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Activin A AND Beta cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367682/activation-of-activin-receptor-like-kinases-curbs-mucosal-inflammation-and-proliferation-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#1
Lotta Tengroth, Julia Arebro, Olivia Larsson, Claus Bachert, Susanna Kumlien Georén, Lars-Olaf Cardell
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a widespread disease causing obstruction of the nasal cavity. Its cause remains unclear. The transforming growth-factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily and their receptors, termed Activin receptor-like kinases (ALKs), have recently been suggested to play a role in local airway inflammation, but have so far not been evaluated in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) from CRSwNP patients. We demonstrated that ALK1-7 were expressed in the nasal polyp epithelium, and the expression of ALK1-6 was markedly elevated in polyps compared to nasal mucosa from healthy controls...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357852/admp-controls-the-size-of-spemann-s-organizer-through-a-network-of-self-regulating-expansion-restriction-signals
#2
Avi Leibovich, Hadas Kot-Leibovich, Danny Ben-Zvi, Abraham Fainsod
BACKGROUND: The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling gradient is central for dorsoventral patterning in amphibian embryos. This gradient is established through the interaction of several BMPs and BMP antagonists and modulators, some secreted by Spemann's organizer, a cluster of cells coordinating embryonic development. Anti-dorsalizing morphogenetic protein (ADMP), a BMP-like transforming growth factor beta ligand, negatively affects the formation of the organizer, although it is robustly expressed within the organizer itself...
January 22, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243844/in-vitro-improvement-of-quail-primordial-germ-cell-expansion-through-activation-of-tgf-beta-signaling-pathway
#3
Saeed Yakhkeshi, Shaban Rahimi, Mohsen Sharafi, Seyedeh-Nafiseh Hassani, Sara Taleahmad, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Hossein Baharvand
Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs) have valuable potentials to cell-based approaches for transgenic bird production. In this regard, improvement of avian PGC expansion in vitro is necessary. Among experimental avian species, quail is a good model for transgenic technology, especially due to its short generation time. In the present study, we have examined the proliferative effects of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) on the quail PGCs. After isolation of quail PGCs from blood [Hamburger-Hamilton (HH stages 13-15)] and gonads (HH stages 28-30), these cells were cultured on quail embryonic fibroblasts (QEF)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221447/disruption-of-postnatal-folliculogenesis-and-development-of-ovarian-tumor-in-a-mouse-model-with-aberrant-transforming-growth-factor-beta-signaling
#4
Yang Gao, Xin Fang, David F Vincent, David W Threadgill, Laurent Bartholin, Qinglei Li
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily signaling is implicated in the development of sex cord-stromal tumors, a category of poorly defined gonadal tumors. The aim of this study was to determine potential effects of dysregulated TGFB signaling in the ovary using Cre recombinase driven by growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) promoter known to be expressed in oocytes. METHODS: A mouse model containing constitutively active TGFBR1 (TGFBR1CA) using Gdf9-iCre (termed TGFBR1-CAG9Cre) was generated...
December 8, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943409/interleukin-1-%C3%AE-induced-smad2-3-linker-modifications-are-tak1-dependent-and-delay-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-in-primary-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Guus G van den Akker, Henk M van Beuningen, Elly L Vitters, Marije I Koenders, Fons A van de Loo, Peter L van Lent, Esmeralda N Blaney Davidson, Peter M van der Kraan
BACKGROUND: Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) requires transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. TGFβ binds to the type I receptor activin-like kinase (ALK)5 and results in C-terminal SMAD2/3 phosphorylation (pSMAD2/3C). In turn pSMAD2/3C translocates to the nucleus and regulates target gene expression. Inflammatory mediators are known to exert an inhibitory effect on MSC differentiation. In this study we investigated the effect of interleukin 1 β (IL1β) on SMAD2/3 signaling dynamics and post-translational modifications...
December 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871312/alk1-signaling-in-development-and-disease-new-paradigms
#6
REVIEW
Beth L Roman, Andrew P Hinck
Activin A receptor like type 1 (ALK1) is a transmembrane serine/threonine receptor kinase in the transforming growth factor-beta receptor family that is expressed on endothelial cells. Defects in ALK1 signaling cause the autosomal dominant vascular disorder, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), which is characterized by development of direct connections between arteries and veins, or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Although previous studies have implicated ALK1 in various aspects of sprouting angiogenesis, including tip/stalk cell selection, migration, and proliferation, recent work suggests an intriguing role for ALK1 in transducing a flow-based signal that governs directed endothelial cell migration within patent, perfused vessels...
December 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864263/mechanism-of-chimeric-vaccine-stimulation-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-biosynthesis-in-human-dendritic-cells-is-independent-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#7
Grace E Esebanmen, William H R Langridge
Cholera toxin B subunit fusion to autoantigens such as proinsulin (CTB-INS) down regulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and stimulate synthesis of DC immunosuppressive cytokines. Recent studies of CTB-INS induction of immune tolerance in human DCs indicate that increased biosynthesis of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) may play an important role in CTB-INS vaccine suppression of DC activation. Studies in murine models suggest a role for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in the stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis, for the induction of tolerance in DCs...
September 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819404/activin-b-regulates-adhesion-invasiveness-and-migratory-activities-in-oral-cancer-a-potential-biomarker-for-metastasis
#8
Akihiro Kita, Atsushi Kasamatsu, Dai Nakashima, Yosuke Endo-Sakamoto, Sho Ishida, Toshihiro Shimizu, Yasushi Kimura, Isao Miyamoto, Shusaku Yoshimura, Masashi Shiiba, Hideki Tanzawa, Katsuhiro Uzawa
Activin B, a homodimer of inhibin beta b (INHBB), is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family. However, the molecular functions and clinical relevance of activin B have not been determined in oral cancer. We investigated the critical roles of activin B in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We performed quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to study INHBB expression in OSCC-derived cell lines and OSCC clinical samples...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647906/exogenous-gdf11-induces-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-wasting
#9
Teresa A Zimmers, Yanling Jiang, Meijing Wang, Tiffany W Liang, Joseph E Rupert, Ernie D Au, Francesco E Marino, Marion E Couch, Leonidas G Koniaris
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a TGF-beta superfamily member, is highly homologous to myostatin and essential for embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Reports of GDF11 effects on adult tissues are conflicting, with some describing anti-aging and pro-regenerative activities on the heart and skeletal muscle while others opposite or no effects. Herein, we sought to determine the in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of excess GDF11. Mice were injected with GDF11 secreting cells, an identical model to that used to initially identify the in vivo effects of myostatin...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638997/follistatin-treatment-suppresses-serca1b-levels-independently-of-other-players-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-c2c12-myotubes
#10
János Fodor, Adrienn Gomba-Tóth, Tamás Oláh, János Almássy, Ernő Zádor, László Csernoch
Follistatin (FS) is a high affinity activin-binding protein, neutralizing the effects of the Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily members, as myostatin (MSTN). Since MSTN emerged as a negative regulator, FS has been considered as a stimulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. Here, we studied the effect of FS administration on the Ca(2+)-homeostasis of differentiating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. FS-treatment increased the fusion index, the size of terminally differentiated myotubes, and transiently elevated the expression of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, at the beginning of differentiation...
April 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632033/overexpression-of-alk5-induces-human-tenon-s-capsule-fibroblasts-transdifferentiation-and-fibrosis-in-vitro
#11
Shu-Hao Fu, Hui-Ying Wang, Jia-Ying Zhang, Hui-Min Shi, Nan Zhang, Wen Ye, Yi-Qin Xiao
PURPOSE: To investigate the involvement of activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) in human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) transdifferentiation and fibrosis. METHODS: (1) Cultured HTFs were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) at different concentrations for different durations, mRNA expression of ALK5 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while protein expression of ALK5, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and extracellular matrix deposition including fibronectin (FN) and collagen I (Col1) was assessed by western blot...
February 28, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616035/neuroprotective-effects-of-activin-a-on-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptotic-and-autophagic-pc12-cell-death
#12
Long-Xing Xue, Hong-Yu Liu, Yang Cui, Yue Dong, Jiao-Qi Wang, Qiu-Ye Ji, Jin-Ting He, Min Yao, Ying-Ying Wang, Yan-Kun Shao, Jing Mang, Zhong-Xin Xu
Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, plays a neuroprotective role in multiple neurological diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cell death is implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. Thapsigargin was used to induce PC12 cell death, and Activin A was used for intervention. Our results showed that Activin A significantly inhibited morphological changes in thapsigargin-induced apoptotic cells, and the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins [cleaved-caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and cleaved-caspase-3] and biomarkers of autophagy (Beclin-1 and light chain 3), and downregulated the expression of thapsigargin-induced ER stress-associated proteins [inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38]...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515224/activin-a-regulates-activation-of-mouse-neutrophils-by-smad3-signalling
#13
Yan Qi, Jingyan Ge, Chunhui Ma, Na Wu, Xueling Cui, Zhonghui Liu
Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, acts as a pro-inflammatory factor in acute phase response, and influences the pathological progress of neutrophil-mediated disease. However, whether activin A can exert an effect on the activities of neutrophils remains unclear. In this study, we found that the release of activin A was enhanced from neutrophils of mouse when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, neutrophils were not only the source of activin A but also the target cells in response to activin A, in which canonical activin signalling components existed, and levels of ACTRIIA, SMAD3 and p-SMAD3 proteins were elevated in activin A-treated neutrophils...
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500669/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-signaling-is-influenced-by-follistatin-288-but-not-14-other-transforming-growth-factor-beta-superfamily-regulators
#14
Yui Kawagishi, Michael W Pankhurst, Yoshio Nakatani, Ian S McLennan
The hypothesis that, in contrast to other transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily ligands, the dose-response curve of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is unmodulated was tested by examining whether known TGFB superfamily modulators affect AMH signaling, using a P19/BRE luciferase reporter assay. AMHC and AMHN,C activated the reporter with an EC50 of approximately 0.5 nM. Follistatins (FS) produced concentration-dependent increases in AMHC - and AMHN,C -initiated reporter activity, with FS288 being more potent than FS315; however, the maximum bioactivity of AMH was not altered by either follistatin...
July 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479070/the-effects-of-activin-a-on-the-migration-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-and-neutrophils-and-their-migratory-interaction
#15
Dongxue Xie, Zhonghui Liu, Jiandong Wu, Wenfang Feng, Ke Yang, Jixian Deng, Ganghong Tian, Susy Santos, Xueling Cui, Francis Lin
Activin A belongs to the superfamily of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and is a critical regulatory cytokine in breast cancer and inflammation. However, the role of activin A in migration of breast cancer cells and immune cells was not well characterized. Here, a microfluidic device was used to examine the effect of activin A on the migration of human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 cells and human blood neutrophils as well as their migratory interaction. We found that activin A promoted the basal migration but impaired epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced migration of breast cancer cells...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466233/age-related-expression-of-tgf-beta-family-receptors-in-human-cumulus-oophorus-cells
#16
A Ribeiro, C Freitas, L Matos, A Gouveia, F Gomes, J L Silva Carvalho, H Almeida
PURPOSE: During ovarian follicle growth, local cellular interactions are essential for oocyte quality acquisition and successful fertilization. While cumulus cells (CCs) nurture oocytes, they also deliver oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) that activate receptors on CCs. We hypothesized that disturbance of those interactions contributes to age-related lower reproductive success in women submitted to assisted reproductive technology treatments. METHODS: Women aged 27-48, without recognized personal reproductive disorder, were enrolled in the study and divided in <35- and ≥35-year-old groups...
September 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424263/the-kielin-chordin-like-protein-kcp-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#17
Abdul Soofi, Katherine I Wolf, Margo P Emont, Nathan Qi, Gabriel Martinez-Santibanez, Edward Grimley, Wesam Ostwani, Gregory R Dressler
Obesity and its associated complications such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-β superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissue differentiation. The kielin/chordin-like protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-β superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-β and activin signals while enhancing bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, KCP's effects on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146239/combined-pi3k-akt-and-smad2-activation-promotes-corneal-endothelial-cell-proliferation
#18
Alfonso L Sabater, Enrique J Andreu, María García-Guzmán, Tania López, Gloria Abizanda, Victor L Perez, Javier Moreno-Montañés, Felipe Prósper
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a culture method for expansion of corneal endothelial cells (CEC) based on the combined activation of PI3K/Akt and Smad2. Methods: Morphology, proliferation, and migration of cultured rabbit and nonhuman primate CEC were examined in the presence of the PI3K/Akt activators IGF-1 and heregulin beta in combination with the Smad2 activator activin A. Phenotypic characterization of CEC was performed at the RNA and protein levels...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126904/biochemical-and-cellular-analysis-reveals-ligand-binding-specificities-a-molecular-basis-for-ligand-recognition-and-membrane-association-dependent-activities-of-cripto-1-and-cryptic
#19
Senem Aykul, Anthony Parenti, Kit Yee Chu, Jake Reske, Monique Floer, Amy Ralston, Erik Martinez-Hackert
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathways are key determinants of cell fate in animals. Their basic mechanism of action is simple. However, to produce cell-specific responses, TGF-β pathways are heavily regulated by secondary factors, such as membrane-associated EGF-CFC family proteins. Cellular activities of EGF-CFC proteins have been described, but their molecular functions, including how the mammalian homologs Cripto-1 and Cryptic recognize and regulate TGF-β family ligands, are less clear. Here we use purified human Cripto-1 and mouse Cryptic produced in mammalian cells to show that these two EGF-CFC homologs have distinct, highly specific ligand binding activities...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937745/ionizing-radiation-alters-human-embryonic-stem-cell-properties-and-differentiation-capacity-by-diminishing-the-expression-of-activin-receptors
#20
Sabine Luft, Onetsine Arrizabalaga, Ireen Kulish, Elena Nasonova, Marco Durante, Sylvia Ritter, Insa S Schroeder
Exposure of the embryo to ionizing radiation (IR) is detrimental as it can cause genotoxic stress leading to immediate and latent consequences such as functional defects, malformations, or cancer. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells can mimic the preimplantation embryo and help to assess the biological effects of IR during early development. In this study, we describe the alterations H9 hES cells exhibit after X-ray irradiation in respect to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, genomic stability, stem cell signaling, and their capacity to differentiate into definitive endoderm...
March 1, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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