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Ichiro Yamato, Takeshi Murata, Andrei Khrennikov
We classify research fields in biology with respect to flows of materials, energy, and information. We investigate energy transducing mechanisms in biology, using as a representative the typical molecular rotary motor V1-ATPase from a bacterium Enterococcus hirae. The structures of several intermediates of the rotary motor are described and the molecular mechanism of the motor converting chemical energy into mechanical energy is discussed. Comments and considerations on the information flows in biology, especially on the thermodynamic entropy in quantum physical and biological systems, are presented in section 3 in a biologist friendly manner...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Debajeet Gogoi, Neonjyoti Bordoloi, Ritusmita Goswami, Rumi Narzari, Ruprekha Saikia, Debashis Sut, Lina Gogoi, Rupam Kataki
In the present study, arecanut husk, an agro-processing waste of areca plam industry highly prevalent in the north-eastern region of India, was investigated for its suitability as a prospective bioenergy feedstock for thermo-chemical conversion. Pretreatment of areca husk using torrefaction was performed in a fixed bed reactor with varying reaction temperature (200, 225, 250 and 275°C). The torrefied areca husk was subsequently pyrolyzed from temperature range of 300-600°C with heating rate of 40°C/min to obtain biooil and biochar...
March 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Qi Xie, Xue Liu, Yinbing Zhang, Jinfu Tang, Dedong Yin, Bo Fan, Lihuang Zhu, Liebao Han, Guilong Song, Dayong Li
Due to its high biomass yield, low environmental impact, and widespread adaptability to poor soils and harsh conditions, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm-region perennial herbaceous plant, has attracted much attention in recent years. However, little is known about microRNAs (miRNAs) and their functions in this bioenergy grass. Here, we identified and characterized a miRNA gene, Pvi-MIR319a, encoding microRNA319a in switchgrass. Transgenic rice lines generated by overexpressing the Pvi-MIR319a precursor gene exhibited broader leaves and delayed flowering compared with the control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sofiene Abdellaoui, Madelaine Seow Chavez, Ivana Matanovic, Andrew R Stephens, Plamen Atanassov, Shelley D Minteer
Glycerol is a common fuel considered for bioenergy applications. Computational docking studies were performed on formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (cbFDH) that showed that mesoxalate can bind to the buried active site of the holo form predicting that mesoxalate, a byproduct of glycerol oxidation, may act as its substrate. Spectroscopic assays and characterization by HPLC and GC/TCD have shown for the first time that cbFDH can act as a decarboxylase with mesoxalate. From this assessment, cbFDH was combined with NH2-TEMPO to form a novel hybrid anode to oxidize glycerol to carbon dioxide at near-neutral pH...
April 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yanhua Huang, Cong Guan, Yanrong Liu, Baoyue Chen, Shan Yuan, Xin Cui, Yunwei Zhang, Fuyu Yang
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been increasingly recognized as one of the most valuable perennial bioenergy crop. To improve its biomass production, especially under salt stress, we isolated a putative vacuolar Na(+) (K(+))/H(+) antiporter gene from switchgrass and designated as PvNHX1. Subcellular localization revealed that this protein was localized mainly on the vacuole membrane. The PvNHX1 was found to be expressed throughout the entire growth period of switchgrass, exhibited preferentially expressed in the leaf tissue, and highly induced by salt stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Di Min, Lei Cheng, Feng Zhang, Xue-Na Huang, Dao-Bo Li, Dong-Feng Liu, Tai-Chu Lau, Yang Mu, Han-Qing Yu
Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides, which are used as external electron acceptors by DMRB for their anaerobic respiration. The EET process has important contribution to environmental remediation mineral cycling, and bioelectrochemical systems. However, the low EET efficiency remains to be one of the major bottlenecks for its practical applications for pollutant degradation. In this work, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model DMRB, was used to examine the feasibility of enhancing the EET and its biodegradation capacity through genetic engineering...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yue Li, Liqiang Wan, Shuyi Bi, Xiufu Wan, Zhenyi Li, Jing Cao, Zongyong Tong, Hongyu Xu, Feng He, Xianglin Li
Alfalfa, an important forage legume, is an ideal crop for sustainable agriculture and a potential crop for bioenergy resources. Drought, one of the most common environmental stresses, substantially affects plant growth, development, and productivity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are newly discovered gene expression regulators that have been linked to several plant stress responses. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in drought stress regulation of alfalfa, a high-throughput sequencing approach was used to analyze 12 small RNA libraries comprising of four samples, each with three biological replicates...
April 13, 2017: Genes
Manoj Kumar Singh, Madan Kumar, Indu Shekhar Thakur
In this study Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 was grown on Leucaena leucocephala wood (LLW) for secretome analysis and schizophyllan production. There is no report on extracellular protein profile and schizophyllan production on woody biomass by this fungus under submerged fermentation conditions. Leucaena leucocephala, a promising bioenergy crop having high holocellulose content was used as substrate without pretreatment. The maximum sugar, extracellular protein and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production during fermentation was found to be 8...
March 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Silvia Tedesco, Joseph Stokes
Seaweeds (macroalgae) have been recently attracting more and more interest as a third generation feedstock for bioenergy and biofuels. However, several barriers impede the deployment of competitive seaweed-based energy. The high cost associated to seaweed farming and harvesting, as well as their seasonal availability and biochemical composition currently make macroalgae exploitation too expensive for energy production only. Recent studies have indicated a possible solution to aforementioned challenges may lay in seaweed integrated biorefinery, in which a bioenergy and/or biofuel production step ends an extractions cascade of high-value bioproducts...
2017: Chemické Zvesti
Ilsa B Kantola, Michael D Masters, David J Beerling, Stephen P Long, Evan H DeLucia
Conventional row crop agriculture for both food and fuel is a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, and intensifying production on agricultural land increases the potential for soil C loss and soil acidification due to fertilizer use. Enhanced weathering (EW) in agricultural soils-applying crushed silicate rock as a soil amendment-is a method for combating global climate change while increasing nutrient availability to plants. EW uses land that is already producing food and fuel to sequester carbon (C), and reduces N2O loss through pH buffering...
April 2017: Biology Letters
Sandra K Truong, Ryan F McCormick, John E Mullet
Bioenergy sorghum is targeted for production in water-limited annual cropland therefore traits that improve plant water capture, water use efficiency, and resilience to water deficit are necessary to maximize productivity. A crop modeling framework, APSIM, was adapted to predict the growth and biomass yield of energy sorghum and to identify potentially useful traits for crop improvement. APSIM simulations of energy sorghum development and biomass accumulation replicated results from field experiments across multiple years, patterns of rainfall, and irrigation schemes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ravinder Kumar, Pradeep Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ashley C Bono, Christine E Hartman, Sina Solaimanpour, Hao Tong, Steffen Porwollik, Michael McClelland, Jonathan G Frye, Jan Mrázek, Anna C Karls
The variable sigma (σ) subunit of the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme, which is responsible for promoter specificity and open complex formation, plays a strategic role in the response to environmental changes. S Typhimurium utilizes the housekeeping σ(70) and five alternative sigma factors, including σ(54) The σ(54)-RNAP differs from other σ-RNAP holoenzymes in that it forms a stable closed complex with the promoter and requires ATP hydrolysis by an activated cognate bacterial enhancer binding protein (bEBP) to transition to open complex and initiate transcription...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Indrani Banerjee, Brittany Burrell, Cara Reed, Alan C West, Scott Banta
Developing new feedstocks for the efficient production of biochemicals and biofuels will be a critical challenge as we diversify away from petrochemicals. One possible opportunity is the utilization of sulfide-based minerals in the Earth's crust. Non-photosynthetic chemolithoautotrophic bacteria are starting to be developed to produce biochemicals from CO2 using energy obtained from the oxidation of inorganic feedstocks. Biomining of metals like gold and copper already exploit the native metabolism of these bacteria and these represent perhaps the largest-scale bioprocesses ever developed...
March 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Renan M L Novaes, Ricardo A Pazianotto, Miguel Brandão, Bruno J R Alves, André May, Marília I S Folegatti-Matsuura
Land use change (LUC) in Brazil has important implications on global climate change, ecosystem services and biodiversity, and agricultural expansion plays a critical role in this process. Concerns over these issues have led to the need for estimating the magnitude and impacts associated to that, which are increasingly reported in the environmental assessment of products. Currently, there is an extensive debate on which methods are more appropriate for estimating LUC and related emissions and regionalized estimates are lacking for Brazil, which is a world leader in agricultural production (e...
April 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
Ning Ye, Xuelin Wang, Juan Li, Changwei Bi, Yiqing Xu, Dongyang Wu, Qiaolin Ye
Willow is a widely used dioecious woody plant of Salicaceae family in China. Due to their high biomass yields, willows are promising sources for bioenergy crops. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of S. suchowensis with the length of 644,437 bp using Roche-454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing technologies. Base composition of the S. suchowensis mt genome is A (27.43%), T (27.59%), C (22.34%), and G (22.64%), which shows a prevalent GC content with that of other angiosperms...
2017: PeerJ
Christine E Sharp, Sydney Urschel, Xiaoli Dong, Allyson L Brady, Greg F Slater, Marc Strous
BACKGROUND: Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) has come to be seen as one of the most viable technologies to provide the negative carbon dioxide emissions needed to constrain global temperatures. In practice, algal biotechnology is the only form of BECCS that could be realized at scale without compromising food production. Current axenic algae cultivation systems lack robustness, are expensive and generally have marginal energy returns. RESULTS: Here it is shown that microbial communities sampled from alkaline soda lakes, grown as biofilms at high pH (up to 10) and high alkalinity (up to 0...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Farrukh Raza Amin, Habiba Khalid, Han Zhang, Sajid U Rahman, Ruihong Zhang, Guangqing Liu, Chang Chen
Agricultural residues, such as lignocellulosic materials (LM), are the most attractive renewable bioenergy sources and are abundantly found in nature. Anaerobic digestion has been extensively studied for the effective utilization of LM for biogas production. Experimental investigation of physiochemical changes that occur during pretreatment is needed for developing mechanistic and effective models that can be employed for the rational design of pretreatment processes. Various-cutting edge pretreatment technologies (physical, chemical and biological) are being tested on the pilot scale...
December 2017: AMB Express
Laimonas Kelbauskas, Honor Glenn, Clifford Anderson, Jacob Messner, Kristen B Lee, Ganquan Song, Jeff Houkal, Fengyu Su, Liqiang Zhang, Yanqing Tian, Hong Wang, Kimberly Bussey, Roger H Johnson, Deirdre R Meldrum
Driven by an increasing number of studies demonstrating its relevance to a broad variety of disease states, the bioenergy production phenotype has been widely characterized at the bulk sample level. Its cell-to-cell variability, a key player associated with cancer cell survival and recurrence, however, remains poorly understood due to ensemble averaging of the current approaches. We present a technology platform for performing oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification measurements of several hundreds to 1,000 individual cells per assay, while offering simultaneous analysis of cellular communication effects on the energy production phenotype...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dawn E Holmes, Yan Dang, David J F Walker, Derek R Lovley
The electrically conductive pili (e-pili) of Geobactersulfurreducens have environmental and practical significance because they can facilitate electron transfer to insoluble Fe(III) oxides; to other microbial species; and through electrically conductive biofilms. E-pili conductivity has been attributed to the truncated PilA monomer, which permits tight packing of aromatic amino acids to form a conductive path along the length of e-pili. In order to better understand the evolution and distribution of e-pili in the microbial world, type IVa PilA proteins from various Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were examined with a particular emphasis on Fe(III)-respiring bacteria...
August 2016: Microbial Genomics
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