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invasive fungal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904738/recent-developments-in-the-management-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-oncohematological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Markus Ruhnke, Stefan Schwartz
Patients with hematological cancer have a high risk of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). These infections are mostly life threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other non-Aspergillus molds are increasingly be identified in cases of documented IFDs. Important risk factors are long lasting granulocytopenia with neutrophil counts below 500/μl for more than 10 days or graft-versus-host disease resulting from allogeneic stem-cell transplantation...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897041/novel-antifungal-agents-a-patent-review-2013-present
#2
María Victoria Castelli, Marcos Gabriel Derita, Silvia Noelí López
Superficial infections involving the skin and mucosa are the most common fungal disease in humans. Fungi can also produce invasive infections (IFI), which are increasing in incidence among the growing population of immunocompromised patients, and are characterized by a high mortality rate. Amphotericin B, new triazoles and echinocandins have improved treatment options in IFI. However, the frequency of less common and more resistant fungi, the limited activity of available antifungal drugs and their undesirable side effects reflect the urgent need for the development of new therapeutic strategies...
November 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892480/metabolic-response-induced-by-parasitic-plant-fungus-interactions-hinder-amino-sugar-and-nucleotide-sugar-metabolism-in-the-host
#3
Dong-Kyu Lee, Soohyun Ahn, Hae Yoon Cho, Hye Young Yun, Jeong Hill Park, Johan Lim, Jeongmi Lee, Sung Won Kwon
Infestation by the biotrophic pathogen Gymnosporangium asiaticum can be devastating for plant of the family Rosaceae. However, the phytopathology of this process has not been thoroughly elucidated. Using a metabolomics approach, we discovered the intrinsic activities that induce disease symptoms after fungal invasion in terms of microbe-induced metabolic responses. Through metabolic pathway enrichment and mapping, we found that the host altered its metabolite levels, resulting in accumulation of tetrose and pentose sugar alcohols, in response to this fungus...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887809/an-estimation-of-burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-france
#4
J-P Gangneux, M-E Bougnoux, C Hennequin, C Godet, J Chandenier, D W Denning, B Dupont
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: An estimation of burden of serious fungal diseases in France is essential data to inform public health priorities on the importance of resources and research needed on these infections. In France, precise data are available for invasive fungal diseases but estimates for several other diseases such as chronic and immunoallergic diseases are by contrast less known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the Web of Science Platform...
November 22, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882677/utility-of-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-in-diagnosing-non-specific-inflammatory-intrathorcacic-lymphadenitis
#5
Huizhen Yang, Shenglan Wang, Jiajun Teng, Baohui Han, Jiayuan Sun
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has emerged as a minimally invasive technique for diagnosing intrathoracic malignancies and some benignancies; however, there are no data available on the utility of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of non-specific inflammatory intrathoracic lymphadenitis. METHODS: A prospective analysis was performed from 104 patients with enlarged lymphadenopathy suspected of non-specific lymphadenitis referred for EBUS-TBNA between October 2009 and March 2012...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880668/the-role-of-the-multidisciplinary-team-in-antifungal-stewardship
#6
Samir Agrawal, Rosemary Barnes, Roger J Brüggemann, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Adilia Warris
There are a variety of challenges faced in the management of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), including high case-fatality rates, high cost of antifungal drugs and development of antifungal resistance. The diagnostic challenges and poor outcomes associated with IFD have resulted in excessive empirical use of antifungals in various hospital settings, exposing many patients without IFD to potential drug toxicities as well as causing spiralling antifungal drug costs. Further complexity arises as different patient groups show marked variation in their risk for IFD, fungal epidemiology, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antifungal drugs...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880667/the-current-treatment-landscape-other-fungal-diseases-cryptococcosis-fusariosis-and-mucormycosis
#7
Olivier Lortholary, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, John R Perfect
Compared with major invasive mycoses such as aspergillosis and candidiasis, the antifungal stewardship management strategies of other fungal diseases have different opportunities and considerations. Cryptococcosis, fusariosis and mucormycosis are globally prevalent invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), but are not currently included in antifungal prophylaxis guidelines for immunocompromised hosts. Since the implementation of biomarkers as part of diagnostic screening strategies, the concept of pre-emptive antifungal therapy has emerged for these IFDs...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875508/extensive-oral-mucormycosis-in-a-transplanted-patient
#8
Bernar Monteiro Benites, Felipe Paiva Fonseca, Claudia Joffily Parahyba, Sergio Samir Arap, Yana Augusta Novis, Eduardo Rodrigues Fregnani
Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal disease caused by fungi from the Mucorales order that are found in the soil and decaying organic debris. Mucormycosis has been reported to be the third most common fungal disease in stem cell transplanted patients. The fungi have a tendency for vascular invasion, resulting in thrombi development, which decreases blood supply and leads to extensive tissue necrosis. Here, the authors present a patient of mucormycosis affecting the soft palate, oropharynx, and hypopharynx in a type II diabetic male patient who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, and the authors further review the literature on oral mucormycosis for the last 10 years...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871873/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-defence-responses-triggered-by-the-necrotrophic-pathogen-rhizoctonia-solani-in-cotton
#9
Min Zhang, Shou-Ting Cheng, Hai-Yun Wang, Jia-He Wu, Yuan-Ming Luo, Qian Wang, Fu-Xin Wang, Gui-Xian Xia
: The soil-borne necrotrophic pathogen fungus Rhizoctonia solani is destructive, causing disease in various important crops. To date, little is known about the host defence mechanism in response to invasion of R. solani. Here, an iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was employed to investigate pathogen-responsive proteins in the disease tolerant/resistant cotton cultivar CRI35. A total of 174 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified after inoculation of cotton plants with R...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862711/thalidomide-for-steroid-dependent-chronic-disseminated-candidiasis-after-stem-cell-transplantation-a-case-report
#10
Blandine Rammaert, Sophie Candon, Christophe Maunoury, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnou, Grégory Jouvion, Thorsten Braun, Jean-Michel Correas, Olivier Lortholary
Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is a rare and difficult-to-treat invasive fungal disease occurring mainly after prolonged and profound neutropenia. We describe the case of a 59-year-old man successfully treated with thalidomide for CDC recurrences after an autologous transplantation. We add evidences of the effectiveness of immunomodulatory drugs to manage inflammatory reconstitution immune syndrome-related refractory CDC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 16, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858519/role-of-microglia-in-fungal-infections-of-the-central-nervous-system
#11
George W Koutsouras, Raddy L Ramos, Luis R Martinez
Most fungi are capable of disseminating into the central nervous system (CNS) commonly being observed in immunocompromised hosts. Microglia plays a critical role in responding to these infections regulating inflammatory processes proficient at controlling CNS colonization by these eukaryotic microorganisms. Nonetheless, it is this inflammatory state that paradoxically yields cerebral mycotic meningoencephalitis and abscess formation. As peripheral macrophages and fungi have been investigated aiding our understanding of peripheral disease, ascertaining the key interactions between fungi and microglia may uncover greater abilities to treat invasive fungal infections of the brain...
November 18, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853284/genome-wide-transcriptome-profiling-of-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-ciceris-conidial-germination-reveals-new-insights-into-infection-related-genes
#12
Mamta Sharma, Anindita Sengupta, Raju Ghosh, Gaurav Agarwal, Avijit Tarafdar, A Nagavardhini, Suresh Pande, Rajeev K Varshney
Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is a serious disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) accounting for approximately 10-15% annual crop loss. The fungus invades the plant via roots, colonizes the xylem vessels and prevents the upward translocation of water and nutrients. Infection is initiated by conidia that invade the host tissue often by penetration of intact epidermal cells. Here, we report the characterization of the transcriptome of Foc sequenced using Illumina Hiseq technology during its conidial germination at different time points...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849440/use-of-cidofovir-for-cytomegalovirus-disease-refractory-to-ganciclovir-in-solid-organ-recipients
#13
Hugo Bonatti, Costi D Sifri, Clara Larcher, Stefan Schneeberger, Camille Kotton, Christian Geltner
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) frequently is complicated by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Cidofovir (CDV) is active against CMV, including many ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant mutants, but often is considered to be too nephrotoxic for use after organ transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven males and two females (median age 50.1 years), including two kidney/pancreas, four lung, one small bowel, and two hand recipients, received CDV for refractory CMV disease...
November 16, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837519/molecular-detection-of-resistance-to-azole-components
#14
Brunella Posteraro, Antonietta Vella, Elena De Carolis, Maurizio Sanguinetti
Fungal infections have increased significantly in the last few years, and their outcomes are in part complicated by the emergence of antifungal drug-resistant pathogens. Together with Candida species, the mould Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most prevalent organisms to cause invasive fungal disease. The molecular detection of (tri)azole resistance in both Candida and Aspergillus species may represent a useful means of monitoring the incidence of clinical isolates with antifungal resistance-associated gene alterations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837518/molecular-detection-of-resistance-to-echinocandins
#15
Brunella Posteraro, Antonietta Vella, Elena De Carolis, Maurizio Sanguinetti
In the last years, life-threatening fungal diseases have increased significantly, due to the rising number of human individuals susceptible to fungal infections, which are in part complicated by the emergence of antifungal drug-resistant pathogens. Among yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are the most common organisms responsible for invasive fungal diseases. The molecular detection of echinocandin resistance in Candida species may represent a useful means of monitoring the incidence of clinical isolates with antifungal resistance-associated gene alterations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837507/isolation-of-nucleic-acids-for-fungal-diagnosis
#16
P Lewis White, Rosemary A Barnes
PCR can aid in the diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD). While the large number of "in-house" methodologies drives technological diversity, providing robustness, they make it difficult to identify optimal strategies, limiting standardization, and widespread acceptance. No matter how efficient, PCR utility will be limited by the quality of extracted nucleic acid. This chapter highlights benefits and limitations affecting the nucleic acid extraction process, before focusing on recent recommendations that through multicenter evaluation have provided optimal and standardized methodology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837506/serological-approaches
#17
Barbora Weinbergerova, Iva Kocmanova, Zdenek Racil, Jiri Mayer
The diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) based on clinical, radiological, and conventional microbiological findings is not reliable and is often delayed. Non-culture-based methods with higher sensitivity and specificity may reduce diagnostic time and result in decreased IFD morbidity and mortality. These methods are now increasingly used to manage patients at risk of IFD. Among available biomarkers, fungal antigens have been investigated as an aid to early diagnosis and are predominantly used as screening tests to prompt antifungal treatment mainly in patients with hematological malignancies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837505/culture-based-techniques
#18
Birgit Willinger
The detection of fungal elements and their characterization in patient specimens provides fundamental information. Culture-based methods, though often slow, may yield the specific etiological agent, and may allow susceptibility testing to be performed. Proper collection and transportation of the specimen is essential. Particularly, sterile materials are important for diagnosis of invasive fungal infections.Therefore, culture and direct microscopy should be performed on all suitable clinical specimens when fungal disease is suspected...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837502/host-derived-biomarkers-for-risk-assessment-of-invasive-fungal-diseases
#19
Cristina Cunha, Samuel M Gonçalves, Agostinho Carvalho
Invasive fungal diseases are major complications associated with the treatment of hematologic malignancies. The integration of host-derived biomarkers into clinical processes to predict the risk and progression of fungal disease is a promising approach in immunocompromised patients. Recent insights into human antifungal immunity have highlighted the remarkable influence of host genetics in modulating susceptibility to infection. In this chapter, we describe protocols to examine human genetic variation and to assess its functional consequences using the pattern recognition receptor PTX3 as an example...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837498/current-algorithms-in-fungal-diagnosis-in-the-immunocompromised-host
#20
Thomas Lehrnbecher, Karsten Becker, Andreas H Groll
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as patients with hematological malignancies or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Whereas the definite diagnosis of IFD requires invasive diagnostic procedures, imaging and noninvasive diagnostic assays may help in decision making with regard to the institution and the choice of antifungal agents, the duration of therapy, surgical intervention, and monitoring of fungal manifestations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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