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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245089/metabolic-analysis-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins-with-gut-microbiota-mediated-biotransformation-by-hplc-dad-q-tof-ms-ms
#1
Man-Yun Chen, Li Shao, Wei Zhang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei-Hua Huang, Chun-Su Yuan
Saponins such as notoginsenosides and ginsenosides from Panax notoginseng are responsible for the herb's clinical applications. Unfortunately, there is poor oral bioavailability of saponins. However, gut microbiota can transform saponins to yield the metabolites that are potential bioactive substances. In this study, we aimed to characterize the metabolic profiles of P. notoginseng saponins (PNS) by incubating them with human gut microbiota. The notoginsenosides, ginsenosides and related metabolites were separated and identified using a highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection/quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244718/prebiotic-dietary-fiber-and-gut-health-comparing-the-in-vitro-fermentations-of-beta-glucan-inulin-and-xylooligosaccharide
#2
Justin L Carlson, Jennifer M Erickson, Julie M Hess, Trevor J Gould, Joanne L Slavin
Prebiotic dietary fiber supplements are commonly consumed to help meet fiber recommendations and improve gastrointestinal health by stimulating beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), molecules beneficial to host health. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of five commonly consumed fibers using an in vitro fermentation system measuring changes in fecal microbiota, total gas production and formation of common SCFAs...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244059/the-mediterranean-diet-metabolic-and-molecular-mechanisms
#3
Valeria Tosti, Beatrice Bertozzi, Luigi Fontana
Consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in minimally processed plant foods has been associated with a reduced risk of developing multiple chronic diseases and increased life expectancy. Data from several randomized clinic trials have demonstrated a beneficial effect in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation and breast cancer. The exact mechanism by which an increased adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet exerts its favorable effects is not known...
December 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243233/finding-the-needle-in-the-haystack-systematic-identification-of-psychobiotics
#4
REVIEW
Aisling Bambury, Kiran Sandhu, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis is increasingly viewed as a novel paradigm in neuroscience with the capacity to generate innovative therapies for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Psychobiotics, defined as live bacteria which when ingested in adequate amounts confer mental health benefits, are increasingly of interest, as pre-clinical trials continue to show promising results. Particularly in stress related, anxiety and depressive disorders, there is potential for psychobiotics to deliver new therapies. The question of which microbes may prove to be the most promising psychobiotic in delivering such therapies at clinical level is of great importance...
December 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242876/correction-dietary-fucoidan-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-mice-by-increasing-the-abundance-of-lactobacillus-and-ruminococcaceae
#5
Qingsen Shang, Xindi Shan, Chao Cai, Jiejie Hao, Guoyun Li, Guangli Yu
Correction for 'Dietary fucoidan modulates the gut microbiota in mice by increasing the abundance of Lactobacillus and Ruminococcaceae' by Qingsen Shang et al., Food Funct., 2016, 7, 3224-3232.
December 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242837/the-human-gut-microbial-metabolome-modulates-fungal-growth-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway
#6
Carlos García, Faiza Tebbji, Michelle Daigneault, Ning-Ning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Adnane Sellam
Candida albicans is well known as a major human fungal pathogen, but it is also a permanent resident of healthy gastrointestinal tracts. Recent studies have shown that the human gut microbial metabolome represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules with a significant degree of chemical diversity. Some of these bioactive molecules may have useful antivirulence activities. For instance, intestinal bacterial species belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family were found to secrete molecules that attenuate Salmonella pathogenicity and repress the expression of virulence genes...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241587/associations-between-infant-fungal-and-bacterial-dysbiosis-and-childhood-atopic-wheeze-in-a-nonindustrialized-setting
#7
Marie-Claire Arrieta, Andrea Arévalo, Leah Stiemsma, Pedro Dimitriu, Martha E Chico, Sofia Loor, Maritza Vaca, Rozlyn C T Boutin, Evan Morien, Mingliang Jin, Stuart E Turvey, Jens Walter, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Philip J Cooper, Brett Finlay
BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Recently, we identified a critical window early in the life of both mice and Canadian infants during which gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) affect asthma development. Given geographic differences in human gut microbiota worldwide, we studied the effects of gut microbial dysbiosis on atopic wheeze in a population living in a distinct developing world environment. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether microbial alterations in early infancy are associated with the development of atopic wheeze in a nonindustrialized setting...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241453/bile-acid-is-a-significant-host-factor-shaping-the-gut-microbiome-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#8
Xiaojiao Zheng, Fengjie Huang, Aihua Zhao, Sha Lei, Yunjing Zhang, Guoxiang Xie, Tianlu Chen, Chun Qu, Cynthia Rajani, Bing Dong, Defa Li, Wei Jia
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria are known to regulate bile acid (BA) homeostasis via intestinal biotransformation of BAs and stimulation of the expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 through intestinal nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). On the other hand, BAs directly regulate the gut microbiota with their strong antimicrobial activities. It remains unclear, however, how mammalian BAs cross-talk with gut microbiome and shape microbial composition in a dynamic and interactive way. RESULTS: We quantitatively profiled small molecule metabolites derived from host-microbial co-metabolism in mice, demonstrating that BAs were the most significant factor correlated with microbial alterations among all types of endogenous metabolites...
December 14, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238752/colonic-butyrate-producing-communities-in-humans-an-overview-using-omics-data
#9
Marius Vital, André Karch, Dietmar H Pieper
Given the key role of butyrate for host health, understanding the ecology of intestinal butyrate-producing communities is a top priority for gut microbiota research. To this end, we performed a pooled analysis on 2,387 metagenomic/transcriptomic samples from 15 publicly available data sets that originated from three continents and encompassed eight diseases as well as specific interventions. For analyses, a gene catalogue was constructed from gene-targeted assemblies of all genes from butyrate synthesis pathways of all samples and from an updated reference database derived from genome screenings...
November 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237568/radiomicrobiomics-advancing-along-the-gut-brain-axis-through-big-data-analysis
#10
Silvia De Santis, David Moratal, Santiago Canals
The gut-brain axis communicates the brain with the gut microbiota, a bidirectional conduit that has received increasing attention in recent years thanks to its emerging role in brain development and function. Alterations in microbiota composition have been associated to neurological and psychiatric disorders, and several studies suggest that the immune system plays a fundamental role in the gut-brain interaction. Recent advances in brain imaging and in microbiome sequencing have generated a large amount of information, yet the data from both these sources needs to be combined efficiently to extract biological meaning, and any diagnostic and/or prognostic benefit from these tools...
December 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236499/mutual-interaction-of-phenolic-compounds-and-microbiota-metabolism-of-complex-phenolic-apigenin-c-and-kaempferol-o-derivatives-by-human-fecal-samples
#11
Maren Vollmer, Selma Esders, Freda M Farquharson, Susanne Neugart, Sylvia Duncan, Monika Schreiner, Petra Louis, Ronald Maul, Sascha Rohn
Human colonic bacteria have an important impact on the biotransformation of flavonoid glycosides and their conversion can result in the formation of bioactive compounds. However, information about the microbial conversion of complex glycosylated flavonoids and the impact on the gut microbiota are still limited. In this study, the ability of different donors' human intestinal microbiota to convert selected flavonoid O- and C-glycosides was evaluated by performing in vitro fermentations. The results show that all flavonoid glycosides were metabolized via their aglycones yielding smaller substances...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236389/fecal-short-chain-fatty-acids-at-different-time-points-after-ceftriaxone-administration-in-rats
#12
Yu V Holota, O O Holubenko, A M Ostapchuk, T M Serhiychuk, L V Zakordonets, G M Tolstanova
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are major products of the microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon. Recent studies suggest that these products of microbial metabolism in the gut act as signaling molecules, influence host energy homeostasis and play major immunological roles. In the present study, defined the long-term effects of ceftriaxone administration on the fecal SCFAs concentration in Wistar rats. Ceftriaxone (300 mg/kg, i.m.) was administered daily for 14 days. Rats were euthanized in 1, 15 and 56 days after ceftriaxone withdrawal...
January 2017: Ukrainian Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236119/estimation-of-the-bioaccessibility-and-bioavailability-of-fe-mn-cu-and-zn-in-chinese-vegetables-using-the-in-vitro-digestion-caco-2-cell-model-the-influence-of-gut-microbiota
#13
Xiaolin Cai, Xiaochen Chen, Naiyi Yin, Huili Du, Guoxin Sun, Lihong Wang, Yudong Xu, Yuqing Chen, Yanshan Cui
The influence of the human gut microbiota on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetables has barely been studied. An in vitro digestion model combining the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was applied. Results showed that the gut microbiota increased the bioaccessibility of iron (Fe) in ten test vegetables by 1.3-1.8 times, but reduced the bioaccessibility of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in vegetables in the colon phase by 3...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235578/are-we-any-closer-to-screening-for-colorectal-cancer-using-microbial-markers-a-critical-review
#14
Lubomir Stary, Kristyna Mezerova, Pavel Skalicky, Pavel Zboril, Vladislav Raclavsky
The role of gut microbiota in the development of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is supported by a number of studies, however, the conclusiveness of published metagenomic studies is questioned by technical pitfalls and limited by small cohort sizes. In this review, we evaluate the current knowledge critically and outline practical solutions. We also list candidate CRC risk markers that are - in our opinion - well supported by available data and thus deserve clinical validation. Last but not least, we summarise available knowledge useful for improving care for patients immediately...
December 13, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234392/1h-nmr-based-metabonomic-study-of-functional-dyspepsia-in-stressed-rats-treated-with-chinese-medicine-weikangning
#15
Yu Guo, Zhongfeng Li, Xinfeng Liu, Xiaolan Su, Yijie Li, Jiajie Zhu, Yilin Song, Ping Zhang, Jiande D Z Chen, Ruhan Wei, Jianqin Yang, Wei Wei
1H NMR-based metabolic profiling combined with multivariate data analysis was used to explore the metabolic phenotype of functional dyspepsia (FD) in stressed rats and evaluate the intervention effects of the Chinese medicine Weikangning (WKN). After a 7-day period of model establishment, a 14-day drug administration schedule was conducted in a WKN-treated group of rats, with the model and normal control groups serving as negative controls. Based on 1H NMR spectra of urine and serum from rats, PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA were performed to identify changing metabolic profiles...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234315/food-associated-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-yeasts-inhibit-the-genotoxic-effect-of-4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide
#16
Roberta Prete, Rosanna Tofalo, Ermanno Federici, Aurora Ciarrocchi, Giovanni Cenci, Aldo Corsetti
Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, representing the prevailing microbiota associated with different foods generally consumed without any cooking, were identified and characterized in vitro for some functional properties, such as acid-bile tolerance and antigenotoxic activity. In particular, 22 Lactobacillus plantarum strains and 14 yeasts were studied. The gastro-intestinal tract tolerance of all the strains was determined by exposing washed cell suspensions at 37°C to a simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0), containing pepsin (0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234140/altered-gut-microbiota-profiles-in-sows-and-neonatal-piglets-associated-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-infection
#17
Deping Song, Qi Peng, Yanjun Chen, Xinrong Zhou, Fanfan Zhang, Anqi Li, Dongyan Huang, Qiong Wu, Yu Ye, Houjun He, Leyi Wang, Yuxin Tang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a devastating cause of diarrhea in pigs worldwide. Most of studies have focused on molecular and pathogenic characterization of PEDV, whereas there were limited studies in understanding the role of gut microbiota (GM) in viral-associated diarrhea. Here, using the Illumina MiSeq platform, we examined and compared the impact of PEDV infection on the GM of sows and their piglets less than 10 days old. Our results showed that PEDV caused alternations in the structure and abundance of GM from levels of phylum to genus, and even species...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233893/diversification-of-type-vi-secretion-system-toxins-reveals-ancient-antagonism-among-bee-gut-microbes
#18
Margaret I Steele, Waldan K Kwong, Marvin Whiteley, Nancy A Moran
Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233686/exercise-has-the-guts-how-physical-activity-may-positively-modulate-gut-microbiota-in-chronic-and-immune-based-diseases
#19
Roberto Codella, Livio Luzi, Ileana Terruzzi
Limited animal and human research findings suggests that exercise might have a beneficial role for health gut. Cardiorespiratory fitness has been correlates with health-associated gut parameters such as taxonomic diversity and richness. Physical exercise may augment intestinal microbial diversity through several mechanisms INCLUDING PROMOTION OF AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STATE. Disease-associated microbial functions WERE linked to distinct taxa in previous studies of familial type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). An integrated multi-approach in the study of T1D, including physical exercise, is advocated...
November 28, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233677/alzheimer-s-disease-and-gut-microbiota-modifications-the-long-way-between-preclinical-studies-and-clinical-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Cesare Mancuso, Rosaria Santangelo
Recent studies have suggested the role of an infectious component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of this, research has focused on some bacteria constituting the intestinal microbial flora which can produce amyloid. Once generated, the latter hypothetically triggers a systemic inflammatory response which compromises complex brain functions, such as learning and memory. Clinical studies have shown that, in cognitively impaired elderly patients with brain amyloidosis, there is lower abundance in the gut of E...
December 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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