals by using fermentable sugars released from low-cost renewable lignocellulosic biomass has received great attention. Efficient cellulolytic enzymes are crucial for lignocellulose bioconversion, but high cellulase production cost is limiting the bioconversion efficiency of cellulosic biomass and industrial applications of lignocellulose biorefinery. Studies on induction and regulation of cellulase in filamentous fungi will help to further develop superior fungal strains for efficient cellulase production and reduce cellulase production cost...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Chuanmei Zhu, Jiani Yang, Christine Shyu
Setaria viridis is an emerging model for cereal and bioenergy grasses because of its short stature, rapid life cycle and expanding genetic and genomic toolkits. Its close phylogenetic relationship with economically important crops such as maize and sorghum positions Setaria as an ideal model system for accelerating discovery and characterization of crop genes that control agronomically important traits. The Second International Setaria Genetics Conference was held on March 6-8, 2017 at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaolong Zhang, Linhua Lan, Lili Niu, Juping Lu, Changxi Li, Miaomiao Guo, Shouyong Mo, Jing Lu, Yongzhang Liu, Bin Lu
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of oxidative stress induced by CoCl2 and H2O2 on the regulation of bioenergetics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line TE-1 and analyze its underlying mechanism. Western blot results showed that CoCl2 and H2O2 treatment of TE-1 cells led to significantly reduction of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex subunits expression and increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.  We further found that TE-1 cells treated with CoCl2, a hypoxia-mimicking reagent, dramatically reduced the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and increased the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR)...
October 12, 2017: Bioscience Reports
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