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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110501/worldwide-variability-in-growth-and-its-association-with-health-incorporating-body-composition-developmental-plasticity-and-intergenerational-effects
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells
In their seminal book "Worldwide variation in human growth," published in 1976, Eveleth and Tanner highlighted substantial variability within and between populations in the magnitude and schedule of human growth. In the four decades since then, research has clarified why growth variability is so closely associated with human health. First, growth patterns are strongly associated with body composition, both in the short- and long-term. Poor growth in early life constrains the acquisition of lean tissue, while compensatory "catch-up" growth may elevate body fatness...
January 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110088/regional-and-source-based-patterns-of-11-c-phno-binding-potential-reveal-concurrent-alterations-in-dopamine-d2-and-d3-receptor-availability-in-cocaine-use-disorder
#2
Patrick D Worhunsky, David Matuskey, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Edward C Gaiser, Nabeel Nabulsi, Gustavo A Angarita, Vince D Calhoun, Robert T Malison, Marc N Potenza, Richard E Carson
Dopamine type 2 and type 3 receptors (D2R/D3R) appear critical to addictive disorders. Cocaine-use disorder (CUD) is associated with lower D2R availability and greater D3R availability in regions primarily expressing D2R or D3R concentrations, respectively. However, these CUD-related alterations in D2R and D3R have not been concurrently detected using available dopaminergic radioligands. Furthermore, receptor availability in regions of mixed D2R/D3R concentration in CUD remains unclear. The current study aimed to extend investigations of CUD-related alterations in D2R and D3R availability using regional and source-based analyses of [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography (PET) of 26 individuals with CUD and 26 matched healthy comparison (HC) participants...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109841/disruption-of-aromatase-homeostasis-as-the-cause-of-a-multiplicity-of-ailments-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Human health is beset with a legion of ailments, which is exacerbated by the lifestyle errors. Out of the numerous enzymes in human body, aromatase, a cytochromes P450 enzyme is particularly very critical. Occurring at the crossroads of multiple signalling pathways, its homeostasis is vital. Unfortunately, medications, hormone therapy, chemical additives in food, and endocrine-disrupting personal care products are oscillating the aromatase concentration beyond the permissible level. As this enzyme converts androgens (C19) into estrogens (C18), its agitation has different outcomes in different genders and age groups...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109753/using-game-theory-to-investigate-the-epigenetic-control-mechanisms-of-embryo-development-comment-on-epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-by-qian-wang-et-al
#4
Le Zhang, Shaoxiang Zhang
A body of research [1-7] has already shown that epigenetic reprogramming plays a critical role in maintaining the normal development of embryos. However, the mechanistic quantitation of the epigenetic interactions between sperms and oocytes and the related impact on embryo development are still not clear [6,7]. In this study, Wang et al., [8] develop a modeling framework that addresses this question by integrating game theory and the latest discoveries of the epigenetic control of embryo development.
January 18, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109653/an-examination-of-outlaw-motorcycle-gangs-and-their-involvement-in-the-illicit-drug-market-and-the-effectiveness-of-anti-association-legislative-responses
#5
Terry Goldsworthy, Laura McGillivray
BACKGROUND: In 2013 the Queensland Government introduced criminal association and mandatory sentencing laws for members of outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMCGs). Forms of "criminal association" or "anti-bikie" laws have been introduced in several Australian jurisdictions, and recent High Court decisions upholding their constitutionality will ensure that they remain part of our justice landscape. Generally, the aims of these laws are to declare a specific organisation as "criminal" and impose various legal orders and offences that thwart the consorting of members and address organised crime, such as unexplained wealth regimes...
January 18, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109619/obesity-and-heart-failure-focus-on-the-obesity-paradox
#6
REVIEW
Salvatore Carbone, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena
The escalating prevalence of obesity has been linked to substantial increases in both metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the direct effects of obesity on cardiovascular health and function require further exploration. In particular, the relationship between obesity and cardiac function has received intense scrutiny. Although obesity increases the risk for development of heart failure (HF), it appears to exert a protective effect in patients in whom HF has already been diagnosed (the "obesity paradox")...
January 5, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109579/reprint-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-behavioural-disorders-and-quality-of-life-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Roberta Balestrino, Pablo Martinez-Martin
Parkinson's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, with neuropsychiatric manifestations among the most frequent non-motor symptoms. Health-related quality of life is a patient-reported outcome that reflects the impact of the disease on physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and on other aspects of patient' life. Although older studies on health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease mainly investigated the role of the motor impairment, recent research focused on non-motor symptoms has highlighted the critical role that behavioural disturbances due to neuropsychiatric symptoms play in determining health related quality of life...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109279/a-comparative-analysis-of-centralized-waiting-lists-for-patients-without-a-primary-care-provider-implemented-in-six-canadian-provinces-study-protocol
#8
Mylaine Breton, Michael Green, Sara Kreindler, Jason Sutherland, Jalila Jbilou, Sabrina T Wong, Jay Shaw, Valorie A Crooks, Damien Contandriopoulos, Mélanie Ann Smithman, Astrid Brousselle
BACKGROUND: Having a regular primary care provider (i.e., family physician or nurse practitioner) is widely considered to be a prerequisite for obtaining healthcare that is timely, accessible, continuous, comprehensive, and well-coordinated with other parts of the healthcare system. Yet, 4.6 million Canadians, approximately 15% of Canada's population, are unattached; that is, they do not have a regular primary care provider. To address the critical need for attachment, especially for more vulnerable patients, six Canadian provinces have implemented centralized waiting lists for unattached patients...
January 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109121/cannabis-use-and-dating-violence-among-college-students-a-call-for-research
#9
Ryan C Shorey, Ellen Haynes, Catherine Strauss, Jeff R Temple, Gregory L Stuart
Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem on college campuses. Although there is a robust literature documenting that alcohol use is consistently associated with increased risk for perpetrating dating violence, little research has examined the role of cannabis in dating violence perpetration. With increasing legalisation of cannabis throughout the world, it is imperative to understand what role, if any, cannabis may play in the important public health problem of dating violence. In this commentary, we discuss the current state of the research on cannabis and dating violence and suggest avenues for additional research in this area...
January 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108952/transcriptional-regulators-dictate-innate-lymphoid-cell-fates
#10
REVIEW
Chao Zhong, Jinfang Zhu
Research on innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has recently been a fast paced topic of immunological research. As ILCs are able to produce signature Th cytokine, ILCs have garnered considerable attention and have been described to represent the innate counterpart of the CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells. The development and function of ILCs are precisely regulated by a network of crucial transcription factors, which are also involved in the development or differentiation of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and T cells...
January 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108603/glucagon-and-amino-acids-are-linked-in-a-mutual-feedback-cycle-the-liver-%C3%AE-cell-axis
#11
Jens J Holst, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Jens Pedersen, Filip K Knop
Glucagon is usually viewed as an important counterregulatory hormone in glucose metabolism, with actions opposing those of insulin. Evidence exists that shows glucagon is important for minute-to-minute regulation of postprandial hepatic glucose production, although conditions of glucagon excess or deficiency do not cause changes compatible with this view. In patients with glucagon-producing tumors (glucagonomas), the most conspicuous signs are skin lesions (necrolytic migratory erythema), while in subjects with inactivating mutations of the glucagon receptor, pancreatic swelling may be the first sign; neither condition is necessarily associated with disturbed glucose metabolism...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108593/the-differentiated-effects-of-health-on-political-participation
#12
Jérôme Couture, Sandra Breux
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that an individual's state of health can significantly affect their decision to vote, but analysis is often only done on a single level of government; the national level. However, prior research has shown that the determining factors for voting can differ according to the level of government being considered. Our analysis is the first attempt to take a comprehensive look at the magnitude of health and political participation in a same country on different levels...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108374/strategies-to-reduce-hospitalizations-of-children-with-medical-complexity-through-complex-care-expert-perspectives
#13
Ryan J Coller, Bergen B Nelson, Thomas S Klitzner, Adrianna A Saenz, Paul G Shekelle, Carlos F Lerner, Paul J Chung
OBJECTIVES: Interventions to reduce disproportionate hospital use among children with medical complexity (CMC) are needed. Our objective was to conduct a rigorous, structured process to develop intervention strategies aiming to reduce hospitalizations within a complex care program population. METHODS: A complex care medical home program used 1) semi-structured interviews of caregivers of CMC experiencing acute, unscheduled hospitalizations, and 2) literature review on preventing hospitalizations among CMC, to develop key drivers for lowering hospital utilization and link them with intervention strategies...
January 17, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108333/determining-activity-count-cut-points-for-measurement-of-physical-activity-using-the-actiwatch2-accelerometer
#14
Sarah E Neil-Sztramko, Bolette Skjødt Rafn, Carolyn C Gotay, Kristin L Campbell
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep and physical activity are important contributions to many aspects of health. Obtaining accurate, objective measures of both behaviours is critical to health research. The Actiwatch2 is a wrist-worn sleep-monitoring device that has the potential to measure physical activity. Currently, interpretation of the Actiwatch2 physical activity data is limited by a lack of published thresholds for interpreting exercise intensity. This limits the ability to collect information on both behaviours simultaneously using one monitor...
January 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108154/collaborative-design-of-a-health-care-experience-survey-for-persons-with-disability
#15
Lisa I Iezzoni, Holly Matulewicz, Sarah A Marsella, Kimberley S Warsett, Dennis Heaphy, Karen Donelan
BACKGROUND: When assessing results of health care delivery system reforms targeting persons with disability, quality metrics must reflect the experiences and perspectives of this population. OBJECTIVE: For persons with disability and researchers to develop collaboratively a survey that addresses critical quality questions about a new Massachusetts health care program for persons with disability dually-eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. METHODS: Persons with significant physical disability or serious mental health diagnoses participated fully in all research activities, including co-directing the study, co-moderating focus groups, performing qualitative analyses, specifying survey topics, cognitive interviewing, and refining survey language...
January 8, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108139/emergency-department-waiting-room-nurse-role-a-key-informant-perspective
#16
Innes Kelli, Jackson Debra, Plummer Virginia, Elliott Doug
BACKGROUND: Emergency departments have become overcrowded with increased waiting times. Strategies to decrease waiting times include time-based key performance indicators and introduction of a waiting room nurse role. The aim of the waiting room nurse role is to expedite care by assessing and managing patients in the waiting room. There is limited literature examining this role. METHODS: This paper presents results of semi-structured interviews with five key informants to explore why and how the waiting room nurse role was implemented in Australian emergency departments...
January 17, 2017: Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal: AENJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108038/the-effect-of-endotracheal-tubes-versus-laryngeal-mask-airways-on-perioperative-respiratory-adverse-events-in-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Thomas F E Drake-Brockman, Anoop Ramgolam, Guicheng Zhang, Graham L Hall, Britta S von Ungern-Sternberg
BACKGROUND: Perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAE) are the most common critical incidents in paediatric anaesthesia and occur more often in infants. Use of laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) is associated with reduced PRAE compared with endotracheal tubes in older children (>1 year). We aimed to evaluate the effect of these devices on the incidence of PRAE in infants. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial at the Princess Margaret Hospital for Children in Perth (WA, Australia) by recruiting infants (aged 0-12 months) undergoing general (with or without regional or local) anaesthesia with anticipated fentanyl dose 1 μg/kg or lower for minor elective surgery...
January 17, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107968/towards-perylenequinonoid-effective-application-to-reversible-fluorescent-probe-for-monitoring-hydrogen-persulfide-in-solvents-and-living-cells
#18
Tiancheng Qiu, Haipeng Wei, Dan Cheng, Liyan Zhang, Chuanglin Jiang, Shenglian Luo, Lin Yuan, Zebing Zeng
Hydrogen persulfide (H2S2), as a direct redox form of H2S, may have its own physiological processes in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. The research on hydrogen persulfide was rapidly growing. As it is the actual signalling molecules derived from hydrogen sulfide, reversible detection of hydrogen persulfide changes in cells is of great significance. To address this critical need, we present a reversible fluorescent switch-on H2S2 probe, the tautomeric of 6, 7-dihydroxyperylene-1, 12-quinone (DHPQ), capable of tracking H2S2 in solvents and living cells...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107744/sensitive-detection-of-t4-polynucleotide-kinase-activity-based-on-multifunctional-magnetic-probes-and-polymerization-nicking-reactions-mediated-hyperbranched-rolling-circle-amplification
#19
Xia Li, Xiaowen Xu, Juan Song, Qingwang Xue, Chenzhong Li, Wei Jiang
T4 polynucleotide kinase (PNK) plays critical roles in regulating DNA phosphorylation modes during the repair of DNA lesions. The aberrant activity of T4 PNK has been proven to be associated with a variety of human pathologies. Sensitive detection of T4 PNK activity is critical to both clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Herein, a background-eliminated fluorescence assay for sensitive detection of T4 PNK activity has been developed by multifunctional magnetic probes and polymerization nicking reactions mediated hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA)...
January 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107449/the-impact-of-shame-self-criticism-and-social-rank-on-eating-behaviours-in-overweight-and-obese-women-participating-in-a-weight-management-programme
#20
Cristiana Duarte, Marcela Matos, R James Stubbs, Corinne Gale, Liam Morris, Jose Pinto Gouveia, Paul Gilbert
Recent research has suggested that obesity is a stigmatised condition. Concerns with personal inferiority (social rank), shame and self-criticism may impact on weight management behaviours. The current study examined associations between social comparison (shame, self-criticism), negative affect and eating behaviours in women attending a community based weight management programme focused on behaviour change. 2,236 participants of the programme completed an online survey using measures of shame, self-criticism, social comparison, and weight-related affect, which were adapted to specifically address eating behaviour, weight and body shape perceptions...
2017: PloS One
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