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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527659/curcumin-administration-suppress-acetylcholinesterase-gene-expression-in-cadmium-treated-rats
#1
Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Ganiyu Oboh, Adewale Oluwaseun Fadaka, Babawale Peter Olatunji, Seun Akomolafe
Curcumin, the main polyphenolic component of turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes have been reported to exert anticholinesterase potential with limited information on how they regulate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene expression. Hence, this study sought to evaluate the effect of curcumin on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and their mRNA gene expression level in cadmium (Cd)-treated rats. Furthermore, in vitro effect of different concentrations of curcumin (1-5μg/mL) on rat cerebral cortex AChE activity was assessed...
May 17, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527218/the-mechanisms-of-action-of-curcumin-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Mengxi Tang, Changiz Taghibiglou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly. As the prevalence of AD rises in the 21st century, there is an urgent need for the development of effective pharmacotherapies. Currently, drug treatments target the symptoms of the disease and do not modify or halt the disease progress. Thus, natural compounds have been investigated for their ability to treat AD. This review examines the efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric herb, to treat AD. We summarize the in vivo and in vitro research describing the mechanisms of action in which curcumin modifies AD pathology: curcumin inhibits the formation and promotes the disaggregation of amyloid-β plaques, attenuates the hyperphosphorylation of tau and enhances its clearance, binds copper, lowers cholesterol, modifies microglial activity, inhibits acetylcholinesterase, mediates the insulin signaling pathway, and is an antioxidant...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513174/structure-and-activity-relationship-of-curcumin-role-of-methoxy-group-in-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-colitis-effects-of-curcumin
#3
Haixia Yang, Zheyuan Du, Weicang Wang, Mingyue Song, Katherine Z Sanidad, Elvira Sukamtoh, Jennifer Zheng, Li Tian, Hang Xiao, Zhenhua Liu, Guodong Zhang
Curcumin, a dietary compound from Turmeric, has beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. While most previous studies have focused on structure-activity relationship of the thiol-reactive α, β-unsaturated carbonyl groups of curcumin, little is known about the roles of methoxy groups in biological activities of curcumin. Here we synthesized a series of curcumin analogs with different substitution groups (R = H-, Br-, Cl-, F-, NO2-, CH3-, and OH-) to replace the methoxy group, and evaluated their biological effects in vitro and in vivo...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506084/turmeric-old-spice-new-spice
#4
C J Cooksey
The history of chemical investigations into the yellow components of turmeric can be traced from 1815. Although the major yellow component of turmeric, curcumin, often is represented as a 1,3-diketone in the solid state and in nonaqueous solution, it exists in the enol form. The struggle to identify the chemical structure of curcumin continued for nearly a century and was complicated by the difficult purification of curcumin and by the presence of two additional yellow components. Food remains the main use for turmeric (old spice); its use as a dye has diminished since the 19th century, but it may have pharmaceutical uses (new spice)...
May 16, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504250/curcumin-enhances-vascular-contractility-via-induction-of-myocardin-in-mouse-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Shao-Wei Sun, Wen-Juan Tong, Zi-Fen Guo, Qin-Hui Tuo, Xiao-Yong Lei, Cai-Ping Zhang, Duan-Fang Liao, Jian-Xiong Chen
A variety of cardiovascular diseases is accompanied by the loss of vascular contractility. This study sought to investigate the effects of curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound present in turmeric, on mouse vascular contractility and the underlying mechanisms. After mice were administered curcumin (100 mg·kg-1·d-1, ig) for 6 weeks, the contractile responses of the thoracic aorta to KCl and phenylephrine were significantly enhanced compared with the control group. Furthermore, the contractility of vascular smooth muscle (SM) was significantly enhanced after incubation in curcumin (25 μmol/L) for 4 days, which was accompanied by upregulated expression of SM marker contractile proteins SM22α and SM α-actin...
May 1, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503046/reflections-about-osteoarthritis-and-curcuma-longa
#6
REVIEW
Marina Cristina Akuri, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Raíssa Meira Val, Elen Landgraf Guiguer
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic inflammatory degenerative process that affects joints such as the hands, hips, shoulders, feet, spine, and especially knees in millions of people worldwide. Some authors have shown that Curcuma longa components may exhibit benefic effects in the treatment of degenerative diseases as OA. This plant belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and it is popularly known as turmeric or saffron. This review intended to perform a retrospective search to identify studies involving humans and animal models...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500405/est-ssr-marker-revealed-effective-over-biochemical-and-morphological-scepticism-towards-identification-of-specific-turmeric-curcuma-longa-l-cultivars
#7
Ambika Sahoo, Sudipta Jena, Basudeba Kar, Suprava Sahoo, Asit Ray, Subhashree Singh, Raj Kumar Joshi, Laxmikanta Acharya, Sanghamitra Nayak
Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., family Zingiberaceae) is one of the most economically important plants for its use in food, medicine, and cosmetic industries. Cultivar identification is a major constraint in turmeric, owing to high degree of morphological similarity that in turn, affects its commercialization. The present study addresses this constraint, using EST-SSR marker based, molecular identification of 8 elite cultivars and 88 accessions in turmeric. Fifty EST-SSR primers were screened against eight cultivars of turmeric (Suroma, Roma, Lakadong, Megha, Alleppey Supreme, Kedaram, Pratibha, and Suvarna); out of which 11 primers showed polymorphic banding pattern...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496987/effect-of-health-foods-on-cytochrome-p450-mediated-drug-metabolism
#8
Takamitsu Sasaki, Yu Sato, Takeshi Kumagai, Kouichi Yoshinari, Kiyoshi Nagata
BACKGROUND: Health foods have been widely sold and consumed in Japan. There has been an increase in reports of adverse effects in association with the expanding health food market. While health food-drug interactions are a particular concern from the viewpoint of safe and effective use of health foods, information regarding such interactions is limited owing to the lack of established methods to assess the effects of health food products on drug metabolism. We therefore developed cells that mimicked the activities of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, which strongly contribute to drug metabolism in human hepatocytes, and established a system to assess the inhibitory activity of health foods toward P450-mediated metabolism...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490968/inhibitory-activity-of-different-medicinal-extracts-from-thuja-leaves-ginger-roots-harmal-seeds-and-turmeric-rhizomes-against-fig-leaf-mottle-associated-virus-1-flmav-1-infecting-figs-in-mecca-region
#9
Amal Y Aldhebiani, Esam K F Elbeshehy, Areej A Baeshen, Toufic Elbeaino
Fig leaf mottle-associated virus-1 (FLMaV-1) is a closterovirus newly identified in fig trees, in the Mecca region, suffering from mosaic disease symptoms and apparently is compromising the fig plantation in the country. In the present study, we demonstrated the efficiency of two in vivo experiments including pre and post treatments using Thuja leaf, ginger roots, Harmal seeds and turmeric rhizome extracts on symptoms expression of rooted cuttings infected with FLMaV-1- and their impact on virus multiplication...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485496/curcumin-a-naturally-occurring-modulator-of-adipokines-in-diabetes
#10
Jafar Hajavi, Amir Abbas Momtazi, Thomas P Johnston, Maciej Banach, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin, the bioactive component of turmeric, has been used for the treatment of several diseases including diabetes and its complications. Curcumin has been shown to exert pleiotropic effects by modulating different signaling molecules, including transcription factors, chemokines, cytokines, and adipokines. Disturbed regulation of adipokines, which include adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin, are implicated in the development of insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Here, we review the findings of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on the modulating effects that curcumin treatment exerts on adipokines...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465123/curcumin-alters-the-cytoskeleton-and-microtubule-organization-on-trophozoites-of-giardia-lamblia
#11
Filiberto Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Lissethe Palomo-Ligas, José Manuel Hernández-Hernández, Armando Pérez-Rangel, Rodrigo Aguayo-Ortiz, Alicia Hernández-Campos, Rafael Castillo, Sirenia González-Pozos, Rafael Cortés-Zárate, Mario Alberto Ramírez-Herrera, María Luisa Mendoza-Magaña, Araceli Castillo-Romero
Giardia lamblia is a worldwide protozoan responsible for a significant number of intestinal infections. There are several drugs for the treatment of giardiasis, but they often cause side effects. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has antigiardial activity; however, the molecular target and mechanism of antiproliferative activity are not clear. The effects of curcumin on cellular microtubules have been widely investigated. Since tubulin is the most abundant protein in the cytoskeleton of Giardia, to elucidate whether curcumin has activity against the microtubules of this parasite, we treated trophozoites with curcumin and the cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy...
April 30, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463765/bright-carbon-dots-as-fluorescence-sensing-agents-for-bacteria-and-curcumin
#12
Mirza Muhammad Fahad Baig, Yu-Chie Chen
Carbon dots (C-dots) are fluorescent nanomaterials that possess good photostability and low toxicity. They have been used as sensing probes and bioimaging agents for a variety of biological species. Numerous methods are available to generate C-dots. Nevertheless, simple and straightforward synthesis methods must be explored for the synthesis of C-dots from inexpensive, natural sources. In this study, we developed a simple method to generate C-dots from inexpensive chicken egg whites through a one-step heating reaction...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449595/pharmaceutical-perspectives-of-spices-and-condiments-as-alternative-antimicrobial-remedy
#13
Savita P D'Souza, Suvarna V Chavannavar, B Kanchanashri, S B Niveditha
Medicinal values of spices and condiments are being revived by biologists through in vitro and in vivo trials providing evidence for its antimicrobial activities. The essential oils and extracts of spices like black pepper, cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg contain active compounds like piperine, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and lignans. Similarly, condiments like coriander, black cumin, turmeric, garlic, and ginger are recognized for constituents like linalool, thymoquinones, curcumin, allicin, and geranial respectively...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448872/curcumin-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-d-galactosamine-induced-acute-liver-injury-by-activating-nrf2-nuclear-translocation-and-inhibiting-nf-kb-activation
#14
Yi-Lian Xie, Jin-Guo Chu, Xiao-Min Jian, Jin-Zhong Dong, Li-Ping Wang, Guo-Xiang Li, Nai-Bin Yang
Curcumin, a polyphenol in curry spice isolated from the rhizome of turmeric, has been reported to possess versatile biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antifibrotic, and anticancer activities. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of curcumin was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in rats. Experimental ALI was induced with an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of sterile 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution containing 8μg LPS and 800mg/kg d-GalN...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443702/turmeric-supplementation-improves-serum-glucose-indices-and-leptin-levels-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases
#15
Roya Navekar, Maryam Rafraf, Aida Ghaffari, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Manouchehr Khoshbaten
OBJECTIVE: Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440093/turmeric-curcuma-longa-l-extract-may-prevent-the-deterioration-of-spatial-memory-and-the-deficit-of-estimated-total-number-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-of-trimethyltin-exposed-rats
#16
Sapto Yuliani, Mustofa, Ginus Partadiredja
CONTEXT: Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432760/determination-of-ochratoxin-a-in-black-and-white-pepper-nutmeg-spice-mix-cocoa-and-drinking-chocolate-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-fluorescence-detection-collaborative-study
#17
Elena Cubero-Leon, Katrien Bouten, Hamide Senyuva, Joerg Stroka
A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector...
April 22, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430129/curcumin-inhibits-apoptosis-of-chondrocytes-through-activation-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-induced-autophagy
#18
Xiaodong Li, Kai Feng, Jiang Li, Degang Yu, Qiming Fan, Tingting Tang, Xiao Yao, Xiaoqing Wang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an inflammatory disease of load-bearing synovial joints that is currently treated with drugs that exhibit numerous side effects and are only temporarily effective in treating pain, the main symptom of the disease. Consequently, there is an acute need for novel, safe, and more effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoarthritis and related arthritic diseases. Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid and the most active component in turmeric, is a biologically active phytochemical...
April 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429336/effects-of-a-curcumin-based-supplementation-in-asymptomatic-subjects-with-low-bone-density-a-preliminary-24-week-supplement-study
#19
A Riva, S Togni, L Giacomelli, F Franceschi, R Eggenhoffner, B Feragalli, G Belcaro, M Cacchio, H Shu, M Dugall
OBJECTIVE: Osteopenia is a chronic bone condition characterized by decreased calcification, density, or bone mass that, if untreated, can lead to osteoporosis and bone fractures. Although its increasing prevalence, nowadays osteopenia is not adequately prevented and managed. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy, in term of changes in bone density, and safety of an oral formulation based on turmeric phytosome (Meriva®), in subjects suffering from low bone density. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 57 otherwise healthy subjects with low bone density were enrolled in this pilot, supplement study...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417091/biological-activities-of-curcuminoids-other-biomolecules-from-turmeric-and-their-derivatives-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Augustine Amalraj, Anitha Pius, Sreerag Gopi, Sreeraj Gopi
In recent years, several drugs have been developed deriving from traditional products and current drug research is actively investigating the possible therapeutic roles of many Ayruvedic and Traditional Indian medicinal therapies. Among those being investigated is Turmeric. Its most important active ingredient is curcuminoids. Curcuminoids are phenolic compounds commonly used as a spice, pigment and additive also utilized as a therapeutic agent used in several foods. Comprehensive research over the last century has revealed several important functions of curcuminoids...
April 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
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