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Critical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449529/do-hospitals-need-oncological-critical-care-units
#1
EDITORIAL
Abby Koch, William Checkley
Since the inception of critical care as a formal discipline in the late 1950s, we have seen rapid specialization to many types of intensive care units (ICUs) to accommodate evolving life support technologies and novel therapies in various disciplines of medicine. Indeed, the field has expanded such that specialized ICUs currently exist to address critical care problems in medicine, cardiology, neurology and neurosurgery, trauma, burns, organ transplant and cardiothoracic surgeries. Specialization does not only need new infrastructure, but also training and staffing of health care providers, ancillary staff, and development and implementation of processes of care...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449392/osmotic-stress-decreases-complexity-underlying-the-electrophysiological-dynamic-in-soybean
#2
G F R Saraiva, A S Ferreira, G M Souza
Research rationale: Studies on plant electrophysiology are mostly focused on specific traits of single cells. Inspired by the complexity of the signaling network in plants and by analogies with neurons in human brains, we have sought for evidences of high complexity in the electrical dynamics of plant signaling and a likely relation with environmental cues. Central methods: An EEG-like standard protocol was adopted for high-resolution measurements of the electrical signal in Glycine max seedlings. The signals were continuously recorded in the same plants before and after the osmotic stimuli with a -2 MPa mannitol solution...
April 27, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449257/the-development-and-application-of-random-match-probabilities-to-firearm-and-toolmark-identification
#3
John E Murdock, Nicholas D K Petraco, John I Thornton, Michael T Neel, Todd J Weller, Robert M Thompson, James E Hamby, Eric R Collins
The field of firearms and toolmark analysis has encountered deep scrutiny of late, stemming from a handful of voices, primarily in the law and statistical communities. While strong scrutiny is a healthy and necessary part of any scientific endeavor, much of the current criticism leveled at firearm and toolmark analysis is, at best, misinformed and, at worst, punditry. One of the most persistent criticisms stems from the view that as the field lacks quantified random match probability data (or at least a firm statistical model) with which to calculate the probability of a false match, all expert testimony concerning firearm and toolmark identification or source attribution is unreliable and should be ruled inadmissible...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449225/transfusion-research-priorities-for-blood-services-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
REVIEW
Imelda Bates, Oliver Hassall, Tonderai Mapako
Evidence to support many blood transfusion policies and practices in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is weak or lacking. SSA cannot extrapolate from wealthy countries' research findings because its environment, users and structures are very different and SSA has critical blood shortages. SSA needs to generate its own evidence but research funds are very scarce and need to be carefully targeted to match need. This study aimed to define this need by determining research priorities for blood services in SSA. Thirty-five stakeholders representing diverse blood services' interests and expertise participated in a workshop...
April 27, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449016/a-critical-exploration-of-a-collaborative-kaupapa-m%C3%A4-ori-consistent-research-project-on-physician-assisted-dying
#5
Phillipa Malpas, Anneka Anderson, Julie Wade, Rawiri Wharemate, Dolly Paul, Pio Jacobs, Takawai Jacobs, Jim Rauwhero, Danielle Lunistra
AIM: This paper critically explores the research approach undertaken by Māori and tauiwi researchers working alongside kaumātua within the context of physician-assisted dying. We critically explore the collaborative process we undertook in framing the research context and discuss the rewards and challenges that emerged. METHOD: The research this critical discussion draws on undertook a qualitative Kaupapa Māori consistent research approach and drew on the principles of an Interface Research approach...
April 28, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448775/exploring-electronic-medical-record-and-self-administered-medication-risk-screening-tools-in-a-primary-care-clinic
#6
Mark J Makowsky, Ken Cor, Tat Wong
BACKGROUND: Electronic medical record (EMR) screening for indicators of medication risk could improve efficiency in identifying primary care clinic patients in need of clinical pharmacist care compared with patient self-reporting. OBJECTIVES: To (a) compare the performance of an EMR medication risk assessment questionnaire (MRAQ) with a self-administered (SA) MRAQ and (b) explore each tool's ability to predict indicators of health behavior, health status, and health care utilization...
May 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448685/adult-neurobehavioral-alterations-in-male-and-female-mice-following-developmental-exposure-to-paracetamol-acetaminophen-characterization-of-a-critical-period
#7
Gaëtan Philippot, Torsten Gordh, Anders Fredriksson, Henrik Viberg
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used non-prescription drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Among pregnant women and young children, paracetamol is one of the most frequently used drugs and is considered the first-choice treatment for pain and/or fever. Recent findings in both human and animal studies have shown associations between paracetamol intake during brain development and adverse behavioral outcomes later in life. The present study was undertaken to investigate if the induction of these effects depend on when the exposure occurs during a critical period of brain development and if male and female mice are equally affected...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448207/gender-differences-in-endovascular-treatment-of-infrainguinal-peripheral-artery-disease
#8
Henrik Christian Rieß, Eike Sebastian Debus, Franziska Heidemann, Konstanze Stoberock, Reinhart T Grundmann, Christian-Alexander Behrendt
BACKGROUND: Despite ongoing research concerning comorbidities and clinical presentation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), the issue of gender associated differences in treatment is far from being settled. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, non-randomized multicentre study design. All patients suffering from intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischaemia (CLI) were included. RESULTS: A total of 2,798 procedures for symptomatic PAD in the infrainguinal region were recorded, with 1,696 (61...
April 27, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447837/the-state-of-social-and-personality-science-rotten-to-the-core-not-so-bad-getting-better-or-getting-worse
#9
Matt Motyl, Alexander P Demos, Timothy S Carsel, Brittany E Hanson, Zachary J Melton, Allison B Mueller, J P Prims, Jiaqing Sun, Anthony N Washburn, Kendal M Wong, Caitlyn Yantis, Linda J Skitka
The scientific quality of social and personality psychology has been debated at great length in recent years. Despite research on the prevalence of Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) and the replicability of particular findings, the impact of the current discussion on research practices is unknown. The current studies examine whether and how practices have changed, if at all, over the last 10 years. In Study 1, we surveyed 1,166 social and personality psychologists about how the current debate has affected their perceptions of their own and the field's research practices...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447819/intelligence-income-and-education-as-potential-influences-on-a-child-s-home-environment-a-maternal-sibling-comparison-design
#10
Alexandria Ree Hadd, Joseph Lee Rodgers
The quality of the home environment, as a predictor, is related to health, education, and emotion outcomes. However, factors influencing the quality of the home environment, as an outcome, have been understudied-particularly how children construct their own environments. Further, most previous research on family processes and outcomes has implemented between-family designs, which limit claims of causality. The present study uses kinship data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to construct a maternal sibling-comparison design to investigate how maternal and child traits predict the quality of home environment...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447804/heightened-attentional-capture-by-visual-food-stimuli-in-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Renate A M Neimeijer, Anne Roefs, Peter J de Jong
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa (AN) patients are relatively insensitive to the attentional capture of visual food stimuli. Attentional avoidance of food might help AN patients to prevent more elaborate processing of food stimuli and the subsequent generation of craving, which might enable AN patients to maintain their strict diet. Participants were 66 restrictive AN spectrum patients and 55 healthy controls. A single-target rapid serial visual presentation task was used with food and disorder-neutral cues as critical distracter stimuli and disorder-neutral pictures as target stimuli...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447803/psychometrics-and-the-neuroscience-of-individual-differences-internal-consistency-limits-between-subjects-effects
#12
Greg Hajcak, Alexandria Meyer, Roman Kotov
In the clinical neuroscience literature, between-subjects differences in neural activity are presumed to reflect reliable measures-even though the psychometric properties of neural measures are almost never reported. The current article focuses on the critical importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency reliability-the homogeneity of "items" that comprise a neural "score." We demonstrate how variability in the internal consistency of neural measures limits between-subjects (i.e., individual differences) effects...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447767/biopsy-versus-resection-for-the-management-of-low-grade-gliomas
#13
REVIEW
Bowen Jiang, Kaisorn Chaichana, Anand Veeravagu, Steven D Chang, Keith L Black, Chirag G Patil
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2013, Issue 4.Low-grade gliomas (LGG) constitute a class of slow-growing primary brain neoplasms. Patients with clinically and radiographically suspected LGG have two initial surgical options, biopsy or resection. Biopsy can provide a histological diagnosis with minimal risk but does not offer a direct treatment. Resection may have additional benefits such as increasing survival and delaying recurrence, but is associated with a higher risk for surgical morbidity...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447664/efficient-design-of-clinical-trials-and-epidemiological-research-is-it-possible
#14
REVIEW
Michael S Lauer, David Gordon, Gina Wei, Gail Pearson
Randomized clinical trials and large-scale, cohort studies continue to have a critical role in generating evidence in cardiovascular medicine; however, the increasing concern is that ballooning costs threaten the clinical trial enterprise. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the changing landscape of clinical research, and clinical trials in particular, focusing on reasons for the increasing costs and inefficiencies. These reasons include excessively complex design, overly restrictive inclusion and exclusion criteria, burdensome regulations, excessive source-data verification, and concerns about the effect of clinical research conduct on workflow...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447398/a-suite-of-essential-biodiversity-variables-for-detecting-critical-biodiversity-change
#15
Dirk S Schmeller, Lauren V Weatherdon, Adeline Loyau, Alberte Bondeau, Lluis Brotons, Neil Brummitt, Ilse R Geijzendorffer, Peter Haase, Mathias Kuemmerlen, Corinne S Martin, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub, Duccio Rocchini, Hannu Saarenmaa, Stefan Stoll, Eugenie C Regan
Key global indicators of biodiversity decline, such as the IUCN Red List Index and the Living Planet Index, have relatively long assessment intervals. This means they, due to their inherent structure, function as late-warning indicators that are retrospective, rather than prospective. These indicators are unquestionably important in providing information for biodiversity conservation, but the detection of early-warning signs of critical biodiversity change is also needed so that proactive management responses can be enacted promptly where required...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447316/mining-and-environmental-health-disparities-in-native-american-communities
#16
REVIEW
Johnnye Lewis, Joseph Hoover, Debra MacKenzie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste...
April 26, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447144/-standardized-collection-of-presenting-complaints-in-the-emergency-room-integration-of-coded-presenting-complaints-into-the-electronic-medical-record-system-of-an-emergency-department-and-their-value-for-health-care-research
#17
F Greiner, D Brammen, M Kulla, F Walcher, B Erdmann
BACKGROUND: The point of entry of a patient in emergency care is a symptom or a complaint. To evaluate subsequent processes in an emergency department until a diagnosis is made, this information has to be taken into account. OBJECTIVES: We report the introduction of coded presenting complaints into the electronic medical record system of an emergency department and describe the patients based on these data. METHODS: The CEDIS presenting complaint list was integrated into the emergency department information system of an emergency department (38,000 patients/year)...
April 26, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447138/-endocrine-disruptors-evidence-from-epidemiological-studies-necessitates-a-critical-review-of-model-systems
#18
REVIEW
M Hoffmann, S Gebauer, M Nüchter, R Baber, J Ried, M von Bergen, W Kiess
Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) cause adverse health effects through interaction with endocrine systems. They are classified by chemical structure, effects on specific endocrine systems, bioaccumulation, persistence in the environment, or clinically observable effects. For research of the complex mechanisms of action in the human body, only in vitro model systems have so far been available, that have insufficient high-throughput capacity, which makes risk evaluation more difficult. In addition, in industrial nations, living people are often exposed to mixtures of substances, with various effects...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446826/a-systematic-and-mechanistic-review-on-the-phytopharmacological-properties-of-alhagi-species
#19
REVIEW
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Marjan Fallah, Milad Moloudizargari, Fatemeh Mehdikhani, Peyman Sepehrnia, Bigard Moradi
Alhagi species are well known in Iran (locally known as Khar Shotor) and other parts of Asia as a popular folk medicine. Recent research has shown extensive pharmacological effects of these species. This paper is a comprehensive review of the phytopharmacological effects and traditional uses of Alhagi species and their active constituents with special attention to the responsible mechanisms, effective dosages and routes of administration. The Alhagi species studied in this paper include: A. maurorum, A. camelorum, A...
October 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446804/the-effects-of-increasing-calcium-channel-blocker-dose-vs-adding-a-diuretic-to-treatment-regimens-for-patients-with-uncontrolled-hypertension
#20
Shigemasa Tani, Kei Asayama, Koji Oiwa, Shinsuke Harasawa, Katsuaki Okubo, Atsuhiko Takahashi, Ayumi Tanabe, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Atsushi Hirayama, Toshio Kushiro
In patients with insufficient blood pressure (BP) control, despite using a combination regimen containing an angiotensin receptor blocker and a calcium channel blocker (CCB), whether a greater dose of CCB or adding a diuretic is more effective at lowering BP remains unclear. We conducted a multicenter randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of switching from the daily administration of a single-pill fixed-dose combination of irbesartan (100 mg) and amlodipine (5 mg) to irbesartan (100 mg) with an increased dose of amlodipine (10 mg) (HD group, n=62) or irbesartan (100 mg) and amlodipine (5 mg) with 1 mg of indapamide (D group, n=63) in patients with poorly controlled hypertension...
April 27, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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