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Louis Dwyer-Hemmings
Histories of twentieth-century surgery have focused on surgical 'firsts' - dramatic tales of revolutionary procedures. The history of tonsillectomy is less glamorous, but more widespread, representing the experience and understanding of medicine for hundreds of children, parents and surgeons daily. At the start of the twentieth century, tonsillectomy was routine - performed on at least 80 000 schoolchildren each year in Britain. However, by the 1980s, public and professional discourse condemned the operation as a 'dangerous fad'...
April 2018: Medical History
Hetty Rooth, Ulla Forinder, Maja Söderbäck, Eija Viitasara, Katarina Piuva
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse discourses of parenting training in official inquires in Sweden that explicitly deal with the bringing up of children and parental education and how the representations of the problems and their solutions affect parental subject positions in the early welfare state and at the onset of the 21st century. METHOD: We carried out a discourse analysis of two public inquiries of 1947 and 2008, drawing on theories about governmentality and power regimes...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Miya Narushima, Jian Liu, Naomi Diestelkamp
The Active Ageing Framework has been adapted as a global strategy in ageing policies, practices and research over the last decade. Lifelong learning, however, has not been fully integrated into this discourse. Using survey data provided by 416 adults (aged 60 years and above) enrolled in non-formal general-interest courses in a public continuing education programme in Canada, this study examined the association between older adults' duration of participation in the courses and their level of psychological wellbeing, while taking their age, gender, self-rated health and vulnerability level into consideration...
April 2018: Ageing and Society
Kunal Bailoor, Leslie H Kamil, Ed Goldman, Laura M Napiewocki, Denise Winiarski, Christian J Vercler, Andrew G Shuman
Advance care planning allows patients to articulate preferences for their medical treatment, lifestyle, and surrogate decision-makers in order to anticipate and mitigate their potential loss of decision-making capacity. Written advance directives are often emphasized in this regard. While these directives contain important information, there are several barriers to consider: veracity and accuracy of surrogate decision-makers in making choices consistent with the substituted judgement standard, state-to-state variability in regulations, literacy issues, lack of access to legal resources, lack of understanding of medical options, and cultural disparities...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Susan Horton, Richard Sullivan, John Flanigan, Kenneth A Fleming, Modupe A Kuti, Lai Meng Looi, Sanjay A Pai, Mark Lawler
Modern, affordable pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) systems are essential to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals for health in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this last in a Series of three papers about PALM in LMICs, we discuss the policy environment and emphasise three crucial high-level actions that are needed to deliver universal health coverage. First, nations need national strategic laboratory plans; second, these plans require adequate financing for implementation; and last, pathologists themselves need to take on leadership roles to advocate for the centrality of PALM to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals for health...
March 14, 2018: Lancet
Natalie Thomas, Melissa Bull
Contemporary research in the drugs field has demonstrated a number of gender differences in patterns and experiences of substance use, and the design and provision of gender-responsive interventions has been identified as an important policy issue. Consequently, whether and how domestic drug policies attend to women and gender issues is an important question for investigation. This article presents a policy audit and critical analysis of Australian national and state and territory policy documents. It identifies and discusses two key styles of problematisation of women's drug use in policy: 1) drug use and its effect on women's reproductive role (including a focus on pregnant women and women who are mothers), and 2) drug use and its relationship to women's vulnerability to harm (including violent and sexual victimisation, trauma, and mental health issues)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Natalie Jovanovski, Meagan Tyler
In this article, we use feminist critical discourse analysis to examine online brothel reviews (148 reviews and 2,424 reply posts) of sex buyers in the context of debates surrounding harm minimization. Our findings show that sex buyers actively construct and normalize narratives of sexual violation and violence against women in licensed brothels through their language, referencing objectification, unsafe sex practices, and, in more extreme cases, rape to create a sense of community with other punters. Through this analysis, we challenge existing assumptions about harm minimization in systems of prostitution, which are legalized or fully decriminalized...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Cary Moskovitz
Text recycling, often called "self-plagiarism", is the practice of reusing textual material from one's prior documents in a new work. The practice presents a complex set of ethical and practical challenges to the scientific community, many of which have not been addressed in prior discourse on the subject. This essay identifies and discusses these factors in a systematic fashion, concluding with a new definition of text recycling that takes these factors into account. Topics include terminology, what is not text recycling, factors affecting judgements about the appropriateness of text recycling, and visual materials...
March 15, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Jason Z Morris
I have argued that substance ontology cannot be used to determine the moral status of embryos. Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen, and Robert George wrote a Reply to those arguments in this Journal. In that Reply, Lee, Tollefsen, and George defended and clarified their position that their substance ontology arguments prove that the zygote and the adult into which it develops are the same entity that share the same essence. Here, I show the following: (A) Even using the substance ontology framework to which Lee, Tollefsen, and George subscribe, we cannot know when in development substance changes cease...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Barry A Farber
The election and postelection policies of Donald Trump have seeped into the psychotherapy sessions of many clients, in ways that are somewhat unique but also somewhat reminiscent of the ways that other dramatic social-political events, including 9/11 and the social divisions that were characteristic of the 1960s, were brought into the treatment room. The nine articles within this issue-seven papers from practicing psychotherapists, one from an executive coach, and one empirical paper-suggest strongly that the political events surrounding the election of 2016 have become a significant part of psychotherapeutic discourse for many clients, that many therapists have been willing participants in such discussions, and that a focus on political issues (broadly speaking) can have important clinical benefits, facilitating the therapeutic alliance and leading to greater understanding of long-standing client problems and interpersonal functioning...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Rainer Benndorf, Robert R Gilmont, Sahoko Hirano, Richard F Ransom, Peter R Jungblut, Martin Bommer, James E Goldman, Michael J Welsh
When analyzing small stress proteins of rat and human tissues by electrophoretic methods followed by western blotting, and using the anti-HspB1/anti-HspB5 antibody clone 8A7, we unexpectedly found a protein with a molecular mass of ~44 kDa. On two-dimensional gels, this protein resolved into four distinct species. Electrophoretic and immunological evidence suggests that this 44 kDa protein is a derivative of HspB5, most likely a covalently linked HspB5 dimer. This HspB5-like 44 kDa protein (HspB5L-P44) is particularly abundant in rat heart, brain, and renal cortex and glomeruli...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Sara Johnsdotter
Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review was to explore current research on the impact of migration on issues related to female genital cutting and sexuality. Recent Findings: There is growing evidence that migration results in a broad opposition to female genital cutting among concerned migrant groups in western countries. In addition, after migration, affected women live in the midst of a dominant discourse categorizing them as "mutilated" and sexually disfigured...
2018: Current Sexual Health Reports
Aline Veras Morais Brilhante, Marilyn Kay Nations, Ana Maria Fontenelle Catrib
Violence against women is primarily a socially produced issue of gender-hierarchy cultural values. This study aimed to unveil the meanings assigned to sexual violence against women in the forró lyrics by adolescent boys living on the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. Our point of departure was ethnomusicology, the theory of which contends that studies of regional songs and their performances transcend the geographic space in which they are performed, to the extent that they reflect universally disseminated practices in the legitimation of violence...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Débora Stephanie Ribeiro, Fernanda Mendes Lages Ribeiro, Suely Ferreira Deslandes
The aim of this article is to analyze how professionals in the mental health teams of the juvenile detention system in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, perceive the relations with the external Network of Psychosocial Care in dealing with mental health issues in adolescents serving time in juvenile detention centers. Nine interviews were held with mental health professionals in the system, and the results were presented with Fairclough's critical discourse analysis as the reference. The results were organized in three parts: the relationship between the juvenile detention system's mental health teams and the external services, difficulties experienced by the teams from the detention centers and the external network's services, and prospects and proposals...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Liliana Angelica Ponguta, Muneera Abdul Rasheed, Chin Regina Reyes, Aisha Khizar Yousafzai
The international community has set forth global targets that include calls for universal access to high-quality early childhood care and education (ECCE), as indicated in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. One major impediment to achieving this target is the lack of a skilled workforce. In this paper, we argue the case for leveraging youth as an untapped resource for supplying the workforce the ECCE system needs. Youth comprise a large proportion of the global population, and historically, although youth experience higher unemployment rates than their adult counterparts, youth are important agents of social awareness, social transformation, and community mobilization in multiple global contexts...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Carla T Hilario, John L Oliffe, Josephine P Wong, Annette J Browne, Joy L Johnson
Distress among young immigrant and refugee men has drawn increasing research attention in recent years. Nuanced understandings of distress are needed to inform mental health and public health programming. The purpose of this research was to examine distress from the perspectives of young immigrant and refugee men living in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-three young men (aged 15-22 years) from diverse immigrant and refugee backgrounds participated in interviews, which were conducted between 2014 and 2015...
March 1, 2018: Health (London)
Jennifer L Glick, Katherine Theall, Katherine Andrinopoulos, Carl Kendall
Gender-minority health disparity research is limited by binary gender measurement practices. This study seeks to broaden current discourse on gender identity measurement in the USA, including measurement adoption challenges and mitigation strategies, thereby allowing for better data collection to understand and address health disparities for people of all genders. Three data sources were used to triangulate findings: expert interviews with gender and sexuality research leaders; key-informant interviews with gender minorities in New Orleans, LA; and document analysis of relevant surveys, guides and commentaries...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Aaron Parkhurst
In light of increasingly high rates of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity among citizens of the Arabian Gulf, popular health discourse in the region has emphasised the emergent Arab genome as the primary etiological basis of major health conditions. However, after many years of public dissemination of genomic knowledge in the region, and widespread acceptance of this knowledge among Gulf Arab citizens, the rates of chronic illness continue to increase. This paper briefly explores the clash between indigenous Islamic knowledge systems and biomedical knowledge systems imported into the United Arab Emirates...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner
Genetic epidemiology examines the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations to help addressing health problems in a responsible manner. This paper uses a case study of genetic epidemiology in Taizhou, China, to explore ways in which anthropology can contribute to the validation of studies in genetic epidemiology. It does so, first, by identifying potential overgeneralizations of data, often due to mismatching scale and, second, by examining it's embedding in political, historical and local contexts...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Aaron Gerow, Yuening Hu, Jordan Boyd-Graber, David M Blei, James A Evans
Assessing scholarly influence is critical for understanding the collective system of scholarship and the history of academic inquiry. Influence is multifaceted, and citations reveal only part of it. Citation counts exhibit preferential attachment and follow a rigid "news cycle" that can miss sustained and indirect forms of influence. Building on dynamic topic models that track distributional shifts in discourse over time, we introduce a variant that incorporates features, such as authorship, affiliation, and publication venue, to assess how these contexts interact with content to shape future scholarship...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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