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Non invasive positive pressure

Joseph M Blankush, Robbie Freeman, Joy McIlvaine, Trung Tran, Stephen Nassani, I Michael Leitman
Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Jie Zhao, Guolin Wang
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the inferior vena cava respirophasic variation (IVC collapsibility index [IVCCI]) and the general heart end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI). By determining the above relationship, we could evaluate the utility of IVCCI as an indicator. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-two septic patients were finally enrolled in this study. The inferior vena cava's diameter was measured with the largest at the end of expiration (IVC3) and with the smallest at the end of inspiration (IVCi) on the ultrasound (IVCCI=[(IVCD e - IVCD i)/IVCD e] ×100%)...
October 20, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Radek Frič, Erika Kristina Lindstrøm, Geir Andre Ringstad, Kent-André Mardal, Per Kristian Eide
BACKGROUND: In symptomatic Chiari malformation type 1 (CMI), impaired intracranial compliance (ICC) is associated with an increased cranio-spinal pulsatile pressure gradient. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a non-invasive modality for the assessment of the pulse pressure gradient at the cranio-cervical junction (CCJ). We wished to explore how the MRI-derived pulse pressure gradient (MRI-dP) compares with invasively measured pulsatile intracranial pressure (ICP) in CMI, and with healthy controls...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Darko Ivanović, Aleksandar Kupusinac, Edita Stokić, Rade Doroslovački, Dragan Ivetić
The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a leading role in the early prevention of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers and chronic kidney disease. It would be very greatful that MetS diagnosis can be predicted in everyday clinical practice. This paper presents artificial neural network (ANN) prediction of the diagnosis of MetS that includes solely non-invasive, low-cost and easily-obtained diagnostic methods. This solution can extract the risky persons and suggests complete tests only on them by saving money and time...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Samir Jaber, Marion Monnin, Mehdi Girard, Matthieu Conseil, Moussa Cisse, Julie Carr, Martin Mahul, Jean Marc Delay, Fouad Belafia, Gérald Chanques, Nicolas Molinari, Audrey De Jong
PURPOSE: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) has the potential to provide apnoeic oxygenation. We decided to assess in a proof-of-concept study whether the addition of HFNC to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) could reduce oxygen desaturation during intubation, compared with NIV alone for preoxygenation, in severely hypoxaemic intensive care unit (ICU) patients with respiratory failure. METHODS: We conducted a randomised, controlled, single-centre trial with assessor-blinded outcome assessment in patients admitted to the ICU...
October 11, 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
Sarada P, Weena Stanley, Mukhyaprana Prabhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
R Sahni, X Ameer, K Ohira-Kist, J-T Wung
OBJECTIVES: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in conjunction with tracheal intubation (TI) and mechanical ventilation (MV) for treating arterial pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) in near-term and term newborns. Non-invasive respiratory support with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasingly used to avoid morbidity associated with TI and MV, yet the effectiveness of iNO delivery via nasal CPAP remains unknown. To evaluate the effectiveness of iNO delivered via the bubble nasal CPAP system in term and preterm newborns with HRF...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Camilla R S Silva, Lívia B Andrade, Danielle A S X Maux, Andreza L Bezerra, Maria C M B Duarte
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on respiratory function in seven- to 16-year-old children in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery. Method: A randomized, controlled trial with 50 children who had undergone cardiac surgery with median sternotomy. After extubation, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group (n=26), which received instructions regarding posture, early ambulation, and cough stimulation, and CPAP group (continuous positive airway pressure; n=24), which received the same instructions as the control group and CPAP=10 cmH20 twice daily for 30 minutes from the 1st to the 5th post-operative day (POD)...
September 29, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Fabrizio Presicce, Cosimo De Nunzio, Mauro Gacci, Enrico Finazzi Agrò, Andrea Tubaro
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of the ultrasound assessments of the bladder/detrusor wall thickness (BWT/DWT) and the ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW) in lower urinary tract symptoms diagnosis and treatment. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search from January 1995 until February 2016 was performed on PubMed using the following terms: Bladder Weight, Bladder Wall Thickness, Detrusor Wall Thickness, LUTS, Bladder Outlet Obstruction (BOO), Benign Prostatic Obstruction...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Steven Kwasi Korang, Joshua Feinberg, Jørn Wetterslev, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission among children and constitutes a significant economic burden. Use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the care of children with acute asthma has increased even though evidence supporting the intervention has been considered weak and clinical guidelines do not recommend the intervention. NPPV might be an effective intervention for acute asthma, but no systematic review has been conducted to assess the effects of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care in children with acute asthma...
September 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M E Mowitz, J A F Zupancic, D Millar, H Kirpalani, J S Gaulton, R S Roberts, W Mao, D Dukhovny
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of nasal continuous positive pressure (nCPAP) compared with nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in the context of the reported randomized clinical trial. STUDY DESIGN: Using patient-level data from the clinical trial, we undertook a prospectively planned economic evaluation. We measured costs, from a third-party payer perspective in all patients, and from a societal perspective in a subgroup with a time horizon through the earlier of discharge, death or 44 weeks post-menstrual age...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
A Mukerji, K Sarmiento, B Lee, K Hassall, V Shah
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive high-frequency ventilation (NIHFV), a relatively new modality, is gaining popularity despite limited data. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of NIHFV versus bi-phasic continuous positive airway pressure (BP-CPAP) in preterm infants failing CPAP. STUDY DESIGN: Infants with BW<1250 g on CPAP were randomly assigned to NIHFV or BP-CPAP if they met pre-determined criteria for CPAP failure. Infants were eligible for randomization after 72 h age and until 2000 g...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Margaret J Trost, Melissa Cowell, Jennifer Cannon, Kendra Mitchell, Kevin Waloff, Humberto Avila, Sanjay Chand, Christopher J Russell
PURPOSE: Children with sleep apnea may be at increased risk for overnight respiratory events (ORE) following anesthesia. We sought to identify ORE risk factors in sleep apnea patients sedated for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: One thousand four hundred seven hospitalizations for children with sleep apnea (by ICD-9 code) occurred at our institution from 5/1/2011 to 2/1/2015. One hundred twenty-seven (9 %) encounters were solely for post-MRI observation representing 96 unique patients...
September 28, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
David G Sweet, Virgilio Carnielli, Gorm Greisen, Mikko Hallman, Eren Ozek, Richard Plavka, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Umberto Simeoni, Christian P Speer, Máximo Vento, Gerard H A Visser, Henry L Halliday
Advances in the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ensure that clinicians must continue to revise current practice. We report the third update of the European Guidelines for the Management of RDS by a European panel of expert neonatologists including input from an expert perinatal obstetrician based on available literature up to the beginning of 2016. Optimizing the outcome for babies with RDS includes consideration of when to use antenatal steroids, and good obstetric practice includes methods of predicting the risk of preterm delivery and also consideration of whether transfer to a perinatal centre is necessary and safe...
September 21, 2016: Neonatology
Hiroki Takano, Tomohiko Ishihara, Motomichi Kosuga, Torayuki Okuyama
A 72-year-old, seemingly healthy, Japanese man suddenly lost consciousness. At the emergency room, the patient's Glasgow coma scale score was 10 and a thoracic breathing pattern was observed. An arterial blood gas analysis indicated acute hypercarbic respiratory failure. He was placed on non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. The next day he was alert. Manual muscle testing revealed that his face, neck and limb muscle strength were normal. He could walk, and Gowers' sign was not observed. Computed tomography showed atrophy of the paravertebral, abdominal wall and diaphragm crura muscles, without apparent limb muscle involvement...
2016: Internal Medicine
Fay Crawford, Karen Welch, Alina Andras, Francesca M Chappell
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower limb is common, with prevalence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic disease estimated at 13% in the over 50 age group. Symptomatic PAD affects about 5% of individuals in Western populations between the ages of 55 and 74 years. The most common initial symptom of PAD is muscle pain on exercise that is relieved by rest and is attributed to reduced lower limb blood flow due to atherosclerotic disease (intermittent claudication). The ankle brachial index (ABI) is widely used by a variety of healthcare professionals, including specialist nurses, physicians, surgeons and podiatrists working in primary and secondary care settings, to assess signs and symptoms of PAD...
September 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lu-Qian Zhou, Xiao-Ying Li, Yun Li, Bing-Peng Guo, Li-Li Guan, Xin Chen, Yu-Wen Luo, Peng Luo, Rong-Chang Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training followed by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: This investigator-initiated randomized, controlled trial recruited 88 patients with stable GOLD stage IV COPD, who were randomized into 4 equal groups to continue oxygen therapy (control group) or to receive inspiratory muscle training followed by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (IMT-NPPV group), inspiratory muscle training only (IMT group), or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation only (NPPV group) for at least 8 weeks...
August 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Anita K Simonds
Prevalence studies have shown heterogeneous use of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) in different conditions, but a marked increase in uptake especially in users of non-invasive ventilation (NIV). While there have been randomised controlled trials of NIV in acute exacerbations of COPD, for weaning from invasive ventilation and post-extubation respiratory failure, the evidence base for long term NIV and comparisons with invasive ventilation are less well-developed. The combination of NIV and cough assist devices has reduced the indications for tracheotomy ventilation in some situations eg...
August 25, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak, Monika Tomczuk-Ostapczuk, Anna Panasiuk, Elzbieta Goscik
INTRODUCTION: Radiotherapy (RT) and some chemotherapy regimens are known risk factors predisposing to the development of premature arterial disease. Vascular ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a non-invasive technique, useful to detect early subclinical symptoms of atherosclerosis that can appear in the paediatric population. We analysed the influence of chemotherapy and moderate doses of head or neck irradiation in childhood cancer survivors on the possibility of premature carotid artery disease...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Shunichi Gamo, Hideya Iijima, Yumika Seki, Ryo Horaguchi, Yuji Suda, Yuriko Shindoh
An atopic asthmatic of 65-year-old man who was complicated with COPD and treated with inhaled corticosteroid, long-acting β2 agonist, long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and leukotriene receptor antagonist was hospitalized with a severe asthmatic attack. He was intubated and went onto an artificial respirator. He was gradually relieved by repeated intravenous administration of high-dose corticosteroid, and a respirator was switched over to non-invasive positive pressure ventilation on 24th day. However, he repeated asthmatic attacks which needed corticosteroid to recover...
July 2016: Arerugī, [Allergy]
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