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Jacqueline M Limoges, Kim Jagos
BACKGROUND: Tensions and hierarchies among nurses who have different educational preparations can hinder effective communication and collaborative practices. METHOD: A 2-year longitudinal cohort study involving 214 participants explored the influences of joint education on Canadian Practical Nursing (PN) and Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) students. RESULTS: Joint education helps students dismantle unhelpful power relations, address myths and misconceptions about the other, and develop respect for each other's contributions to patient care...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Clarissa Altina Cunha de Araújo, Berta Paz-Lourido, Sebastià Verger Gelabert
Different types of supports to families are among the aspects that contribute to family quality of life. This study aims to identify the types of supports that families of children with disabilities, users of early intervention services, consider relevant and how public administration influences the quality of this support. This is a qualitative study based on a critical social paradigm. Sixteen mothers and four fathers were interviewed and their contributions were analyzed using discourse analysis. The importance of family support and networks of parents of children with disabilities were highlighted...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jose Gonçalo Pais Estrela da Silveira Zúquete, Edinilsa Ramos de Souza, Suely Ferreira Deslandes
This study focuses on concepts involved in women trafficking for sexual exploitation according to representatives of government and nongovernmental institutions working with policies to confront and prevent trafficking and assist victims in Brazil and Portugal. An exploratory qualitative study was performed to identify the institutional discourses on women trafficking using thematic analysis. Interviewees displayed conceptual imprecision concerning women trafficking, sometimes ignoring the rights of sex workers to migrate and work in other countries...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Esther Helmich, Huei-Ming Yeh, Adina Kalet, Mohamed Al-Eraky
Becoming a doctor is fundamentally about developing a new, professional identity as a physician, which in and of itself may evoke many emotions. Additionally, medical trainees are increasingly moving from one cultural context to another and are challenged with navigating the resulting shifts in their professional identify. In this Article, the authors aim to address medical professional identity formation from a polyvocal, multidisciplinary, cross-cultural perspective. They delineate the cultural approaches to medical professionalism, reflect on professional identity formation in different cultures and on different theories of identity development, and advocate for a context-specific approach to professional identity formation...
October 25, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Wei Wei
Starting as an Internet meme, the homosexually-themed gao-ji discourse recently becomes popular among Chinese urban youth in describing intimate relationship among heterosexual men. Positioned within a body of scholarship on the interplay between language, homophobia and the construction of heteromasculinity, this paper suggests that the gao-ji discourse manifests a form of male homosociality, through which new boundaries of Chinese heteromasculinity may be renegotiated. Based on qualitative interviews with college students, the paper first tracks the genealogy of the gao-ji discourse in the wake of China's booming Internet culture...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Lauren L Saling, Natasha Laroo, Michael M Saling
When older adults retell an impersonal story, the resulting narratives are typically characterized by more prolixity and less coherence than those produced by younger adults. We aimed to determine whether this pattern is also observed when retelling a personal narrative. Younger and older participants told a personal story three consecutive times. With retelling, no evidence of increased coherence or fluency or reduction in hesitancy was observed for either age group. The nature of autobiographical narrative construction explains why such stories are not subject to automatization...
October 26, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Sarah Trainer, Tonya Benjamin
AIMS: To explicate the processes by which a patient's choice to undergo bariatric surgery is made to feel like a medical necessity, to explore the ways widespread societal stigmatization of weight and bariatric surgery shapes patient and provider discourse about surgery and to discuss patient rationalizations of the choice to have surgery. BACKGROUND: Severe obesity is currently highly stigmatized. Bariatric surgery has become an increasingly used option for individuals seeking to lose drastic amounts of weight...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Bridget C O'Brien, Win May, Tanya Horsley
This supplement includes the eight research papers accepted by the 2016 Research in Medical Education Program Planning Committee. In this Commentary, the authors use "conversations in medical education" as a guiding metaphor to explore what these papers contribute to the current scholarly discourse in medical education. They organize their discussion around two domains: the topic of study and the methodological approach. The authors map the eight research papers to six "hot topics" in medical education: (1) curriculum reform, (2) duty hours restriction, (3) learner well-being, (4) innovations in teaching and assessment, (5) self-regulated learning, and (6) learning environment, and to three purposes commonly served by medical education research: (1) description, (2) justification, and (3) clarification...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Francis A Neelon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Ian Vincent McGonigle
Ethnopharmacologists are scientists and anthropologists that study indigenous medicines and healing practices, and who often develop new therapies and medicines for wider use. Ethnopharmacologists do fieldwork with indigenous peoples in traditional societies, where they encounter a wide range of cultural values and varying ideas about the nature of property relations. This poses difficulties for protecting indigenous intellectual property and for making just trade agreements. This Note reviews the legal issues relevant to the protection of indigenous resources in ethnopharmacology trade agreements, and suggests that recent developments in anthropology and the social study of science could be instructive in furthering the legal discourse and in providing policy directions...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Britta Wigginton, Coral Gartner, Ingrid J Rowlands
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or vaping, is increasing against a backdrop of declining smoking rates. E-cigarettes contain fewer toxicants than cigarettes, but their appearance and mode of use has the potential to satisfy the habitual aspects of smoking. To date, we know little about lay perceptions of the safety of using e-cigarettes in pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a thematic discourse analysis of 13 online discussion forum threads that discussed e-cigarette use during pregnancy...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Caroline Schlaufer
This research shows how the use of evaluations in newspaper articles contributes to the quality of public media discourse prior to direct-democratic votes. Data from Swiss direct-democratic campaigns on school policy between 2000 and 2012 are used to compare newspaper articles that contain evaluations with those that do not refer to evaluations. Results show that those newspaper articles containing evaluations exhibit higher levels of justification, reciprocity and respect, tend to argue in terms of the common good, and contain less storytelling than newspaper articles that do not refer to evaluations...
October 1, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Peiling Zhou, Sue C Grady
Doctor-patient conflicts in contemporary China are increasing in numbers and severity. This health geographic study shows how hospitals as a type of therapeutic landscape can shape doctor-patient relationships. First, the comprehensive nature of therapeutic landscapes with an emphasis on power operation within symbolic environments is provided as a framework for this study. Second, the results from participant observation and interviews with patients and doctors previously involved in conflicts are reported from Internal Medicine and Surgery Departments, within four hospitals in Anhui Province, Eastern China...
October 19, 2016: Health & Place
Joe Wark, Jo-Ann Vis
Research shows that child sexual abuse (CSA) can have detrimental effects on adult functioning. While much research regarding the effects of CSA on parenting of mothers is available, there is a dearth of information on how CSA impacts fatherhood. This literature review finds that the parenting experiences of male survivors are characterized by self-perceptions as adequate parents, deficient parenting as measured by standardized instruments, conceptualization of parenting as an intergenerational legacy and potential healing experience, fear of becoming an abuser, and physical and emotional distance from their children...
October 21, 2016: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Sayani Mitra, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy...
September 19, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Rola Farah, Mark DiFrancesco, Jennifer Vannest
Story listening in children relies on brain regions supporting speech perception, auditory word recognition, syntax, semantics, and discourse abilities, along with the ability to attend and process information (part of executive functions). Speed-of-processing is an early-developed executive function. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the relationship between story listening and speed-of-processing in preschool-age children. Eighteen participants performed story-listening tasks during MRI scans...
October 21, 2016: Neuropediatrics
Nadine Ijaz, Heather Boon, Linda Muzzin, Sandy Welsh
Several United Nations bodies have advised countries to actively preserve Traditional Medicine (TM) knowledge and prevent its misappropriation in regulatory structures. To help advance decision-making around this complex regulatory issue, we examine the relationship between risk discourse, epistemology and policy. This study presents a critical, postcolonial analysis of divergent risk discourses elaborated in two contrasting Ontario (Canada) government reports preceding that jurisdiction's regulation of acupuncture, the world's most widely practised TM therapy...
August 24, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Ashly E Jordan, David C Perlman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is hyperendemic among people who inject drugs; nonsterile drug injection is the principle risk for HCV acquisition. Due to gaps in the HCV care continuum, there have been recommendations in the United States emphasizing age-rather than risk-based testing strategies. The central research focus of this project is to explore the meanings and implications of the shift in emphasis from risk-based to age-based HCV testing with regard to people who use drugs...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jennifer Wiley, Tim George, Keith Rayner
Two experiments investigated the effects of domain knowledge on the resolution of ambiguous words with dominant meanings related to baseball. When placed in a sentence context that strongly biased toward the non-baseball meaning (positive evidence), or excluded the baseball meaning (negative evidence), baseball experts had more difficulty than non-experts resolving the ambiguity. Sentence contexts containing positive evidence supported earlier resolution than did the negative evidence condition for both experts and non-experts...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Shawneequa L Callier, Rachel Abudu, Maxwell J Mehlman, Mendel E Singer, Duncan Neuhauser, Charlisse Caga-Anan, Georgia L Wiesner
PURPOSE: This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). METHODS: The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies...
November 2016: Bioethics
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