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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279280/the-path-towards-effective-antivirals-against-rabies
#1
Dirk Jochmans, Johan Neyts
Rabies virus remains an important burden of disease claiming an estimated 60,000 lives each year, mainly children, and having a huge economical and societal cost. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is highly effective, however in patients that present with neurological symptoms the case-fatality ratio is extremely high (>99%). During the last decades several attempts to identify potent and effective antivirals were made. Only a few of these demonstrated improvement in clinical signs in animal studies and none of the trials in humans showed significant efficacy...
December 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278971/prevention-strategies-against-hiv-transmission-a-proactive-approach
#2
Antonio J Carrion, Jovan D Miles, Juan F Mosley, Lillian L Smith, April S Prather, Marcus M Gurley, Linh D Phan, Emily C Everton
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has now transformed into a manageable chronic condition. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proven efficacious at controlling the disease progression. Based on compelling evidence, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV. However, there are approximately 50 000 new cases of HIV in the United States each year. In this article, we review proactive methods to reduce the transmission of HIV, which include reinforcing patient education, gel-coated condoms that destroy HIV, HIV vaccinations, and adequately utilizing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238654/primary-endocrine-therapy-in-older-women-with-breast-cancer
#3
REVIEW
R M C Pepping, J E A Portielje, W van de Water, N A de Glas
Purpose of Review: Breast cancer incidence increases with age. In recent years, primary endocrine therapy has been increasingly used as a treatment option for frail elderly women with breast cancer, although surgery is still the guideline-recommended treatment. In this review, we discuss the evidence for primary endocrine therapy versus surgical treatment in older women with early breast cancer. Recent Findings: Both randomised controlled trials and recent observational studies showed a favourable progression-free survival but not overall survival for surgery plus adjuvant endocrine therapy versus primary endocrine therapy...
2017: Current Geriatrics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222865/multipoint-pacing-improves-peripheral-hemodynamic-response-non-invasive-assessment-using-radial-artery-tonometry
#4
Giuseppe Ciconte, Žarko Ćalović, Gabriele Vicedomini, Amarild Cuko, Luke C McSpadden, Chunlan Jiang, Kyungmoo Ryu, Igor Caporaso, Robert Stutz, Dean Winter, Massimo Saviano, Raffaele Vitale, Manuel Conti, Vincenzo Santinelli, Carlo Pappone
BACKGOUND: Multipoint left ventricular (LV) pacing (MultiPoint™ Pacing [MPP], Abbott) improves the response rate to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We evaluated the feasibility of non-invasive radial artery tonometry (RAT) to characterize arterial pressure morphology changes (pre-ejection period [PEP] and ejection duration [ED]) between conventional CRT and MPP pacing interventions. METHODS: Patients with a MPP-enabled CRT device (Quadra Assura MP™, Abbott) underwent non-invasive RAT assessment (SphygmoCor CVMS, AtCor Medical Inc...
December 9, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207979/a-propeptide-toolbox-for-secretion-optimization-of-flavobacterium-meningosepticum-endopeptidase-in-lactococcus-lactis
#5
Pei Yu Lim, Lee Ling Tan, Dave Siak-Wei Ow, Fong T Wong
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria are a family of "generally regarded as safe" organisms traditionally used for food fermentation. In recent years, they have started to emerge as potential chassis for heterologous protein production. And more recently, due to their beneficial properties in the gut, they have been examined as potential candidates for mucosal delivery vectors, especially for acid-sensitive enzymes. One such application would be the delivery of gluten-digesting endopeptidases for the treatment of celiac disease...
December 5, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198923/enteromorpha-and-polysaccharides-from-enteromorpha-ameliorate-loperamide-induced-constipation-in-mice
#6
Xinxiu Ren, Lei Liu, Yaser Gamallat, Bingqiang Zhang, Yi Xin
Slow-transit constipation(STC)is a disease characterized by functional gastrointestinal disorder. Common laxatives used in clinical practice against constipation such as Senna have side effects. Enteromorpha(EP)is a common marine alga, and the polysaccharide extracted from EP has been reported possessing anti-cancer and anti-inflammation effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of EP and Polysaccharides from Enteromorpha (PEP) on loperamide induced constipated mice model and illustrating mechanism of action...
November 30, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184942/bone-targeting-poly-ethylene-sodium-phosphate
#7
Yasuhiko Iwasaki, Atsushi Yokota, Akihisa Otaka, Naoyuki Inoue, Akane Yamaguchi, Toru Yoshitomi, Keitaro Yoshimoto, Masashi Neo
Poly(ethylene sodium phosphate) (PEP·Na) showed excellent cytocompatibility and in vivo bone affinity. Moreover, PEP·Na did not interact with thrombin, which is a coagulation-related protein. Because immobilization of therapeutic agents and imaging probes on PEP·Na is easily performed, PEP·Na is a promising polymer for bone-targeted therapies.
November 29, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183270/results-from-the-post-exposure-prophylaxis-pilot-program-p-quad-demonstration-project-in-los-angeles-county
#8
Matthew R Beymer, Ryan M Kofron, Chi-Hong Tseng, Robert K Bolan, Risa P Flynn, Jennifer M Sayles, Mario J Perez, Wilbert C Jordan, Raphael J Landovitz
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is a promising but under-utilized strategy for HIV prevention in high-risk populations. Between March 2010 and June 2011, two community-based clinics in Los Angeles County provided PEP in a pilot program to 267 unique individuals. Courses were primarily dispensed to men who have sex with men (84%) and consisted overwhelmingly of a three-drug antiretroviral therapy regimen containing two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and either an integrase inhibitor (raltegravir) or a boosted protease inhibitor (lopinavir/ritonavir)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172784/good-agreement-between-echocardiography-and-impedance-cardiography-in-the-assessment-of-left-ventricular-performance-in-hypertensive-patients
#9
Rodrigo Nazário Leão, Pedro Marques Da Silva, Rita Marques Pocinho, Marta Alves, Daniel Virella, Roberto Palma Reis
BACKGROUND: Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring tool which can define hypertensive patients' hemodynamic profiles and help to tailor antihypertensive therapy. This study assesses the concordance between ICG-derived indexes used to evaluate left ventricular performance and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in hypertensive patients. METHODS: In this IMPEDDANS post-hoc analysis, the ICG-derived indexes are compared with TTE by Bland-Altman method...
November 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091217/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-plus-ritonavir-boosted-lopinavir-or-cobicistat-boosted-elvitegravir-as-a-single-tablet-regimen-for-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#10
A Inciarte, L Leal, E González, A León, C Lucero, J Mallolas, B Torres, M Laguno, J Rojas, M Martínez-Rebollar, A González-Cordón, A Cruceta, J A Arnaiz, J M Gatell, F García
Objectives: To assess HIV-1 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) non-completion at day 28, comparing ritonavir-boosted lopinavir versus cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir as a single-tablet regimen (STR), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine with both of these therapies. Methods: A prospective, open, randomized clinical trial was performed. Individuals attending the emergency room due to potential sexual exposure to HIV and who met criteria for PEP were randomized 1:3 into two groups receiving either 400/100 mg of lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 38) or 150/150 mg of elvitegravir/cobicistat (n = 119), with both groups also receiving 245/200 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063592/omega-3-supplementation-associated-with-improved-parent-rated-executive-function-in-youth-with-mood-disorders-secondary-analyses-of-the-omega-3-and-therapy-oats-trials
#11
Anthony T Vesco, Andrea S Young, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad
BACKGROUND: Improvements in executive functioning (EF) may lead to improved quality of life and lessened functional impairment for children with mood disorders. The aim was to assess the impact of omega-3 supplementation (Ω3) and psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP), each alone and in combination, on EF in youth with mood disorders. We completed secondary analyses of two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Ω3 and PEP for children with depression and bipolar disorder. METHODS: Ninety-five youths with depression or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified/cyclothymic disorder were randomized in 12-week RCTs...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028382/simultaneous-determination-of-metolazone-and-valsartan-in-plasma-by-on-line-spe-coupled-with-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
Jiezhao Zhou, Meiling Chen, Ying Li, Fanglin Yu, Xiaohui Cheng, Yang Yang, Yan Liu, Xiangyang Xie, Zhiping Li, Hui Zhang, Xingguo Mei
Combination of metolazone (0.5 mg) and valsartan (80 mg) has been verified as a promising therapy treatment for hypertension. In order to facilitate to pharmacokinetic research, it needs a method for the simultaneously determination of metolazone and valsartan in biological samples. However, there are no relative reports so far. In order to facilitate to pharmacokinetic research, an on-line solid phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of metolazone and valsartan in beagle dog plasma was developed and validated in this study...
October 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960034/prediction-of-post-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-pancreatitis-using-4-hour-post-endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography-serum-amylase-and-lipase-levels
#13
Yeon Kyung Lee, Min Jae Yang, Soon Sun Kim, Choong Kyun Noh, Hyo Jung Cho, Sun Gyo Lim, Jae Chul Hwang, Byung Moo Yoo, Jin Hong Kim
Early post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) prediction may allow safe same-day outpatients discharge after ERCP and earlier proper management. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of the 4-hour post-ERCP serum amylase and lipase levels for PEP early prediction and to investigate predictive cut-off values for 4-hour post-ERCP serum amylase and lipase levels for safe discharge and urgent initiation of resuscitation. The data of 516 consecutive patients with native papilla who underwent ERCP between January 2013 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
November 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952156/positive-expiratory-pressure-therapy-versus-other-airway-clearance-techniques-for-bronchiectasis
#14
REVIEW
Annemarie L Lee, Angela T Burge, Anne E Holland
BACKGROUND: People with bronchiectasis experience chronic cough and sputum production and require the prescription of airway clearance techniques (ACTs). A common type of ACT prescribed is positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy. A previous review has suggested that ACTs including PEP therapy are beneficial compared to no treatment in people with bronchiectasis. However, the efficacy of PEP therapy in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation compared to other ACTs in bronchiectasis is unknown...
September 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861765/multifunctional-decoration-of-alpha-tocopheryl-succinate-based-np-for-cancer-treatment-effect-of-tpp-and-ltvspwy-peptide
#15
Raquel Palao-Suay, María Rosa Aguilar, Francisco J Parra-Ruiz, Sergio Martín-Saldaña, Nathan A Rohner, Susan N Thomas, Julio San Román
Active targeting not only of a specific cell but also a specific organelle maximizes the therapeutic activity minimizing adverse side effects in healthy tissues. The present work describes the synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological activity of active targeting nanoparticles (NP) for cancer therapy based on α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), a well-known mitocan, that selectively induces apoptosis of cancer cells and proliferalting endothelial cells. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) targeting peptide LTVSPWY (PEP) and triphenylphosphonium lipophilic cation (TPP) were conjugated to a previously optimized RAFT block copolymer that formed self-assembled NP of appropriate size for this application and low polydispersity by self-organized precipitation method...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856417/activity-of-human-beta-defensin-1-and-its-motif-against-active-and-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
Richa Sharma, Uma Nahar Saikia, Sadhna Sharma, Indu Verma
The ineffectiveness of anti-tuberculous therapy against dormant and drug-resistant mycobacteria demands scrutiny of alternative candidates like antimicrobial peptides having different mechanisms of action. The present study was designed to explore the activity of human beta defensin-1 (HBD-1) and its in silico identified short motif Pep-B against active and dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) H37Rv. Activity of HBD-1 and Pep-B was determined against actively growing M. tb in vitro, inside monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dormant bacilli in in vitro potassium deficiency and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) granuloma models using colony-forming unit enumeration...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771483/myeloid-specific-deletion-of-nox2-prevents-the-metabolic-and-neurologic-consequences-of-high-fat-diet
#17
Jennifer K Pepping, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim, Jingying Zhang, Randall L Mynatt, Annadora J Bruce-Keller
High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with inflammatory and oxidative signaling in macrophages that likely participates in metabolic and physiologic impairment. One key factor that could drive pathologic changes in macrophages is the pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase. However, NADPH oxidase is a pleiotropic enzyme with both pathologic and physiologic functions, ruling out indiscriminant NADPH oxidase inhibition as a viable therapy. To determine if targeted inhibition of monocyte/macrophage NADPH oxidase could mitigate obesity pathology, we generated mice that lack the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit NOX2 in myeloid lineage cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709020/ruthenium-complexes-polypeptide-self-assembled-nanoparticles-for-identification-of-bacterial-infection-and-targeted-antibacterial-research
#18
Na Huang, Xu Chen, Xufeng Zhu, Mengmeng Xu, Jie Liu
Bacterial infection has been a threat to human health, and so early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infection is an urgent problem that needs to be solved. In this work, a multifunctional theranostic selenium nanoplatform (Se@PEP-Ru NPs) with early imaging diagnosis and efficient treatment of bacterial infections was designed and constructed. First, the antibacterial peptide UBI29-41 (PEP) was linked to functionalized Selenium nanoparticles (NPs), which enhanced the stability of the antimicrobial peptide and also caused the nanocomposites to specifically target bacterial infection...
July 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665556/comparison-of-effectiveness-of-temporary-positive-expirayory-pressure-versus-oscillatory-positive-expiratory-pressure-in-severe-copd-patients
#19
Antonello Nicolini, Valentina Mascardi, Bruna Grecchi, Maura Ferrari-Bravo, Paolo Banfi, Cornelius Barlascini
INTRODUCTION: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients few modalities of airway clearance have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing hypersecretion and bronchial obstruction. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) is one of these. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to compare the effectiveness of 2 devices Temporary PEP (T-PEP) and Oscillatory PEP (O-PEP) which use PEP applied at a low expiratory pressure of 1 cm H2 O which creates oscillations that decrease bronchial obstruction in reducing COPD exacerbations and improving respiratory and health status assessment parameters...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628897/diverted-medications-and-new-psychoactive-substances-a-chemical-network-analysis-of-discarded-injecting-paraphernalia-in-hungary
#20
Valéria Anna Gyarmathy, Anna Péterfi, Tamás Figeczki, József Kiss, Katalin Medgyesi-Frank, János Posta, József Csorba
BACKGROUND: Until about 2010, people who inject drugs (PWIDs) injected almost exclusively heroin and amphetamines in Hungary. After 2010, self-reported studies have indicated a dominance of new psychoactive substances on the drug market for injectable drugs. METHODS: Between March 2015 and February 2016, we collected used and discarded injecting paraphernalia. We utilized chemical analysis to assess and UCINet to visualize the connections between the most prevalent main substances and their respective co-occurring additional components at 7 locations in Hungary...
June 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
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