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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917179/evaluation-of-relationships-between-growth-rate-tree-size-lignocellulose-composition-and-enzymatic-saccharification-in-interspecific-corymbia-hybrids-and-parental-taxa
#1
Adam L Healey, David J Lee, Jason S Lupoi, Gabriella Papa, Joel M Guenther, Luca Corno, Fabrizio Adani, Seema Singh, Blake A Simmons, Robert J Henry
In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF) and parental species Corymbia torelliana and C. citriodora subspecies variegata and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917177/progress-on-optimizing-miscanthus-biomass-production-for-the-european-bioeconomy-results-of-the-eu-fp7-project-optimisc
#2
Iris Lewandowski, John Clifton-Brown, Luisa M Trindade, Gerard C van der Linden, Kai-Uwe Schwarz, Karl Müller-Sämann, Alexander Anisimov, C-L Chen, Oene Dolstra, Iain S Donnison, Kerrie Farrar, Simon Fonteyne, Graham Harding, Astley Hastings, Laurie M Huxley, Yasir Iqbal, Nikolay Khokhlov, Andreas Kiesel, Peter Lootens, Heike Meyer, Michal Mos, Hilde Muylle, Chris Nunn, Mensure Özgüven, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz, Heinrich Schüle, Ivan Tarakanov, Tim van der Weijde, Moritz Wagner, Qingguo Xi, Olena Kalinina
This paper describes the complete findings of the EU-funded research project OPTIMISC, which investigated methods to optimize the production and use of miscanthus biomass. Miscanthus bioenergy and bioproduct chains were investigated by trialing 15 diverse germplasm types in a range of climatic and soil environments across central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, and China. The abiotic stress tolerances of a wider panel of 100 germplasm types to drought, salinity, and low temperatures were measured in the laboratory and a field trial in Belgium...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915181/bioenergy-and-biodiversity-intensified-biomass-extraction-from-hedges-impairs-habitat-conditions-for-birds
#3
Ralf Sauerbrei, Birgit Aue, Christian Krippes, Eva Diehl, Volkmar Wolters
Biomass is increasingly used as an alternative source for energy in Europe. Woody material cut from hedges is considered to provide a suitable complement to maize and oilseed rape, which are currently the dominant biomass sources. Since shrubs and trees are also important habitats for birds, however, coppicing of hedges at the landscape scale may adversely affect the diversity of the avifauna. To evaluate this risk, we estimated the response of hedge birds to three management scenarios differing in cutting intensity and hedge selection...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911698/core-concept-can-bioenergy-with-carbon-capture-and-storage-make-an-impact
#4
Danielle Venton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902405/microbial-nanowires-an-electrifying-tale
#5
Sandeep K Sure, Leigh M Ackland, Angel A Torriero, Alok Adholeya, Mandira Kochar
Electromicrobiology has gained momentum in the last ten years with advances in microbial fuel cells and the discovery of microbial nanowires (MNWs). The list of MNWs producing microorganisms is growing and providing intriguing insights into the presence of such microorganisms in diverse environments and the potential roles MNWs can perform. This review discusses the MNWs produced by different microorganisms, including their structure, composition and role in electron transfer through MNWs. Two hypotheses, metallic-like conductivity and an electron hopping model, have been proposed for electron transfer and we present a current understanding of both these hypotheses...
October 21, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#6
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895284/spatial-and-temporal-dynamics-of-agricultural-residue-resources-in-the-last-30-years-in-china
#7
Yanli Yang, Peidong Zhang, Xutong Yang, Xiaoning Xu
The availability and distribution of biomass resources are important for the development of the bioenergy industry in a region. Biomass resources are abundant in China; however, the raw material is severely deficient, which makes the Chinese bioenergy industry an embarrassment and a contradiction. Unclear reserves and distribution and changing trends of biomass resources are the reason for this situation. A collection coefficient model of Chinese agricultural residue resources was established and the spatial and temporal pattern dynamics of agricultural residue resources in the last 30 years were analyzed...
December 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893787/selection-signatures-in-four-lignin-genes-from-switchgrass-populations-divergently-selected-for-in-vitro-dry-matter-digestibility
#8
Shiyu Chen, Shawn M Kaeppler, Kenneth P Vogel, Michael D Casler
Switchgrass is undergoing development as a dedicated cellulosic bioenergy crop. Fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in a bioenergy system or to volatile fatty acids in a livestock production system is strongly and negatively influenced by lignification of cell walls. This study detects specific loci that exhibit selection signatures across switchgrass breeding populations that differ in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), ethanol yield, and lignin concentration. Allele frequency changes in candidate genes were used to detect loci under selection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883939/is-enhanced-biodiversity-protection-conflicting-with-ambitious-bioenergy-targets-in-eastern-finland
#9
Michael den Herder, Mikko Kurttila, Pekka Leskinen, Marcus Lindner, Anniina Haatanen, Susanna Sironen, Olli Salminen, Veera Juusti, Anne Holma
The study describes how qualitative stakeholder feedback can be used in quantitative scenarios to simulate forest resource use under alternative management objectives. In earlier studies in the region of eastern Finland, stakeholders did not see a possible conflict between increased bioenergy use and nature conservation; this finding is contrary to the results of other studies. The aim of this study was to test with a quantitative modelling approach whether the stakeholder expectation holds and whether forest management in eastern Finland can simultaneously increase biomass utilization and biodiversity protection...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879392/characterization-of-class-iii-peroxidases-from-switchgrass
#10
Timothy W Moural, Kevin M Lewis, Carlo Barnaba, Fang Zhu, Nathan A Palmer, Gautam Sarath, Erin D Scully, Jeffrey P Jones, Scott E Sattler, ChulHee Kang
Class III peroxidases (CIIIPRX) catalyze the oxidation of monolignols, generate radicals, and ultimately lead to the formation of lignin. In general, CIIIPRX genes encode a large number of isozymes with ranges of in vitro substrate specificities. In order to elucidate the mode of substrate specificity of these enzymes, we characterized one of the CIIIPRXs (PviPRX9) from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a strategic plant for 2nd generation biofuels. The crystal structure, kinetic experiments, molecular docking, as well as expression patterns of PviPRX9 across multiple tissues and treatments, along with its levels of coexpression with the majority of genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway, revealed the function of PviPRX9 in lignification...
November 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867421/dedicated-biomass-crops-can-enhance-biodiversity-in-the-arable-landscape
#11
Alison J Haughton, David A Bohan, Suzanne J Clark, Mark D Mallott, Victoria Mallott, Rufus Sage, Angela Karp
Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping...
November 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866803/effect-of-hydrothermal-pretreatment-on-miscanthus-anaerobic-digestion
#12
Xuefei Zhou, Qi Li, Yalei Zhang, Yu Gu
Miscanthus is a promising source of bioenergy with high lignocellulose content. This paper studied the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on Miscanthus biogas production. Different pretreatment temperature from 125 to 200°C was tested. After pretreatment, hemicellulose was partially removed and this led to a change in cellulose accessibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was used to examine the digestibility of different samples. There was no obvious enhancement in low temperature (125 and 150°C) conditions. According to the results, 200°C hydrothermal pretreatment was the optimal condition saving 50% on the digestion time and increasing glucose production 13...
October 31, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859277/a-cell-wall-reference-profile-for-miscanthus-bioenergy-crops-highlights-compositional-and-structural-variations-associated-with%C3%A2-development-and-organ-origin
#13
Ricardo M F da Costa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Utku Avci, Scott J Lee, Samuel P Hazen, Ana Winters, Michael G Hahn, Maurice Bosch
Miscanthus spp. are promising lignocellulosic energy crops, but cell wall recalcitrance to deconstruction still hinders their widespread use as bioenergy and biomaterial feedstocks. Identification of cell wall characteristics desirable for biorefining applications is crucial for lignocellulosic biomass improvement. However, the task of scoring biomass quality is often complicated by the lack of a reference for a given feedstock. A multidimensional cell wall analysis was performed to generate a reference profile for leaf and stem biomass from several miscanthus genotypes harvested at three developmentally distinct time points...
November 15, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858972/a-simple-and-low-cost-procedure-for-growing-geobacter-sulfurreducens-cell-cultures-and-biofilms-in-bioelectrochemical-systems
#14
J Patrick O'Brien, Nikhil S Malvankar
Anaerobic microorganisms play a central role in several environmental processes and regulate global biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and minerals. Many anaerobic microorganisms are important for the production of bioenergy and biofuels. However, the major hurdle in studying anaerobic microorganisms in the laboratory is the requirement for sophisticated and expensive gassing stations and glove boxes to create and maintain the anaerobic environment. This appendix presents a simple design for a gassing station that can be used readily by an inexperienced investigator for cultivation of anaerobic microorganisms...
November 18, 2016: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855202/identification-of-the-core-set-of-carbon-associated-genes-in-a-bioenergy-grassland-soil
#15
Adina Howe, Fan Yang, Ryan J Williams, Folker Meyer, Kirsten S Hofmockel
Despite the central role of soil microbial communities in global carbon (C) cycling, little is known about soil microbial community structure and even less about their metabolic pathways. Efforts to characterize soil communities often focus on identifying differences in gene content across environmental gradients, but an alternative question is what genes are similar in soils. These genes may indicate critical species or potential functions that are required in all soils. Here we identified the "core" set of C cycling sequences widely present in multiple soil metagenomes from a fertilized prairie (FP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826356/inhibition-of-microbial-biofuel-production-in-drought-stressed-switchgrass-hydrolysate
#16
Rebecca Garlock Ong, Alan Higbee, Scott Bottoms, Quinn Dickinson, Dan Xie, Scott A Smith, Jose Serate, Edward Pohlmann, Arthur Daniel Jones, Joshua J Coon, Trey K Sato, Gregg R Sanford, Dustin Eilert, Lawrence G Oates, Jeff S Piotrowski, Donna M Bates, David Cavalier, Yaoping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Interannual variability in precipitation, particularly drought, can affect lignocellulosic crop biomass yields and composition, and is expected to increase biofuel yield variability. However, the effect of precipitation on downstream fermentation processes has never been directly characterized. In order to investigate the impact of interannual climate variability on biofuel production, corn stover and switchgrass were collected during 3 years with significantly different precipitation profiles, representing a major drought year (2012) and 2 years with average precipitation for the entire season (2010 and 2013)...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822737/expression-and-characterization-of-a-glucose-tolerant-%C3%AE-1-4-glucosidase-with-wide-substrate-specificity-from-cytophaga-hutchinsonii
#17
Cong Zhang, Xifeng Wang, Weican Zhang, Yue Zhao, Xuemei Lu
Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a gram-negative bacterium that can efficiently degrade crystalline cellulose by a novel strategy without cell-free cellulases or cellulosomes. Genomic analysis implied that C. hutchinsonii had endoglucanases and β-glucosidases but no exoglucanases which could processively digest cellulose and produce cellobiose. In this study, BglA was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to be a β-glucosidase with wide substrate specificity. It can hydrolyze pNPG, pNPC, cellobiose, and cellodextrins...
November 7, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821048/identification-characterization-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-nucleotide-binding-site-nb-type-resistance-gene-homologues-in-switchgrass
#18
Taylor P Frazier, Nathan A Palmer, Fuliang Xie, Christian M Tobias, Teresa J Donze-Reiner, Aureliano Bombarely, Kevin L Childs, Shengqiang Shu, Jerry W Jenkins, Jeremy Schmutz, Baohong Zhang, Gautam Sarath, Bingyu Zhao
BACKGROUND: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season perennial grass that can be used as a second generation bioenergy crop. However, foliar fungal pathogens, like switchgrass rust, have the potential to significantly reduce switchgrass biomass yield. Despite its importance as a prominent bioenergy crop, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of NB-LRR disease resistance genes has yet to be performed in switchgrass. RESULTS: In this study, we used a homology-based computational approach to identify 1011 potential NB-LRR resistance gene homologs (RGHs) in the switchgrass genome (v 1...
November 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818570/expanding-the-biomass-resource-sustainable-oil-production-via-fast-pyrolysis-of-low-input-high-diversity-biomass-and-the-potential-integration-of-thermochemical-and-biological-conversion-routes
#19
J Corton, I S Donnison, M Patel, L Bühle, E Hodgson, M Wachendorf, A Bridgwater, G Allison, M D Fraser
Waste biomass is generated during the conservation management of semi-natural habitats, and represents an unused resource and potential bioenergy feedstock that does not compete with food production. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterise a representative range of biomass generated during conservation management in Wales. Of the biomass types assessed, those dominated by rush (Juncus effuses) and bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) exhibited the highest and lowest volatile compositions respectively and were selected for bench scale conversion via fast pyrolysis...
September 1, 2016: Applied Energy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815006/the-effects-of-straw-or-straw-derived-gasification-biochar-applications-on-soil-quality-and-crop-productivity-a-farm-case-study
#20
Veronika Hansen, Dorette Müller-Stöver, Valentina Imparato, Paul Henning Krogh, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Anders Dolmer, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen
Thermal gasification of straw is a highly efficient technology that produces bioenergy and gasification biochar that can be used as a soil amendment, thereby returning non-renewable nutrients and stable carbon, and securing soil quality and crop productivity. A Danish on-farm field study investigated the impact of traditional straw incorporation vs. straw removal for thermal gasification bioenergy production and the application of straw gasification biochar (GB) on soil quality and crop production. Two rates of GB were applied over three successive years in which the field was cropped with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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