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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933728/sequential-change-detection-and-monitoring-of-temporal-trends-in-random-effects-meta-analysis
#1
Samson Henry Dogo, Allan Clark, Elena Kulinskaya
Temporal changes in magnitude of effect sizes reported in many areas of research are a threat to the credibility of the results and conclusions of meta-analysis. Numerous sequential methods for meta-analysis have been proposed to detect changes and monitor trends in effect sizes so that meta-analysis can be updated when necessary and interpreted based on the time it was conducted. The difficulties of sequential meta-analysis under the random-effects model are caused by dependencies in increments introduced by the estimation of the heterogeneity parameter τ(2) ...
December 8, 2016: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933721/shared-molecular-networks-in-orofacial-and-neural-tube-development
#2
Youssef A Kousa, Tamer A Mansour, Haitham Seada, Samaneh Matoo, Brian C Schutte
BACKGROUND: Single genetic variants can affect multiple tissues during development. Thus it is possible that disruption of shared gene regulatory networks might underlie syndromic presentations. In this study, we explore this idea through examination of two critical developmental programs that control orofacial and neural tube development and identify shared regulatory factors and networks. Identification of these networks has the potential to yield additional candidate genes for poorly understood developmental disorders and assist in modeling and perhaps managing risk factors to prevent morbidly and mortality...
December 9, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933428/in-6-to-8-year-old-children-cardiorespiratory-fitness-moderates-the-relationship-between-severity-of-life-events-and-health-related-quality-of-life
#3
Markus Gerber, Katharina Endes, Serge Brand, Christian Herrmann, Flora Colledge, Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Henner Hanssen, Uwe Pühse, Lukas Zahner
PURPOSE: In children, the pathways by which physical activity and fitness are associated with physical and psychological wellbeing are still not fully understood. The present study examines for the first time in young children whether high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity moderate the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life. METHODS: Three hundred and seventy-eight children (188 girls, 190 boys, M age = 7...
December 8, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933424/-home-practice-is-the-program-parents-practice-of-program-skills-as-predictors-of-outcomes-in-the-new-beginnings-program-effectiveness-trial
#4
Cady Berkel, Irwin N Sandler, Sharlene A Wolchik, C Hendricks Brown, Carlos G Gallo, Amanda Chiapa, Anne M Mauricio, Sarah Jones
An examination of the content and processes of evidence-based programs is critical for empirically evaluating theories about how programs work, the "action theory" of the program (West et al. in American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 571-605, 1993). The New Beginnings Program (NBP; Wolchik et al., 2007), a parenting-after-divorce preventive intervention, theorizes that program-induced improvements in parenting across three domains: positive relationship quality, effective discipline, and protecting children from interparental conflict, will reduce the negative outcomes that are common among children from divorced families...
December 8, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932865/statistical-modeling-methods-to-analyze-the-impacts-of-multiunit-process-variability-on-critical-quality-attributes-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-tablets
#5
Fei Sun, Bing Xu, Yi Zhang, Shengyun Dai, Chan Yang, Xianglong Cui, Xinyuan Shi, Yanjiang Qiao
The quality of Chinese herbal medicine tablets suffers from batch-to-batch variability due to a lack of manufacturing process understanding. In this paper, the Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) immediate release tablet was taken as the research subject. By defining the dissolution of five active pharmaceutical ingredients and the tablet tensile strength as critical quality attributes (CQAs), influences of both the manipulated process parameters introduced by an orthogonal experiment design and the intermediate granules' properties on the CQAs were fully investigated by different chemometric methods, such as the partial least squares, the orthogonal projection to latent structures, and the multiblock partial least squares (MBPLS)...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932684/standardizing-the-microbiota-of-fish-used-in-research
#6
REVIEW
I N Vatsos
Little attention has been paid to the effects of fish microbiotas on the reproducibility and comparability of fish studies so far. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors, such as water quality, environmental microbial populations, diet, host genetic profile, gender, age and stress status, affect fish microbiotas and create significant inter- and intra-species variations. Fish microbiotas play critical roles in many key aspects of host physiology, such as protection against pathogens, digestion and development of the digestive tract and the local immune system...
December 8, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932630/hospital-doctors-understanding-of-use-and-withdrawal-of-the-liverpool-care-pathway-a-qualitative-study-of-practice-based-experiences-during-times-of-change
#7
Sharon Twigger, Sarah J Yardley
BACKGROUND: The Liverpool Care Pathway was used in UK hospitals (late 1990s to July 2014) in an attempt to generate hospice-style high-quality end-of-life care in acute settings. Despite being widely established, there was limited research or contextual evidence regarding this approach or its impact. Growing criticism from the public, media, politicians and healthcare professionals culminated with a critical independent review (July 2013) and subsequent withdrawal of the Liverpool Care Pathway...
December 8, 2016: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932357/using-quality-assessment-tools-to-critically-appraise-ageing-research-a-guide-for-clinicians
#8
REVIEW
Jennifer Kirsty Harrison, James Reid, Terry J Quinn, Susan Deborah Shenkin
Evidence based medicine tells us that we should not accept published research at face value. Even research from established teams published in the highest impact journals can have methodological flaws, biases and limited generalisability. The critical appraisal of research studies can seem daunting, but tools are available to make the process easier for the non-specialist. Understanding the language and process of quality assessment is essential when considering or conducting research, and is also valuable for all clinicians who use published research to inform their clinical practice...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932343/influence-of-the-day-care-home-and-neighbourhood-environment-on-young-children-s-physical-activity-and-health-protocol-for-the-playce-observational-study
#9
Hayley Christian, Clover Maitland, Stephanie Enkel, Georgina Trapp, Stewart G Trost, Jasper Schipperijn, Bryan Boruff, Leanne Lester, Michael Rosenberg, Stephen R Zubrick
INTRODUCTION: The early years are a critical period in a child's health and development, yet most preschool children fail to meet physical activity guidelines. Outside of the home and neighbourhood, children spend a large proportion of time within early childhood education and care (ECEC) services such as long day care. Research is required to determine how the design of day care outdoor (and indoor) spaces provides opportunities or constraints for physical activity. A significant evidence gap surrounds what objectively measured attributes of the home and neighbourhood environment influence preschoolers' physical activity...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932290/the-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-current-and-future-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Fernando J Martinez, Alison Chisholm, Harold R Collard, Kevin R Flaherty, Jeffrey Myers, Ganesh Raghu, Simon L F Walsh, Eric S White, Luca Richeldi
With the recent development of two effective treatments for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. The traditional approach to diagnosis emphasises the importance of thorough clinical and laboratory evaluations to exclude secondary causes of disease. High-resolution CT is a critical initial diagnostic test and acts as a tool to identify patients who should undergo surgical lung biopsy to secure a definitive histological diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern...
December 5, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932286/imbalance-of-th17-and-treg-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-active-tuberculosis-patients
#11
Jie Luo, Mingxu Zhang, Baosong Yan, Kejun Zhang, Ming Chen, Shaoli Deng
OBJECTIVE: Maintaining a right balance between Th17 and Treg might be critical to the immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to assess whether the Th17/Treg balance is altered in active TB patients. METHODS: 250 study subjects (90 active TB patients, 80 latent TB subjects, and 80 healthy controls) were recruited for the study. The expression of Th17 and Treg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the 250 subjects was investigated by flow cytometry...
December 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931868/a-critical-review-of-the-potential-impacts-of-marine-seismic-surveys-on-fish-invertebrates
#12
REVIEW
A G Carroll, R Przeslawski, A Duncan, M Gunning, B Bruce
Marine seismic surveys produce high intensity, low-frequency impulsive sounds at regular intervals, with most sound produced between 10 and 300Hz. Offshore seismic surveys have long been considered to be disruptive to fisheries, but there are few ecological studies that target commercially important species, particularly invertebrates. This review aims to summarise scientific studies investigating the impacts of low-frequency sound on marine fish and invertebrates, as well as to critically evaluate how such studies may apply to field populations exposed to seismic operations...
December 5, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931847/mind-the-brain-the-mediating-and-moderating-role-of-neurophysiology
#13
Siobhán Harty, Francesco Sella, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Most studies involving experimental manipulations or interventions tailored to modulate behavior do not account for variability in the critical antecedent of behavior, the brain. Here, we describe elegant approaches to model the role that neurophysiology can play in mediating or moderating relationships in this context. We highlight the capacity for these approaches to improve the inferential power of research, bridge the gap between neural and behavioral levels of analysis, and bolster the prospects for reproducibility...
December 5, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931698/the-effectiveness-of-nurse-led-preoperative-assessment-clinics-for-patients-receiving-elective-orthopaedic-surgery-a-systematic-review
#14
Chan Sau-Man Conny, Ip Wan-Yim
PURPOSE: Nurse-led preoperative assessment clinics (POAC) have been introduced in different specialty areas to assess and prepare patients preoperatively in order to avoid last-minute surgery cancellations. Not all patients are referred to POACs before surgery, and the benefits of nurse-led POACs are not well documented in Hong Kong. The purpose of this systemic review was to identify the best available research evidence to inform current clinical practice, guide health care decision making and promote better care...
December 2016: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931653/hemodynamic-coherence-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients
#15
REVIEW
Ö Erdem, J W Kuiper, D Tibboel
Differences in physiology and pathophysiology make the treatment of developing, critically ill children particularly challenging as compared to that of adults. Significant differences in the cardiovascular system of neonates and children in size, weight, body proportions, and metabolism should be considered. Hemodynamic monitoring is crucial for early warning of pending deterioration and to guide therapy. Current monitoring is limited to the macrocirculation, but an adequately functioning macrocirculation does not guarantee a well-functioning microcirculation...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931155/prenatal-paradox-an-integrative-review-of-women-s-experiences-with-prenatal-screening-for-fetal-aneuploidy-and-neural-tube-defects
#16
Tamra L Shea
Background Prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects has been incorporated in prenatal care through much of the industrialized world. As prenatal screening evolves technologically and becomes increasingly utilized worldwide, a summary and evaluation of the available evidence on women's experiences with prenatal screening is warranted. Aims To conduct an integrative review to evaluate and synthesize available literature to enhance understanding of women's experiences with prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects...
December 9, 2016: Contemporary Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931091/evaluation-of-altered-drug-pharmacokinetics-in-critically-ill-adults-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#17
Michael A Ha, Adam C Sieg
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-support modality used in patients with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. A significant resurgence in the use ECMO has been seen in recent years due to substantial improvements in technology and survival benefit. With expanding ECMO use, a better understanding of how ECMO affects drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is necessary. The vast majority of PK studies in patients receiving ECMO have been conducted within neonatal or pediatric populations or within a controlled environment (e...
December 8, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930975/adaptogenic-herb-ginseng-panax-as-medical-food-status-quo-and-future-prospects
#18
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf
Ginseng, an herbaceous plant, belonging to the family Araliaceae is a traditional medicinal herb. Also, it is emerging as a functional food and potent adjunct medicine. Saponin ginsenosides (protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol) are the signature phytochemicals of this plant. With the surfacing of scientific validations, ginseng is gaining unprecedented attention from consumers as well as researchers. As a number of drug-herb interaction-caused health issues have emerged, the medicinal relevance of this plant has been critically assessed here...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930921/nursing-students-attitudes-toward-persons-who-are-aged-an-integrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Susan Hovey, Mary J Dyck, Cynthia Reese, MyoungJin Kim
OBJECTIVES: To analyze empirical studies from the United States and Canada to gain an understanding on how nursing education affects nursing students' attitudes toward persons who are aged. DESIGN: An integrative literature review was completed using Garrard's (2011) Matrix Method. DATA SOURCES: Articles were identified through the electronic database search engines of CINAHL, Pub Med, and Academic Search Complete. Only peer reviewed research articles from 2009 to 2015 were reviewed...
November 27, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930400/practical-issues-of-conducting-a-q-methodology-study-lessons-learned-from-a-cross-cultural-study
#20
Teresa Elizabeth Stone, Jane Maguire, Sook Jung Kang, Chiyoung Cha
This article advances nursing research by presenting the methodological challenges experienced in conducting a multination Q-methodology study. This article critically analyzes the relevance of the methodology for cross-cultural and nursing research and the challenges that led to specific responses by the investigators. The use of focus groups with key stakeholders supplemented the Q-analysis results. The authors discuss practical issues and shared innovative approaches and provide best-practice suggestions on the use of this flexible methodology...
December 6, 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
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