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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087464/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-fungal-protease-induced-inflammatory-responses
#1
Yun Hee Kim, Seung-Hyo Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that fungal infections are a main cause of respiratory tract diseases, such as asthma, bronchopneumonia, intoxication, and invasive fungal disease. Fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida species have become increasingly important pathogens as the global climate changes. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the toxicological potential of Aspergillus protease in the lower respiratory tract. Exposure of Aspergillus protease to A549 cells induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNAs and increased production of interleukin (IL)-8 and MCP-1 protein through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080986/clinical-implications-of-globally-emerging-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#2
REVIEW
Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary, Johanna L Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher, Paul E Verweij
Aspergillus fungi are the cause of an array of diseases affecting humans, animals and plants. The triazole antifungal agents itraconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole and posaconazole are treatment options against diseases caused by Aspergillus However, resistance to azoles has recently emerged as a new therapeutic challenge in six continents. Although de novo azole resistance occurs occasionally in patients during azole therapy, the main burden is the aquisition of resistance through the environment. In this setting, the evolution of resistance is attributed to the widespread use of azole-based fungicides...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080981/phenotypic-interactions-between-tree-hosts-and-invasive-forest-pathogens-in-the-light-of-globalization-and-climate-change
#3
REVIEW
Jan Stenlid, Jonàs Oliva
Invasive pathogens can cause considerable damage to forest ecosystems. Lack of coevolution is generally thought to enable invasive pathogens to bypass the defence and/or recognition systems in the host. Although mostly true, this argument fails to predict intermittent outcomes in space and time, underlining the need to include the roles of the environment and the phenotype in host-pathogen interactions when predicting disease impacts. We emphasize the need to consider host-tree imbalances from a phenotypic perspective, considering the lack of coevolutionary and evolutionary history with the pathogen and the environment, respectively...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079053/molecular-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-a-polygalacturonase-inhibiting-protein-ghpgip1-in-enhanced-resistance-to-verticillium-and-fusarium-wilts-in-cotton
#4
Nana Liu, Xueyan Zhang, Yun Sun, Ping Wang, Xiancai Li, Yakun Pei, Fuguang Li, Yuxia Hou
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), belonging to a group of plant defence proteins, specifically inhibits endopolygalacturonases secreted by pathogens. Herein, we showed that purified GhPGIP1 is a functional inhibitor of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, the two fungal pathogens causing cotton wilt. Transcription of GhPGIP1 was increased in cotton upon infection, wounding, and treatment with defence hormone and H2O2. Resistance by GhPGIP1 was examined by its virus-induced gene silencing in cotton and overexpression in Arabidopsis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068483/immunity-to-commensal-fungi-detente-and-disease
#5
Matthew L Wheeler, Jose J Limon, David M Underhill
Fungi are ubiquitous in our environment, and a healthy immune system is essential to maintain adequate protection from fungal infections. When this protection breaks down, superficial and invasive fungal infections cause diseases that range from irritating to life-threatening. Millions of people worldwide develop invasive infections during their lives, and mortality for these infections often exceeds 50%. Nevertheless, we are normally colonized with many of the same disease-causing fungi (e.g., on the skin or in the gut)...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066814/species-in-the-cryptococcus-gattii-complex-differ-in-capsule-and-cell-size-following-growth-under-capsule-inducing-conditions
#6
Kenya E Fernandes, Christine Dwyer, Leona T Campbell, Dee A Carter
Cryptococcus gattii causes invasive fungal infections that have been increasing in incidence and global distribution in recent years. The major molecular genotypes of C. gattii that were previously classified as VGI to VGIV have recently been described as four new species: C. gattii (VGI), C. deuterogattii (VGII), C. bacillisporus (VGIII), and C. tetragattii (VGIV). The main driver for their classification has been phylogeny, and phenotypic diversity has not yet been extensively characterized. This study examines variation in attributes related to virulence and pathogenicity, including capsule thickness, cell size, tolerance to temperature, oxidative and osmotic stress, and cell wall integrity...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043539/invasive-forms-of-candida-and-aspergillus-in-sputum-samples-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-attending-the-tuberculosis-reference-laboratory-in-ghaemshahr-northern-iran-an-analysis-of-samples-collected-during-the-past-10years
#7
Mohammad Reza Jabbari Amiri, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Mahdi Abastabar, Masoud Aliyali, Masoumeh Jabbari Amiri, Hamid Hasanpour
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. This is especially true in Northern Iran, which has high TB prevalence. The chronic nature of this disease is further exacerbated if it is accompanied by fungal infection, which usually remains undiagnosed and thus untreated. Thus, mycotic infections add fatal dimensions to pulmonary TB. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of invasive forms of fungal elements in sputum samples collected from patients with pulmonary TB at a reference laboratory in Ghaemshahr, Northern Iran, during the past 10years...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031265/the-carbohydrate-lectin-receptor-dectin-1-mediates-immune-response-to-exserohilum-rostratum
#8
Jennifer L Reedy, Paige E Negoro, Marianela Feliu, Allison K Lord, Nida S Khan, Dan P Lukason, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jenny M Tam, Michael K Mansour, Thomas F Patterson, Jatin M Vyas
Dematiaceous molds are found ubiquitously in the environment and cause a wide spectrum of human disease including infections associated with high rates of mortality. Despite this, the mechanism of innate immune response has been less well studied, although it is key in the clearance of fungal pathogens. Here, we focus on Exserohilum rostratum, a dematiaceous mold that caused 751 infections during a multistate outbreak due to injection of contaminated methylprednisolone. We show that macrophages are incapable of phagocytosing Exserohilum Despite lack of phagocytosis, macrophage production of TNFα is triggered by hyphae, but not spores, and depends upon Dectin-1, a C-type lectin receptor...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030755/epidemiology-of-infections-following-haploidentical-peripheral-blood-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#9
Michael Slade, Scott Goldsmith, Rizwan Romee, John F DiPersio, Erik R Dubberke, Peter Westervelt, Geoffrey L Uy, Steven J Lawrence
BACKGROUND: The use of T-cell replete haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplant (haplo-HCT) has increased substantially since the introduction of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) regimens. Limited data exist concerning infectious complications of haplo-HCT utilizing mobilized peripheral blood (PB) hematopoietic cells. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients at our institution undergoing PB haplo-HCT with PTCy between June 2009 and June 2015...
November 7, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028232/two-independent-s-phase-checkpoints-regulate-appressorium-mediated-plant-infection-by-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#10
Míriam Osés-Ruiz, Wasin Sakulkoo, George R Littlejohn, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Nicholas J Talbot
To cause rice blast disease, the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae develops a specialized infection structure called an appressorium. This dome-shaped, melanin-pigmented cell generates enormous turgor and applies physical force to rupture the rice leaf cuticle using a rigid penetration peg. Appressorium-mediated infection requires septin-dependent reorientation of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the base of the infection cell, which organizes polarity determinants necessary for plant cell invasion. Here, we show that plant infection by M...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026998/can-oak-powdery-mildew-severity-be-explained-by-indirect-effects-of-climate-on-the-composition-of-the-erysiphe-pathogenic-complex
#11
Benoit Marçais, Dominique Piou, Damien Dezette, Marie-Laure Desprez-Loustau
Coinfection by several pathogens is increasingly recognized as an important feature in the epidemiology and evolution of plant fungal pathogens. Oak mildew is induced by 2 closely related Erysiphe invasive species E. alphitoides and E. quercicola, which differ in their mode of overwintering. We investigated how climate influences the co-occurrence of the 2 species in oak young stands and whether this is important for the disease epidemiology We studied the frequency of flag-shoots (i.e. shoots developing from infected buds, usually associated with E...
December 27, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026997/multifaceted-roles-of-the-ras-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-chrgf-in-development-pathogenesis-and-stress-responses-of-colletotrichum-higginsianum
#12
Qiongnan Gu, Meijuan Chen, Junbin Huang, Y D Wei, Tom Hsiang, Lu Zheng
The infection process of Colletotrichum higginsianum, which causes a disease of crucifers, involves several key steps: conidial germination, appressorial formation, appressorial penetration, and invasive growth in host tissues. In this study, the ChRgf gene encoding a Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor protein was identified by screening T-DNA insertion mutants generated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AtMT) that were unable to cause disease on the host Arabidopsis thaliana. Targeted gene deletion of ChRgf resulted in a null mutant (ΔChrgf-42) with defects in vegetative growth, hyphal morphology and conidiation, and poor surface attachment and low germination on hydrophobic surfaces, but there were no apparent differences in appressorial turgor pressure between the wild-type and the mutant...
December 27, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026958/human-%C3%AE-defensin-6-self-assembly-prevents-adhesion-and-suppresses-virulence-traits-of-candida-albicans
#13
Phoom Chairatana, I-Ling Chiang, Elizabeth M Nolan
HD6 is a host-defense peptide that contributes to intestinal innate immunity and mediates homeostasis at mucosal surfaces by forming non-covalent oligomers that capture bacteria and prevent bacterial invasion into the epithelium. Our present work illustrates a new role of HD6 in defending the host epithelium against pathogenic microorganisms. We report that HD6 blocks Candida albicans adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells and suppresses two C. albicans virulence traits, namely invasion into human epithelial cells and biofilm formation...
December 27, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004589/an-update-on-the-safety-and-interactions-of-antifungal-drugs-in-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#14
Corrado Girmenia, Anna Paola Iori
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Improvement in the management of IFDs have been achieved with the availability of new effective and safe antifungal drugs, however, many of these newer treatments have some limitations in their variable toxicity and unique predisposition for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Areas covered: This article is an update of a previous review published in this journal evaluating the safety profile of the antifungal drugs...
December 26, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999053/issues-in-antifungal-stewardship-an-opportunity-that-should-not-be-lost
#15
Chand Wattal, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Jaswinder Kaur Oberoi, J Peter Donnelly, Rosemary A Barnes, B L Sherwal, Neeraj Goel, Sonal Saxena, George M Varghese, Rajeev Soman, Poonam Loomba, Bansidhar Tarai, Sanjay Singhal, Naimish Mehta, V Ramasubramanian, Dharma Choudhary, Yatin Mehta, Supradip Ghosh, Sumathi Muralidhar, Ravinder Kaur
Many countries have observed an increase in the incidence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) over the past two decades with emergence of new risk factors and isolation of new fungal pathogens. Early diagnosis and appropriate antifungal treatment remain the cornerstones of successful outcomes. However, due to non-specific clinical presentations and limited availability of rapid diagnostic tests, in more than half of cases antifungal treatment is inappropriate. As a result, the emergence of antifungal resistance both in yeasts and mycelial fungi is becoming increasingly common...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998422/-progress-of-research-on-azole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#16
Y Chen, Z Y Lu, Y Jin, L Han, L Y Huang
Being an important clinical fungal pathogen, Aspergillus (A.) fumigatus can cause fatal invasive fungal infections. Azoles are the first line drugs in treating various Aspergillus-caused diseases. Worldwidely, reports related to azole resistance in A. fumigatus have been increasing which posing a threat on the effectiveness of clinically used azole and agricultural fungicides. Currently, it has become an important public health issue. In this review, we summarize findings from literature regarding the following areas: the occurrence of azole resistance in A...
December 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997332/delivering-on-antimicrobial-resistance-agenda-not-possible-without-improving-fungal-diagnostic-capabilities
#17
David W Denning, David S Perlin, Eavan G Muldoon, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Malcolm D Richardson, Tania C Sorrell
Antimicrobial resistance, a major public health concern, largely arises from excess use of antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Lack of routine diagnostic testing for fungal diseases exacerbates the problem of antimicrobial drug empiricism, both antibiotic and antifungal. In support of this contention, we cite 4 common clinical situations that illustrate this problem: 1) inaccurate diagnosis of fungal sepsis in hospitals and intensive care units, resulting in inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis; 2) failure to diagnose chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis; 3) misdiagnosis of fungal asthma, resulting in unnecessary treatment with antibacterial drugs instead of antifungal drugs and missed diagnoses of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 4) overtreatment and undertreatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994377/risk-factors-for-early-invasive-fungal-disease-in-critically-ill-patients
#18
Gurmeet Singh, Ceva Wicaksono Pitoyo, Dita Aditianingsih, Cleopas Martin Rumende
BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD) is increasing worldwide in the past two to three decades. Critically ill patients in Intensive Care Units are more vulnerable to fungal infection. Early detection and treatment are important to decrease morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess factors associated with early IFD in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in critically ill patients, from March to September 2015...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992970/pathogen-dynamics-during-invasion-and-establishment-of-white-nose-syndrome-explain-mechanisms-of-host-persistence
#19
Winifred F Frick, Tina L Cheng, Kate E Langwig, Joseph R Hoyt, Amanda F Janicki, Katy L Parise, Jeffrey T Foster, A Marm Kilpatrick
Disease dynamics during pathogen invasion and establishment determine the impacts of disease on host populations and determine the mechanisms of host persistence. Temporal progression of prevalence and infection intensity illustrate whether tolerance, resistance, reduced transmission, or demographic compensation allow initially declining populations to persist. We measured infection dynamics of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans that causes white-nose syndrome in bats by estimating pathogen prevalence and load in seven bat species at 167 hibernacula over a decade as the pathogen invaded, became established, and some host populations stabilized...
December 19, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991895/pre-existing-invasive-fungal-infection-is-not-a-contraindication-for-allogeneic-hsct-for-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-a-cibmtr-study
#20
R T Maziarz, R Brazauskas, M Chen, A A McLeod, R Martino, J R Wingard, M Aljurf, M Battiwalla, C C Dvorak, B Geroge, E C Guinan, G A Hale, H M Lazarus, J-W Lee, J L Liesveld, M Ramanathan, V Reddy, B N Savani, F O Smith, L Strasfeld, R A Taplitz, C Ustun, M J Boeckh, J Gea-Banacloche, C A Lindemans, J J Auletta, M L Riches
Patients with prior invasive fungal infection (IFI) increasingly proceed to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT). However, little is known about the impact of prior IFI on survival. Patients with pre-transplant IFI (cases; n=825) were compared with controls (n=10247). A subset analysis assessed outcomes in leukemia patients pre- and post 2001. Cases were older with lower performance status (KPS), more advanced disease, higher likelihood of AML and having received cord blood, reduced intensity conditioning, mold-active fungal prophylaxis and more recently transplanted...
December 19, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
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