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Nutrition/nutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430654/alpha-ketoglutarate-suppresses-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammatory-pathway-and-enhances-the-pxr-regulated-detoxification-pathway
#1
Liuqin He, Huan Li, Niu Huang, Xihong Zhou, Junquan Tian, Tiejun Li, Jing Wu, Yanan Tian, Yulong Yin, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a critical nutritional factor in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, the relative mechanism of AKG has not been well understood. It was recently shown that the interaction between nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory pathway and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated detoxification pathway is a check and balance mechanism for keeping the homeostatic state of the intestine, preventing the onset of intestinal inflammation which may lead to cancer. In the current study we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet and intestinal porcine epithelial cells-J2 models to investigate the effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the intestinal immune system and PXR regulated target expression...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430118/testing-the-capacity-of-a-multi-nutrient-profiling-system-to-guide-food-and-beverage-reformulation-results-from-five-national-food-composition-databases
#2
Emilie Combet, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Famke Mölenberg, Mathilde Gressier, Lisa Privet, Craig Wratten, Sahar Sharif, Florent Vieux, Undine Lehmann, Gabriel Masset
Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France). Products (n = 7183) were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS) and were then classified as NNPS 'Pass' if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E), total fat (TF), saturated fat (SFA), sodium (Na), added sugars (AS), protein, calcium)...
April 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429914/the-presence-and-accuracy-of-nutritional-labelling-of-pre-packaged-foods-in-shanghai
#3
Kaimeng Kong, Fu Liu, Yexuan Tao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Chinese government officially enacted the Regulation on the Management of Food Nutrition Labelling in 2007 and the General Rules for Nutrition Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods in 2011. Our investigation examined the presence and accuracy of nutrition labelling of pre-packaged foods in Shanghai and provides baseline data for future studies. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods were recorded by photograph, transcription, or purchase in four supermarkets in Shanghai...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429902/validity-and-practicability-of-smartphone-based-photographic-food-records-for-estimating-energy-and-nutrient-intake
#4
Kaimeng Kong, Lulu Zhang, Lisu Huang, Yexuan Tao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429671/ethanolamine-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gastrointestinal-tract-mechanisms-patterns-and-importance
#5
J Zhou, X Xiong, K Wang, L Zou, D Lv, Y Yin
Nutritional exchanges and cooperation between bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and the mammalian host play an important role in health and disease. Ethanolamine is an essential dietary lipid nutrient for animals and is abundant in both intestinal and bacterial cell membranes. Ethanolamine can be utilized by intestinal eukaryotic cells via the cytidine phosphoethanolamine pathway for de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine, and certain bacteria are able to catabolize it as a major carbon and/or nitrogen source with the help of ethanolamine utilization proteins...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429514/maternal-metabolic-adaptations-to-pregnancy-among-young-women-in-cebu-philippines
#6
Ruby L Fried, Nanette L Mayol, Thom W McDade, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: Evidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines. METHODS: Fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines)...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428151/impact-of-front-of-pack-nutrition-information-and-label-design-on-children-s-choice-of-two-snack-foods-comparison-of-warnings-and-the-traffic-light-system
#7
Alejandra Arrúa, María Rosa Curutchet, Natalia Rey, Patricia Barreto, Nadya Golovchenko, Andrea Sellanes, Guillermo Velazco, Medy Winokur, Ana Giménez, Gastón Ares
Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427537/metabolomics-nutrition-and-potential-biomarkers-of-food-quality-intake-and-health-status
#8
Jean-Louis Sébédio
Diet, dietary patterns, and other environmental factors such as exposure to toxins are playing an important role in the prevention/development of many diseases, like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and consequently on the health status of individuals. A major challenge nowadays is to identify novel biomarkers to detect as early as possible metabolic dysfunction and to predict evolution of health status in order to refine nutritional advices to specific population groups. Omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics coupled with statistical and bioinformatics tools have already shown great potential in this research field even if so far only few biomarkers have been validated...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424257/an-animal-source-food-supplement-increases-micronutrient-intakes-and-iron-status-among-reproductive-age-women-in-rural-vietnam
#9
Andrew G Hall, Tu Ngu, Hoang T Nga, Phi N Quyen, Pham T Hong Anh, Janet C King
Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries.Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam.Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424188/nutritional-profile-of-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-household-food-and-beverage-purchases
#10
Anna H Grummon, Lindsey Smith Taillie
Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), which is the largest federal nutrition assistance program in the United States, serves nearly 1 of 7 Americans. To date, few studies have examined food and beverage purchase behaviors in SNAP participants with the use of electronic purchase data.Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we examined household store purchases of key food, beverage, and nutrient groups in SNAP participants and nonparticipants.Design: Using a data set of US households' (n = 98,256 household-by-quarter observations) packaged food and beverage purchases and SNAP status [current participant, income-eligible nonparticipant (income ≤130% of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]), and higher-income nonparticipants (income >130% of the FPL)] from 3 quarters during 2012-2013, we estimated pooled ordinary least-squares models, clustered at the household level, to examine the association between SNAP status and purchases while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424183/biomarker-calibrated-nutrient-intake-and-healthy-diet-index-associations-with-mortality-risks-among-older-and-frail-women-from-the-women-s-health-initiative
#11
Oleg Zaslavsky, Shira Zelber-Sagi, James R Hebert, Susan E Steck, Nitin Shivappa, Fred K Tabung, Michael D Wirth, Yunqi Bu, James M Shikany, Tonya Orchard, Robert B Wallace, Linda Snetselaar, Lesley F Tinker
Background: Although studies to date have confirmed the association between nutrition and frailty, the impact of dietary intake and dietary patterns on survivorship in those with frailty is yet to be examined in a well-powered cohort with validated frailty status. Moreover, previous studies were limited by measurement error from dietary self-reports.Objective: We derived biomarker-calibrated dietary energy and protein intakes to address dietary self-report error. Using these data, we then evaluated the association of mortality in older women with frailty and dietary intake and healthy diet indexes, such as the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423873/replacing-groundnut-cake-with-gluten-meals-of-rice-and-maize-in-diets-for-growing-sahiwal-cattle
#12
Tariq A Malik, S S Thakur, M S Mahesh, R K Yogi
Objective: This experiment aimed to investigate the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of Groundnut cake (GNC) by Rice gluten meal (RGM) and Maize gluten meal (MGM) at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Methods: Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (BW: 87.24 kg) and age (6-12 m), and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly...
April 19, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422118/nutrient-regulation-of-%C3%AE-cell-function-what-do-islet-cell-animal-studies-tell-us
#13
REVIEW
R Carlessi, K N Keane, C Mamotte, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is widely recognised as one of the most serious metabolic diseases worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is growing at an alarming rate. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with age, sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. In T2DM, β-cell dysfunction will occur before hyperglycaemia develops. Excessive levels of glucose, lipid and various inflammatory factors interact at the level of the pancreatic islet to promote β-cell dysfunction. Pancreatic β-cell lines have been widely utilised since the early 1980s and have contributed a large volume of important information regarding molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms that regulate insulin secretion...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422064/dried-plums-prunes-and-bone-health-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
Taylor C Wallace
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of Americans age 50+ have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. Dried plums, also commonly referred to as prunes, have a unique nutrient and dietary bioactive profile and are suggested to exert beneficial effects on bone...
April 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421796/effect-of-satiety-on-body-composition-and-anxiety-in-university-athletes-cohort-study
#15
Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez, Enrique Roche
BACKGROUND: Satiety is a determining parameter in nutrient intake control, which in the long run impacts on body weight. Many athletes need strict control on their weight to achieve their aims of the season. AIM: The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of satiety on body weight control and competitive anxiety in a university athletes population when they ingest ad libitum foods (SATIETY), or follow a nutritional dietary programme (DIET). METHODS: The present study was a cohort study, in which 40 male university athletes participated...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421037/lipid-processing-in-the-brain-a-key-regulator-of-systemic-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Kimberley D Bruce, Andrea Zsombok, Robert H Eckel
Metabolic disorders, particularly aberrations in lipid homeostasis, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia often manifest together as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Despite major advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders, the prevalence of the MetS continues to rise. It is becoming increasingly apparent that intermediary metabolism within the central nervous system is a major contributor to the regulation of systemic metabolism. In particular, lipid metabolism within the brain is tightly regulated to maintain neuronal structure and function and may signal nutrient status to modulate metabolism in key peripheral tissues such as the liver...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420455/nutrient-profiling-for-product-reformulation-public-health-impact-and-benefits-for-the-consumer
#17
Undine Lehmann, Véronique Rheiner Charles, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Gabriel Masset, Jörg Spieldenner
The food industry holds great potential for driving consumers to adopt healthy food choices as (re)formulation of foods can improve the nutritional quality of these foods. Reformulation has been identified as a cost-effective intervention in addressing non-communicable diseases as it does not require significant alterations of consumer behaviour and dietary habits. Nutrient profiling (NP), the science of categorizing foods based on their nutrient composition, has emerged as an essential tool and is implemented through many different profiling systems to guide reformulation and other nutrition policies...
April 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420231/biological-control-of-aflatoxin-contamination-in-us-crops-and-the-use-of-bioplastic-formulations-of-aspergillus-flavus-biocontrol-strains-to-optimize-application-strategies
#18
Hamed K Abbas, Cesare Accinelli, W Thomas Shier
Aflatoxin contamination has a major economic impact on crop production in southern USA. Reduction of aflatoxin contamination in harvested crops has been achieved by applying non-aflatoxigenic biocontrol Aspergillus flavus strains that can out-compete wild aflatoxigenic A. flavus, reducing their numbers at the site of application. Currently, the standard method for applying biocontrol A. flavus strains to soil is using a nutrient-supplying carrier (e.g., pearled barley for Afla-Guard®). Granules of bioplastic (partially acetylated corn starch) have been investigated as an alternative nutritive carrier for biocontrol agents...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420205/do-chinese-children-get-enough-micronutrients
#19
Huijun Wang, Dantong Wang, Yifei Ouyang, Feifei Huang, Gangqiang Ding, Bing Zhang
The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on three consecutive days combined with the household weighing method in 2011. Usual daily intake of each nutrient was estimated using a mixed effects model based on the China Food Composition published in 2009. The means, medians and percentages below Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) were reported for selected micronutrients, including calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C...
April 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420147/intake-levels-of-fish-in-the-uk-paediatric-population
#20
Sibylle Kranz, Nicholas R V Jones, Pablo Monsivais
The United Kingdom (UK) is an island and its culture, including diet, is heavily influenced by the maritime resources. Dietary guidance in the UK recommends intake of fish, which provides important nutrients, such as long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). This study was designed to describe the fish intake habits of UK children using a nationally representative sample. Dietary and socio-demographic data of children 2-18 (N = 2096) in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Program (NDNS) Years 1-4 (2008-2012) were extracted...
April 16, 2017: Nutrients
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