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Li Cai, Lu Zhang, Qiantang Fu, Zeng-Fu Xu
The seed oil of Jatropha curcas is considered a potential bioenergy source that could replace fossil fuels. However, the seed yield of Jatropha is low and has yet to be improved. We previously reported that exogenous cytokinin treatment increased the seed yield of Jatropha . Cytokinin levels are directly regulated by isopentenyl transferase (IPT), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, family 735, subfamily A (CYP735A), and cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX). In this study, we cloned six IPT genes, one JcCYP735A gene, and seven JcCKX genes...
2018: PeerJ
Alan Little, Julian G Schwerdt, Neil J Shirley, Shi F Khor, Kylie Neumann, Lisa A O'Donovan, Jelle Lahnstein, Helen M Collins, Marilyn Henderson, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton
Cell walls are crucial for the integrity and function of all land plants, and are of central importance in human health, livestock production, and as a source of renewable bioenergy. Many enzymes that mediate the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides are encoded by members of the large cellulose synthase (CesA) gene superfamily. Here, we analyzed 29 sequenced genomes and 17 transcriptomes to revise the phylogeny of the CesA gene superfamily in angiosperms. Our results identify ancestral gene clusters that predate the monocot-eudicot divergence and reveal several novel evolutionary observations, including the expansion of the Poaceae-specific cellulose synthase-like CslF family to the graminids and restiids and the characterisation of a previously unreported eudicot lineage, CslM, that forms a reciprocally monophyletic eudicot-monocot grouping with the CslJ clade...
May 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Simone Schmitz, Miriam A Rosenbaum
Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) hold great promise for sustainable energy generation via a microbial catalyst from organic matter, e.g., from wastewater. In order to improve current generation in BES, understanding the underlying microbiology of the electrode community is essential. Electron mediator producing microorganism like Pseudomonas aeruginosa play an essential role in efficient electricity generation in BES. These microbes enable even non-electroactive microorganism like Enterobacter aerogenes to contribute to current production...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Giacomo Grassi, Roberto Pilli, Jo House, Sandro Federici, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: The credibility and effectiveness of country climate targets under the Paris Agreement requires that, in all greenhouse gas (GHG) sectors, the accounted mitigation outcomes reflect genuine deviations from the type and magnitude of activities generating emissions in the base year or baseline. This is challenging for the forestry sector, as the future net emissions can change irrespective of actual management activities, because of age-related stand dynamics resulting from past management and natural disturbances...
May 17, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Ravi Kant Bhatia, Yong-Keun Choi, Eunsung Kan, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Design of a microbial consortium is a newly emerging field that enables researchers to extend the frontiers of biotechnology from a pure culture to mixed cultures. A microbial consortium enables microbes to use a broad range of carbon sources. It provides microbes with robustness in response to environmental stress factors. Microbes in a consortium can perform complex functions that are impossible for a single organism. With advancement of technology, it is now possible to understand microbial interaction mechanism and construct consortia...
May 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
D L Cheng, H H Ngo, W S Guo, S W Chang, D D Nguyen, S Mathava Kumar, B Du, Q Wei, D Wei
Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes...
May 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Walter Den, Virender K Sharma, Mengshan Lee, Govind Nadadur, Rajender S Varma
Anthropogenic climate change, principally induced by the large volume of carbon dioxide emission from the global economy driven by fossil fuels, has been observed and scientifically proven as a major threat to civilization. Meanwhile, fossil fuel depletion has been identified as a future challenge. Lignocellulosic biomass in the form of organic residues appears to be the most promising option as renewable feedstock for the generation of energy and platform chemicals. As of today, relatively little bioenergy comes from lignocellulosic biomass as compared to feedstock such as starch and sugarcane, primarily due to high cost of production involving pretreatment steps required to fragment biomass components via disruption of the natural recalcitrant structure of these rigid polymers; low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of refractory feedstock presents a major challenge...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Thapelo Mokomele, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Venkatesh Balan, Eugéne van Rensburg, Bruce E Dale, Johann F Görgens
Background: Expanding biofuel markets are challenged by the need to meet future biofuel demands and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, while using domestically available feedstock sustainably. In the context of the sugar industry, exploiting under-utilized cane leaf matter (CLM) in addition to surplus sugarcane bagasse as supplementary feedstock for second-generation ethanol production has the potential to improve bioenergy yields per unit land. In this study, the ethanol yields and processing bottlenecks of ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX™) and steam explosion (StEx) as adopted technologies for pretreating sugarcane bagasse and CLM were experimentally measured and compared for the first time...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Chathapuram Rajan Narayanan, Konstantin Korotkov, Thaiyar Madabusi Srinivasan
Electro photonic imaging (EPI) is being researched relative to its application for yoga therapy. Three parameters of interest in EPI measurements are as follows: Communication energy (C), integral or normalized area (IA), and Entropy (E). It is important to note that C indicates the total energy of communication for the organ system; IA is an indication of total amount of energy that is available for the organ system while entropy is an indication of the amount of coherence of the energy. Coherence and entropy are inversely related; this means less the entropy, more the coherence and vice versa...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
Andressa R Pereira, Graziela C Sedenho, João C P DE Souza, Frank N Crespilho
Bioelectrochemistry can be defined as a branch of Chemical Science concerned with electron-proton transfer and transport involving biomolecules, as well as electrode reactions of redox enzymes. The bioelectrochemical reactions and system have direct impact in biotechnological development, in medical devices designing, in the behavior of DNA-protein complexes, in green-energy and bioenergy concepts, and make it possible an understanding of metabolism of all living organisms (e.g. humans) where biomolecules are integral to health and proper functioning...
2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jose Antonio Magdalena, Mercedes Ballesteros, Cristina González-Fernandez
Biogas generation is the least complex technology to transform microalgae biomass into bioenergy. Since hydrolysis has been pointed out as the rate limiting stage of anaerobic digestion, the main challenge for an efficient biogas production is the optimization of cell wall disruption/hydrolysis. Among all tested pretreatments, enzymatic treatments were demonstrated not only very effective in disruption/hydrolysis but they also revealed the impact of microalgae macromolecular composition in the anaerobic process...
May 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tara J Conkling, Jerrold L Belant, Travis L DeVault, James A Martin
Growing concerns about climate change, foreign oil dependency, and environmental quality have fostered interest in perennial native grasses (e.g., switchgrass [Panicum virgatum]) for bioenergy production while also maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, biomass cultivation in marginal landscapes such as airport grasslands may have detrimental effects on aviation safety as well as conservation efforts for grassland birds. In 2011-2013, we investigated effects of vegetation composition and harvest frequency on seasonal species richness and habitat use of grassland birds and modeled relative abundance, aviation risk, and conservation value of birds associated with biomass crops...
March 8, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Ming Li, Minghua Zhou, Xiaoyu Tian, Chaolin Tan, Cameron T McDaniel, Daniel J Hassett, Tingyue Gu
Within the past 5 years, tremendous advances have been made to maximize the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for both "clean" bioenergy production and bioremediation. Most research efforts have focused on parameters including (i) optimizing reactor configuration, (ii) electrode construction, (iii) addition of redox-active, electron donating mediators, (iv) biofilm acclimation and feed nutrient adjustment, as well as (v) other parameters that contribute to enhanced MFC performance. To date, tremendous advances have been made, but further improvements are needed for MFCs to be economically practical...
May 2, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Yang Ou, Wenjing Shi, Steven J Smith, Catherine M Ledna, J Jason West, Christopher G Nolte, Daniel H Loughlin
There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways for the United States. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage, while another set emphasizes renewable energy, including wind, solar, geothermal power, and bioenergy...
April 15, 2018: Applied Energy
Jian Gao, Joelle Sasse, Kyle M Lewald, Kateryna Zhalnina, Lloyd T Cornmesser, Todd A Duncombe, Yasuo Yoshikuni, John P Vogel, Mary K Firestone, Trent R Northen
Beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer a sustainable biological solution with the potential to boost low-input food and bioenergy production. A better mechanistic understanding of these complex plant-microbe interactions will be crucial to improving plant production as well as performing basic ecological studies investigating plant-soil-microbe interactions. Here, a detailed description for ecosystem fabrication is presented, using widely available 3D printing technologies, to create controlled laboratory habitats (EcoFABs) for mechanistic studies of plant-microbe interactions within specific environmental conditions...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
K C Surendra, Richard Ogoshi, Annett Reinhardt-Hanisch, Hans Oechsner, Halina M Zaleski, Andrew G Hashimoto, Samir Kumar Khanal
This study examined the composition and anaerobic digestibility of the different plant parts of two high-yielding tropical energy crops, Energycane and Napier grass, collected across three locations and two seasons. Both biomass composition and biomethane yields varied significantly with crop types, plant parts and harvest seasons. In Energycane, specific methane yield (SMY) (Nm3 (kg VSadded )-1 ) was higher from stems (0.232 ± 0.003) than leaves (0.224 ± 0.003), while in Napier grass, SMY was higher from leaves (0...
April 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Miae Ha, Zhonglong Zhang, May Wu
A watershed model was developed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that simulates nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loadings in the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB). The LMRB SWAT model was calibrated and validated using 21 years of observed flow, sediment, and water-quality data. The baseline model results indicate that agricultural lands within the Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) are the dominant sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharging into the Gulf of Mexico. The model was further used to evaluate the impact of biomass production, in the presence of riparian buffers in the LMRB, on suspended-sediment and nutrient loading discharge from the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico...
April 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Olga Yurchenko, Athen Kimberlin, Marina Mehling, Abraham J Koo, Kent D Chapman, Robert T Mullen, John M Dyer
Recent studies have shown that it is possible to engineer substantial increases in triacylglycerol (TAG) content in plant vegetative biomass, which offers a novel approach for increasing the energy density of food, feed, and bioenergy crops or for creating a sink for the accumulation of unusual, high-value fatty acids. However, whether or not these changes in lipid metabolism affect plant responses to biotic and/or abiotic stresses is an open question. Here we show that transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant lines engineered for elevated leaf oil content, as well as lines engineered for accumulation of unusual conjugated fatty acids in leaf oil, had similar short-term responses to heat stress (e...
April 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nurul Asyifah Mustapha, Anyi Hu, Chang-Ping Yu, Siti Suhailah Sharuddin, Norhayati Ramli, Yoshihito Shirai, Toshinari Maeda
Efficient approaches for the utilization of waste sewage sludge have been widely studied. One of them is to use it for the bioenergy production, specifically methane gas which is well-known to be driven by complex bacterial interactions during the anaerobic digestion process. Therefore, it is important to understand not only microorganisms for producing methane but also those for controlling or regulating the process. In this study, azithromycin analogs belonging to macrolide, ketolide, and lincosamide groups were applied to investigate the mechanisms and dynamics of bacterial community in waste sewage sludge for methane production...
April 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Késia S Lourenço, Noriko A Cassman, Agata S Pijl, Johannes A van Veen, Heitor Cantarella, Eiko E Kuramae
Organic vinasse, a residue produced during bioethanol production, increases nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions when applied with inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer in soil. The present study investigated the role of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community on the N2 O emissions in soils amended with organic vinasse (CV: concentrated and V: non-concentrated) plus inorganic N fertilizer. Soil samples and N2 O emissions were evaluated at 11, 19, and 45 days after fertilizer application, and the bacterial and archaea gene ( amo A) encoding the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme, bacterial denitrifier ( nir K, nir S, and nos Z) genes and total bacteria were quantified by real time PCR...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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