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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656393/cancer-drugs-and-bugs-bacteriotherapy-on-the-rise
#1
EDITORIAL
Alexandra Adamczyk, Astrid M Westendorf
Discussion on how the gut microbiota orchestrates immune responses during cancer therapies and how targeting the microbiota can prevent chemotherapy-induced toxicity.
April 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#2
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653396/gut-microbiota-recovery-and-immune-response-in-ampicillin-treated-mice
#3
Josué L Castro-Mejía, Maja Jakesevic, Niels F Fabricius, Łukasz Krych, Dennis S Nielsen, Witold Kot, Katja M Bendtsen, Finn K Vogensen, Camilla H F Hansen, Axel K Hansen
Ampicillin is applied in rodents to induce a temporarily depleted microbiota. To elucidate whether bacteria are just temporarily suppressed or fully eliminated, and how this affects the re-colonisation process, we compared the microbiota and immune system in conventionally housed untreated mice with newly weaned ampicillin treated mice subsequently housed in either a microbe containing environment or in an isolator with only host associated suppressed bacteria to recolonize the gut. Two weeks ampicillin treatment induced a seemingly germ-free state with no bacterial DNA to reveal...
March 27, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653359/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-the-pathology-and-prevention-of-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Misael Uribe, Norberto C Chávez-Tapia, Natalia Nuño-Lámbarri
Several microorganisms belonging to the intestinal microbiota act in an ecosystem responsible for maintaining the homeostasis and vital functions of human beings. From birth to old age the diversity of the intestinal microbiota may change due to environmental factors such as nutrition, immunity, diseases or the use of antibiotics leading to dysbiosis. Improvement in microbiota diversity can be achieved by modifying related risk factors through changes in lifestyle and a healthy diet. Besides, the addition of probiotics, prebiotics or the combination of both (symbiotics), can result in the improvement of the intestinal permeability, inflammatory pathways and the immune system...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#5
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652797/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-and-diet-on-uremic-retention-solutes-production-in-the-context-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage
Uremic retention solutes (URS) are associated with cardiovascular complications and poor survival in chronic kidney disease. The better understanding of the origin of a certain number of these toxins enabled the development of new strategies to reduce their production. URS can be classified according to their origins (i.e., host, microbial, or exogenous). The discovery of the fundamental role that the intestinal microbiota plays in the production of many URS has reinstated nutrition at the heart of therapeutics to prevent the accumulation of URS and their deleterious effects...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652573/quantitative-assessment-of-shotgun-metagenomics-and-16s-rdna-amplicon-sequencing-in-the-study-of-human-gut-microbiome
#7
Ilaria Laudadio, Valerio Fulci, Francesca Palone, Laura Stronati, Salvatore Cucchiara, Claudia Carissimi
The analysis of microbiota composition in humans, animals, and built environments is important because of emerging roles and applications in a broad range of disease and ecological phenotypes. Next Generation Sequencing is the current method of choice to characterize microbial community composition. The taxonomic profile of a microbial community can be obtained either by shotgun analysis of random DNA fragments or through 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. It has been previously shown that the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing approach yields quantitatively and qualitatively different results compared to shotgun metagenomics when the two techniques are used to assess microbial community composition on the same samples...
April 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651835/use-of-a-probiotic-mixture-containing-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-bb12-and-enterococcus-faecium-l3-in-atopic-children
#8
Francesco Di Pierro, Isabella Basile, Maria L Danza, Leo Venturelli, Raffaele Contini, Paolo Risso, Maria Colombo
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of the human gut microbiota in childhood, mainly due to low gut biodiversity and a low bifidobacterial load, has been suggested as a risk factor for atopy. Administration of Enterococcus faecium L3 in infants has been shown to increase the gut bifidobacterial count. The aim was to verify if a mixture of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 and E. faecium L3 could reduce the signs, symptoms and need for drugs in atopic children. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed, and compared with controls, clinical outcomes following use of BB12 and L3 strains when administered 3 months before or during the development of signs and symptoms of atopy...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651674/intestinal-microbiota-and-kidney-diseases
#9
Ao Xie, Jie Sheng, Feng Zheng
Kidney diseases are common and the incidence rate is increasing. Gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune regulation of the host. Genetic, alimentary and environmental disease factors may change gut flora and increase opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria, contributing to immune or non-immune mediated kidney diseases including IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy. Additionally, bacterial metabolites may be a source of uremic toxins. Thus, identififi cation of diversity, composition, and metabolic and immunologic features of gut bacteria in chronic kidney diseases may help understand pathogenetic mechanism and develop therapy for diseases...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651635/effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-trimethylamine-n-oxide-plasma-levels-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-pilot-study
#10
Natália A Borges, P Stenvinkel, P Bergman, A R Qureshi, B Lindholm, C Moraes, M B Stockler-Pinto, D Mafra
Components present in the diet, L-carnitine, choline, and betaine are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce metabolites such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) that appear to promote cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation for 3 months on plasma TMAO levels in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 21 patients [54.8 ± 10.4 years, nine men, BMI 26...
April 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651541/monovalerin-and-trivalerin-increase-brain-acetic-acid-decrease-liver-succinic-acid-and-alter-gut-microbiota-in-rats-fed-high-fat-diets
#11
Thao Duy Nguyen, Olena Prykhodko, Frida Fåk Hållenius, Margareta Nyman
PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are known for their anti-inflammatory properties and may also prevent against the development of metabolic diseases. This study investigated possible effects of two valeric acid esters, monovalerin (MV) and trivalerin (TV) in rats fed high-fat diets. METHODS: Four groups of rats were given a low-fat diet (LF) or a high-fat control diet (HFC) with or without supplementation of MV or TV (5 g/kg) for 3 weeks (n = 7/group)...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650970/crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-sirtuin-3-in-colonic-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis
#12
Yong Zhang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Chao Kang, He-Dong Lang, Meng-Ting Chen, Suo-Cheng Hui, Bin Wang, Man-Tian Mi
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease involving a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is expressed at a low level in cancer tissues of CRC, but it is unclear how Sirt3 modulates colonic tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that gut microbiota play a central role in the resistance to CRC tumor formation in wild-type (WT) mice through APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli)-mutant mouse microbiota transfer via Wnt signaling. We also found that Sirt3-deficient mice were hypersusceptible to colonic inflammation and tumor development through altered intestinal integrity and p38 signaling, respectively...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650468/exploring-bacteroidetes-metabolic-key-points-and-immunological-tricks-of-our-gut-commensals
#13
REVIEW
Giulia Gibiino, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Franco Scaldaferri, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Cecilia Binda, Antonio Gasbarrini
Bacteroidetes are the largest phylum of Gram-negative bacteria inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract and are considered the leading players of the healthy state and sophisticated homeostasis safeguarded by gut microbiota. Furthermore, specific roles have been attributed to some Bacteroidetes genera in the development of immune dysregulation, systemic disease such as metabolic syndrome and also neurological disorders. Glycoproteins secretion, short fatty acids imbalance, toxins production and molecular mimicry are only a part of the functions exerted by these commensals interacting with the host...
March 20, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649441/small-intestine-microbiota-regulate-host-digestive-and-absorptive-adaptive-responses-to-dietary-lipids
#14
Kristina Martinez-Guryn, Nathaniel Hubert, Katya Frazier, Saskia Urlass, Mark W Musch, Patricia Ojeda, Joseph F Pierre, Jun Miyoshi, Timothy J Sontag, Candace M Cham, Catherine A Reardon, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel microbes are essential for host adaptation to dietary lipid changes by regulating gut epithelial processes involved in their digestion and absorption...
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649435/food-for-gut-microbiota-fuels-immune-reconstitution-after-bmt
#15
Tiffany R Simms-Waldrip, Andrew Y Koh
The host factors that modulate hematopoietic reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation are poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Staffas et al. (2018) demonstrate that gut microbiota play a critical role in immune reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation, partly through dietary energy harvest and uptake.
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649123/phytochemical-properties-and-nutrigenomic-implications-of-yacon-as-a-potential-source-of-prebiotic-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Yang Cao, Zheng Feei Ma, Hongxia Zhang, Yifan Jin, Yihe Zhang, Frank Hayford
The human gut is densely populated with diverse microbial communities that are essential to health. Prebiotics and fiber have been shown to possess the ability to modulate the gut microbiota. One of the plants being considered as a potential source of prebiotic is yacon. Yacon is an underutilized plant consumed as a traditional root-based fruit in South America. Yacon mainly contains fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin. Therefore, it has bifidogenic benefits for gut health, because FOS are not easily broken down by digestive enzymes...
April 12, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648971/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-mixture-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-sodium-butyrate-in-atopic-dermatitis-murine-model
#17
Jeong A Kim, Sung-Hak Kim, In Sung Kim, Da Yoon Yu, Sung Chan Kim, Seung Ho Lee, Sang Suk Lee, Cheol-Heui Yun, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. Recently, probiotics have been shown to suppress allergic symptoms through immunomodulatory responses. In the present study, combinatorial effects on allergic symptoms were identified in BALB/c mice fed with a mixture of four species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and sodium butyrate. Following sensitization with whey protein, the mice were challenged and divided into two groups: (1) mice administered with phosphate-buffered saline as a control and (2) mice administered with the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644870/a-novel-polyphenolic-prebiotic-and-probiotic-formulation-have-synergistic-effects-on-the-gut-microbiota-influencing-drosophila-melanogaster-physiology
#18
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
The gut microbiota is a vast community of synergistic bacterial species providing health benefits to the host. Imbalances in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to diet, antibiotic use, age and stress contribute to disease development including diabetes, obesity, colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, inflammaging and neurodegeneration. Fortunately, a probiotic regime with a diet rich in prebiotics may reverse dysbiosis promoting health and wellness in age. The current study designs, optimizes and tests a novel probiotic and synbiotic formulation consisting of three metabolically active probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacteria infantis together with a novel polyphenol-rich prebiotic, Triphala...
April 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644622/microbial-metabolites-short-chain-fatty-acids-restrain-tissue-bacterial-load-chronic-inflammation-and-associated-cancer-in-the-colon-of-mice
#19
Myunghoo Kim, Leon Friesen, Jeongho Park, Hyungjin M Kim, Chang H Kim
The intestinal immune system is regulated by microbes and their metabolites. The roles of gut microbial metabolites in regulating intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis are incompletely understood. We systematically studied the roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their receptors (GPR43 or GPR41) in regulating tissue bacterial load, acute versus chronic inflammatory responses, and intestinal cancer development. SCFA receptor-, particularly GPR43-, deficient mice were defective in mounting appropriate acute immune responses to promote barrier immunity, and developed uncontrolled chronic inflammatory responses following epithelial damage...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644395/metabolic-phenotyping-of-malnutrition-during-the-first-1000-days-of-life
#20
REVIEW
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Jonathan R Swann
Nutritional restrictions during the first 1000 days of life can impair or delay the physical and cognitive development of the individual and have long-term consequences for their health. Metabolic phenotyping (metabolomics/metabonomics) simultaneously measures a diverse range of low molecular weight metabolites in a sample providing a comprehensive assessment of the individual's biochemical status. There are a growing number of studies applying such approaches to characterize the metabolic derangements induced by various forms of early-life malnutrition...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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