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invasive fungal disease

Nicole M Revie, Kali R Iyer, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Microorganisms have a remarkable capacity to evolve resistance to antimicrobial agents, threatening the efficacy of the limited arsenal of antimicrobials and becoming a dire public health crisis. This is of particular concern for fungal pathogens, which cause devastating invasive infections with treatment options limited to only three major classes of antifungal drugs. The paucity of antifungals with clinical utility is in part due to close evolutionary relationships between these eukaryotic pathogens and their human hosts, which limits the unique targets to be exploited therapeutically...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Julianne Teresa Djordjevic, Sophie Lev
Invasive fungal diseases pose a serious threat, and new drugs are urgently needed. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Pries et al. (2018) identified benzamide- and picolinamide-based small-molecule inhibitors with antifungal properties, including some active against pathogenic Candida species. These compounds target an essential component of the fungal secretion machinery, suggesting a new approach to antifungal development.
March 15, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
Y Santamaría-Alza, J Sánchez-Bautista, J F Fajardo-Rivero, C L Figueroa
Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement. Complications, such as invasive fungal infections usually occur in patients with a greater severity of the disease. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk variables associated with invasive fungal infections in a Colombian systemic lupus erythematosus population. Materials and methods A cross-sectional, retrospective study that evaluated patients with systemic lupus erythematosus for six years...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
J Denis, M-P Ledoux, Y Nivoix, R Herbrecht
Triazoles compounds are first-line agents for the treatment of invasive fungal diseases. Isavuconazole is the most recent triazole compound, approved in 2015 by the FDA and the EMA to treat invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We reviewed here the in vitro activity of isavuconazole against a vast spectrum of species. Isavuconazole MICs were evaluated using CLSI, EUCAST or Etest methods, with no significant differences between the technics. Low MIC50 and MIC90 (<1μg/mL) were described for isavuconazole against the majority of Candida spp...
March 10, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Waqar Islam, Muhammad Qasim, Ali Noman, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammad Tayyab, Taimoor Hassan Farooq, Huang Wei, Liande Wang
Plants are attacked by a large number of pathogens. To defend against these pathogens, plants activate or repress a vast array of genes. For genetic expression and reprogramming, host endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) are the key factors. Among these sRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) mediate gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level and play an essential role in the defense responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In the recent years, high-throughput sequencing has enabled the researchers to uncover the role of plant miRNAs during pathogen invasion...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vadim M Kemaykin, Nariman B Tabinbaev, Mahira S Khudaibergenova, Anastasia A Olifirovich, Layzzat M Abdrakhmanova, David W Denning, Nikolai Klimko
Our work aimed to generate a preliminary estimation of severe and chronic fungal diseases in the Republic of Kazakhstan with a model proposed by LIFE (Leading International Fungal Education). Calculations were carried out on data from 2015. Published results of studies of mycoses in Kazakhstan were identified; in the absence of national data from the scientific literature, the frequency of life-threatening and serious mycoses in defined groups of patients at risk from other countries were taken into account...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Satish K Verma, Kathryn L Kingsley, Marshall S Bergen, Kurt P Kowalski, James F White
Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium , Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusarium blights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ), or annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum ...
March 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Nattachai Anantasit, Noramon Nuntacharruksa, Pimpin Incharoen, Aroonwan Preutthipan
Introduction: Invasive' pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been one of the major causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The gold standard method for a diagnosis of IPA is histopathological examination of the lung tissue; however, post-procedural bleeding limits the feasibility of lung biopsy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) defined IPA...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Vishakha Pandey, Manoj Singh, Dinesh Pandey, Soma Marla, Anil Kumar
Tilletia indica is a smut fungus that incites Karnal bunt in wheat. It has been considered as quarantine pest in more than 70 countries. Despite its quarantine significance, there is meager knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Moreover, various disease management strategies have proven futile. Development of effective disease management strategy requires identification of pathogenicity/virulence factors. With this aim, the present study was conducted to compare the secretomes of T...
March 6, 2018: Proteomics
Sung-Yeon Cho, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Dong-Gun Lee
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a treatment for hematologic malignancies, immune deficiencies, or genetic diseases, ect. Recently, the number of HSCTs performed in Korea has increased and the outcomes have improved. However, infectious complications account for most of the morbidity and mortality after HSCT. Post-HSCT infectious complications are usually classified according to the time after HSCT: pre-engraftment, immediate post-engraftment, and late post-engraftment period. In addition, the types and risk factors of infectious complications differ according to the stem cell source, donor type, conditioning intensity, region, prophylaxis strategy, and comorbidities, such as graft-versushost disease and invasive fungal infection...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Mobaswar Hossain Chowdhury, Lisa Kathleen Ryan, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Katie B Freeman, Damian G Weaver, Jeffry C Pelletier, Richard W Scott, Gill Diamond
Invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and non- albicans Candida (NAC) present a serious disease threat. Although the echinocandins are recommended as the first line of antifungal drug class, resistance to these agents is beginning to emerge, demonstrating the need for new antifungal agents. Host defense peptides (HDP) exhibit potent antifungal activity, but as drugs they are difficult to manufacture efficiently, and they are often inactivated by serum proteins. HDP mimetics are low molecular weight non-peptide compounds that can alleviate these problems and were shown to be membrane-active against C...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Mihai Mareș, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti-Constantinescu, David W Denning
OBJECTIVE: To estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Romania. METHODS: Data derived from the World Health Organization (WHO), National Institute of Statistics, Romanian public health agencies and non-profit health organizations, and published annual reports on local epidemiology were used in the present study. When no data were available, specific at-risk populations were used to calculate frequencies of serious fungal diseases, using previously published epidemiological parameters...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Theodore A Schuman, Josephine H Nguyen, Joshua C Yelverton, Jorge A Almenara, Celeste N Powers
Invasive fungal sinusitis is a morbid pathology that typically affects immunocompromised patients and may quickly progress to fulminant disease. The purpose of this study was to measure the sensitivity and specificity of touch preparation of nasal debridement specimens as a rapid diagnostic tool for invasive fungal sinusitis. A retrospective chart review was performed of 22 patients undergoing nasal debridement due to suspicion for invasive fungal sinusitis over a 10-year period. Thirteen patients had touch preparation of nasal specimens followed by routine histologic processing; 2 of these patients underwent two and 1 patient had three separate debridements, for a total of 17 touch preparations performed...
January 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Jerald J Nair, Johannes van Staden
Globalization, the modern lifestyle, immuno-suppressive agents, invasive surgical procedures, the loss of efficacies of existing drugs, and multidrug resistance are some of the factors used to explain the rise in fungal infections in recent years. Significant advances have been made in attempts to replace existing antifungal schedules, especially with synthetic targets. The identification of other platforms for drug discovery is now entrenched in research programs across the globe. Plants offer significant benefits owing to their numerical superiority, exceedingly broad chemical basis and appealing sustainability characteristics...
February 27, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Eloise Ballard, Willem J G Melchers, Jan Zoll, Alistair J P Brown, Paul E Verweij, Adilia Warris
In order to survive, Aspergillus fumigatus must adapt to specific niche environments. Adaptation to the human host includes modifications facilitating persistent colonisation and the development of azole resistance. The aim of this study is to advance understanding of the genetic and physiological adaptation of A. fumigatus in patients during infection and treatment. Thirteen A. fumigatus strains were isolated from a single chronic granulomatous disease patient suffering from persistent and recurrent invasive aspergillosis over a period of 2 years...
February 22, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Yu-Ju Chen, Chao-Liang Chou, Kuan-Ju Lai, Ya-Ju Lin Lin
PURPOSE: Invasive mycosis caused by the Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Mucor can be fetal, especially in the immunocompromised patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Here we present a case of CNS Fusarium infection, and this is the first reported case of Fusarium brain abscess in Taiwan. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old woman presented with fever and conscious disturbance for 3 days. Neurological examination showed stupor consciousness, neck stiffness, multiple cranial nerves palsy, and bilateral Babinski signs...
September 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Ingvild Nordøy, Liv Hesstvedt, Cecilie Torp Andersen, Haima Mylvaganam, Nicola Isabelle Kols, Birgit Margrethe Falch, Ståle Tofteland, Fredrik Müller, David William Denning
The aim of this study was to examine the burden of fungal disease in Norway, contributing to a worldwide effort to improve awareness of the needs for better diagnosis and treatment of such infections. We used national registers and actual data from the Departments of Microbiology from 2015 and estimated the incidence and/or prevalence of superficial, allergic and invasive fungal disease using published reports on specific populations at risk. One in 6 Norwegians suffered from fungal disease: Superficial skin infections (14...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
S Richard, J M G C F Almeida, O H Cissé, A Luraschi, O Nielsen, M Pagni, P M Hauser
Fungi of the genus Pneumocystis are obligate parasites that colonize mammals' lungs and are host species specific. Pneumocystis jirovecii and Pneumocystis carinii infect, respectively, humans and rats. They can turn into opportunistic pathogens in immunosuppressed hosts, causing severe pneumonia. Their cell cycle is poorly known, mainly because of the absence of an established method of culture in vitro It is thought to include both asexual and sexual phases. Comparative genomic analysis suggested that their mode of sexual reproduction is primary homothallism involving a single mating type ( MAT ) locus encompassing plus and minus genes ( matMc , matMi , and matPi ; Almeida et al...
February 20, 2018: MBio
Steven T Denham, Jessica C S Brown
Cryptococcus neoformans is a common environmental saprophyte and human fungal pathogen that primarily causes disease in immunocompromised individuals. Similar to many environmentally acquired human fungal pathogens, C. neoformans initiates infection in the lungs. However, the main driver of mortality is invasive cryptococcosis leading to fungal meningitis. After C. neoformans gains a foothold in the lungs, a critical early step in invasion is transversal of the respiratory epithelium. In this review, we summarize current knowledge relating to pulmonary escape...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Mark Reinwald, Jose T Silva, Nicolas J Mueller, Jesús Fortún, Christian Garzoni, Johan W de Fijter, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Paolo Grossi, Jose María Aguado
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of therapies targeting different intracellular signaling pathways and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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