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Nutrition/nutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914913/vitamin-fortified-snack-food-may-lead-consumers-to-make-poor-dietary-decisions
#1
Linda Verrill, Dallas Wood, Sheryl Cates, Amy Lando, Yuanting Zhang
BACKGROUND: The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. DESIGN: For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914187/enhanced-nutrition-improves-growth-and-increases-blood-adiponectin-concentrations-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#2
Elin W Blakstad, Sissel J Moltu, Britt Nakstad, Marit B Veierød, Kenneth Strømmen, Pétur B Júlíusson, Astrid N Almaas, Arild E Rønnestad, Kristin Brække, Christian A Drevon, Per O Iversen
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g) infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. DESIGN: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913762/aspen-felanpe-clinical-guidelines-nutrition-support-of-adult-patients-with-enterocutaneous-fistula
#3
Vanessa J Kumpf, Jose Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento, Jose Ignacio Diaz-Pizarro Graf, Amber M Hall, Liam McKeever, Ezra Steiger, Marion F Winkler, Charlene W Compher
BACKGROUND: The management of patients with enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires an interdisciplinary approach and poses a significant challenge to physicians, wound/stoma care specialists, dietitians, pharmacists, and other nutrition clinicians. Guidelines for optimizing nutrition status in these patients are often vague, based on limited and dated clinical studies, and typically rely on individual institutional or clinician experience. Specific nutrient requirements, appropriate route of feeding, role of immune-enhancing formulas, and use of somatostatin analogues in the management of patients with ECF are not well defined...
December 2, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912013/sprouting-as-a-gardening-strategy-to-obtain-superior-supplementary-food-evidence-from-a-seed-caching-marine-worm
#4
Zhenchang Zhu, Jim van Belzen, Tao Hong, Tadao Kunihiro, Tom Ysebaert, Peter M J Herman, Tjeerd J Bouma
Only a handful of non-human animals are known to grow their own food by cultivating high-yield fungal or algal crops as staple food. Here we report an alternative strategy utilized by an omnivorous marine worm, Hediste diversicolor, to supplement its diet: gardening by sprouting seeds. In addition to having many other known feeding modes, we showed using video recordings and manipulative mesocosm experiments that this species can also behave like gardeners by deliberately burying cordgrass seeds in their burrows, which has been previously shown to reduce the loss of seeds to water...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910283/feeding-behaviors-during-home-based-treatment-of-moderate-acute-malnutrition-using-corn-soy-blends-or-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements
#5
Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf, Albertine Ouedraogo, Christian Ritz, Tania Aase Draebel, Per Ashorn, Suzanne Filteau, Kim F Michaelsen
Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) based on best practice feeding behaviors. The study was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of new formulations of CSB and LNS and comprised 1,546 children from 6 to 23 months...
December 2, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909558/nutritional-quality-of-lunches-consumed-by-korean-workers-comparison-between-institutional-and-commercial-lunches
#6
Won Gyoung Kim, Injoo Choi, Jihyun Yoon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The nutritional quality of lunches is an important factor related to workers' health. This study examined the nutritional quality of Korean workers' lunches with a focus on comparing institutional and commercial lunches. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The data from a 1-day, 24-hour dietary recall from the 5(th) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed. A total of 2,192 subjects aged 19 to 64 years, who had consumed lunches served by institutional or commercial food service vendors, were included for analysis...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906055/mesenchymal-stem-cells-multipotent-stromal-cells-mscs-are-glycolytic-and-thus-glucose-is-a-limiting-factor-of-in-vitro-models-of-msc-starvation
#7
Austin Nuschke, Melanie Rodrigues, Albin W Wells, Kyle Sylakowski, Alan Wells
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair but are challenged during wound healing when the blood supply is disrupted, thereby limiting nutrient delivery. Survival mechanisms against 'starvation' include autophagy, which we previously found to enhance differentiation efficiency. MSC response to models of in vitro nutrient deprivation are of great interest for improving MSC survival and therapeutic efficacy; however, the rate-limiting nutrients are unknown...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905863/associations-between-omega-3-fatty-acids-selenium-content-and-mercury-levels-in-wild-harvested-fish-from-the-dehcho-region-northwest-territories-canada
#8
Ellen S Reyes, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Katherine M Kornobis, Rhona M Hanning, Shannon E Majowicz, Karsten Liber, Ken D Stark, George Low, Heidi K Swanson, Brian D Laird
To better understand the risks and benefits of eating wild-harvested fish from the Northwest Territories, Canada, levels of total mercury (HgT) and selenium (Se) and composition of omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) were measured in muscle tissue of fish harvested from lakes in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada. Average HgT levels ranged from 0.057 mg/kg (cisco) to 0.551 mg/kg (northern pike), while average n-3 FA concentrations ranged from 101 mg/100 g (burbot) to 1,689 mg/100 g (lake trout). In contrast to HgT and n-3 FA, mean Se concentrations were relatively similar among species...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905218/optimization-of-the-malting-process-for-nutritional-improvement-of-finger-millet-and-amaranth-flours-in-the-infant-weaning-food-industry
#9
Sara Najdi Hejazi, Valérie Orsat
Malting is a beneficial approach to improve the nutritional value of cereals used in infant preparations. Malted finger millet and amaranth might be considered as potentially appropriate gluten-free alternatives for common wheat-based weaning products, especially in case of those suffering from celiac disease. In this study, the effects of germination temperature and duration on the main nutrients of malted finger millet and amaranth, are evaluated and optimized. Grains were germinated for 24, 36 and 48 h at 22, 26 and 30 °C...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902788/fertilization-of-grapevine-based-on-gene-expression
#10
Cheng Zhang, Haifeng Jia, Jingjue Zeng, Tariq Perraiz, Zhenqiang Xie, Xudong Zhu, Chen Wang
The application of genetic information in agricultural production is an important issue, which is highly worthy of attention. Gene expression data can accurately reflect the growth and metabolic status of plants, with which we can predict and monitor the nutritional requirements of plants and then derive accurate fertilization strategies. In this study, to verify the feasibility and workability of gene information-based fertilization strategies and to figure out the specific nutritional requirements of grapevine ( L...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902777/the-two-component-system-arlrs-and-alterations-in-metabolism-enable-staphylococcus-aureus-to-resist-calprotectin-induced-manganese-starvation
#11
Jana N Radin, Jessica L Kelliher, Paola K Párraga Solórzano, Thomas E Kehl-Fie
During infection the host imposes manganese and zinc starvation on invading pathogens. Despite this, Staphylococcus aureus and other successful pathogens remain capable of causing devastating disease. However, how these invaders adapt to host-imposed metal starvation and overcome nutritional immunity remains unknown. We report that ArlRS, a global staphylococcal virulence regulator, enhances the ability of S. aureus to grow in the presence of the manganese-and zinc-binding innate immune effector calprotectin...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901033/impact-of-dietary-glycemic-challenge-on-fuel-partitioning
#12
REVIEW
A Bosy-Westphal, F Hägele, A Nas
The 'carbohydrate-insulin theory of obesity' is used to justify popular health claims stating that carbohydrates make you fat or a high glycemic load and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and breakfast skipping increase fat gain. According to this theory, the elevated postprandial insulin secretion to a high glycemic challenge is blamed as a causal mechanism by directing nutrients away from oxidation in muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Scientific evidence is however largely disagreeing with an adverse effect of postprandial hyperinsulinemia on fuel partitioning...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898958/technical-note-a-procedure-to-estimate-glucose-requirements-of-an-activated-immune-system-in-steers
#13
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M Abuajamieh, E J Mayorga, M V Sanz Fernandez, L H Baumgard
: Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897982/maternal-fructose-intake-affects-transcriptome-changes-and-programmed-hypertension-in-offspring-in-later-life
#14
REVIEW
You-Lin Tain, Julie Y H Chan, Chien-Ning Hsu
Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD). Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient-gene interactions of maternal high-fructose (HF) intake on the offspring which links renal programming to programmed hypertension. Reprogramming interventions counteract disturbed nutrient-gene interactions induced by maternal HF intake and exert protective effects against developmentally programmed hypertension...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897198/mitochondrial-control-through-nutritionally-regulated-global-histone-h3-lysine-4-demethylation
#15
Maria Soloveychik, Mengshu Xu, Olga Zaslaver, Kwanyin Lee, Ashrut Narula, River Jiang, Adam P Rosebrock, Amy A Caudy, Marc D Meneghini
Histone demethylation by Jumonji-family proteins is coupled with the decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) to yield succinate, prompting hypotheses that their activities are responsive to levels of these metabolites in the cell. Consistent with this paradigm we show here that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Jumonji demethylase Jhd2 opposes the accumulation of H3K4me3 in fermenting cells only when they are nutritionally manipulated to contain an elevated αKG/succinate ratio. We also find that Jhd2 opposes H3K4me3 in respiratory cells that do not exhibit such an elevated αKG/succinate ratio...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895889/amino-acid-transporters-implicated-in-endocytosis-of-buchnera-during-symbiont-transmission-in-the-pea-aphid
#16
Hsiao-Ling Lu, Chun-Che Chang, Alex C C Wilson
BACKGROUND: Many insects host their obligate, maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria in specialized cells called bacteriocytes. One of the best-studied insect nutritional endosymbioses is that of the aphid and its endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola. Aphids and Buchnera are metabolically and developmentally integrated, but the molecular mechanisms underlying Buchnera transmission and coordination with aphid development remain largely unknown. Previous work using electron microscopy to study aphid asexual embryogenesis has revealed that Buchnera transmission involves exocytosis from a maternal bacteriocyte followed by endocytotic uptake by a blastula...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894969/the-types-and-aspects-of-front-of-pack-food-labelling-schemes-preferred-by-adults-and-children
#17
Simone Pettigrew, Zenobia Talati, Caroline Miller, Helen Dixon, Bridget Kelly, Kylie Ball
There is strong interest in front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) as a potential mechanism for improving diets, and therefore health, at the population level. The present study examined Australian consumers' preferences for different types and attributes of FoPLs to provide additional insights into optimal methods of presenting nutrition information on the front of food packets. Much research to date has focused on two main types of FoPLs - those expressing daily intake values for specific nutrients and those utilising 'traffic light' colour coding...
November 25, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891619/the-role-of-nutrients-in-drought-induced-tree-mortality-and-recovery
#18
REVIEW
Arthur Gessler, Marcus Schaub, Nate G McDowell
I. II. III. References SUMMARY: Global forests are experiencing rising temperatures and more severe droughts, with consistently dire forecasts for negative future impacts. Current research on the physiological mechanisms underlying drought impacts is focused on the water- and carbon-associated mechanisms. The role of nutrients is notably missing from this research agenda. Here, we investigate what role, if any, forest nutrition plays for survival and recovery of forests during and after drought. High nutrient availability may play a detrimental role in drought survival due to preferential biomass allocation aboveground that (1) predispose plants to hydraulic constraints limiting photosynthesis and promoting hydraulic failure, (2) increases carbon costs during periods of carbon starvation, and (3) promote biotic attack due to low tissue carbon: nitrogen (C : N)...
November 28, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890481/growth-disparity-of-motherless-children-might-be-attributed-to-a-deficient-intake-of-high-quality-nutrients
#19
Hui Wang, Xu Tian, Shaowei Wu, Zhibin Hu
We hypothesized that single-parent children (SPC) are retarded in growth compared with both-parent children (BPC), and that motherless children (MC) are affected differently from fatherless children. Moreover, the growth disparity between SPC and BPC might be attributed to a deficient nutrient intake. Data from 2967 children between the ages of 2 and 18 years were extracted from 4 recent waves (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey to compare the growth status of SPC and BPC and to investigate the association between growth indicators and nutrition status...
November 14, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889926/nutritional-ecology-of-wild-bornean-orangutans-pongo-pygmaeus-wurmbii-in-a-peat-swamp-habitat-effects-of-age-sex-and-season
#20
Erin R Vogel, Shauhin E Alavi, Sri Suci Utami-Atmoko, Maria A van Noordwijk, Timothy D Bransford, Wendy M Erb, Astri Zulfa, Fransiska Sulistyo, Wartika Rosa Farida, Jessica M Rothman
: The spatial and temporal variation in food abundance has strong effects on wildlife feeding and nutrition. This variation is exemplified by the peatland forests of Central Kalimantan, which are characterized by unpredictable fruiting fluctuations, relatively low levels of fruit availability, and low fruit periods (<3% of trees fruiting) that can last nearly a year. Challenged by these environments, large, arboreal frugivores like orangutans must periodically rely on non-preferred, lower-quality foods to meet their nutritional needs...
November 27, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
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