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Christopher Strouse, Ying Zhang, Mei-Jie Zhang, Alyssa DiGilio, Marcelo Pasquini, Mary M Horowitz, Stephanie Lee, Vincent Ho, Muthalagu Ramanathan, Wichai Chinratanalab, Alison Loren, Linda J Burns, Andrew Artz, Kathleen F Villa, Wael Saber
BACKGROUND: A risk score identifying patients at high risk for veno-occlusive disease (VOD) may aid efforts to study preventive strategies for this uncommon complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). METHODS: Patients receiving a first allogeneic HCT between 2008-2013 as reported to the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research (N=13,097) were randomly divided into training and validation sets. Independent prognostic factors for development of VOD by day+100 post HCT were identified with a multivariate logistic regression model...
June 18, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Weiguang Lian, Hongguang Lian, Qian Li, Hu An, Shufeng Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Spiders and spider venoms have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various ailments for more than 1,000 years. For instance, several large spiders have been utilized by the Li People, who mainly live in Hainan Island of China, in their own unique traditional Chinese medicine therapy. Recent studies have indicated that spider venoms may be an important source of bioactive compounds for anti-tumor treatments. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these activities are not yet completely understood...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Amani Al-Khaifi, Mats Rudling, Bo Angelin
Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated through suppression of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase via FXR activation in hepatocytes and/or enterocytes; in enterocytes, this process requires FGF19 signaling. To study these pathways, we quantified markers of BA synthesis (7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one;C4) and cholesterol production (lathosterol), FGF19, and BAs in serum from healthy male volunteers given 1 oral dose of the nonsteroidal FXR agonist Px-102 (0.15mg/kg, 0.3mg/kg, 0.6mg/kg, 1.12mg/kg, 2.25mg/kg, 3...
June 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
Pei-Song Bai, Peng Hou, Ying Kong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a male-dominant cancer. Several factors may contribute to the gender difference. Recent investigations have reported that miRNAs are involved in sex-linked signaling pathways and play a critical role in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. Therefore, we speculated that some of these miRNAs might contribute to the gender differences observed in HBV-related HCC. Our results showed that miR-371a-5p was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue and serum from HCC patients and that the expression level of miR-371a-5p was related to HBV infection, sexuality, TNM stage, adjacent organ invasion and microvascular invasion...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Heba A Metwaly, Amal M El-Gayar, Mamdouh M El-Shishtawy
AIM OF WORK: The study was conducted for evaluation of the antitumor activity of SSTN92-119 against HCC induced by thioacetamide in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four equal groups: Control, SSTN92-119 , HCC, and HCC + SSTN92-119 . Liver function tests were measured in serum. Liver homogenate was used for determination of: i) integrinαѴβ3 (ITGαѴβ3), insulin like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels by ELISA, ii) syndecan-1 (CD-138), IGF-1R and VEGF genes expressions by qRT-PCR, iii) MDA, NO, GSH concentrations and SOD activity...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Arumugam R Jayakumar, Michael D Norenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Anca D Petrescu, Jessica Kain, Elaina Williams, Rebecca Haines, Lauren Canady, Sharon DeMorrow
Background & Aims: Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious neurologic complication of acute and chronic liver diseases. We previously showed that aberrant bile acid signaling contributes to the development of hepatic encephalopathy via farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated mechanisms in neurons. In the brain, a novel alternative bile acid synthesis pathway, catalyzed by cytochrome p450 46A1 (Cyp46A1), is the primary mechanism by which the brain regulates cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine if FXR activation in the brain altered cholesterol homeostasis during hepatic encephalopathy...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Roya Abolfazli, Shirin Pournourmohammadi, Ahmadreza Shamshiri, Sara Samadzadeh
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a brand-generic glatiramer acetate product in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis over a 12-month period. A noninterventional cohort study was conducted on 185 patients. The patients had a confirmed and documented diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis as defined by the Revised McDonald Criteria (2010), were ambulatory with a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 0 to 5...
2018: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Ling Hu, Jing Tang, Xiaohuan Huang, Tao Zhang, Xiaoling Feng
Hypoxia has been reported to be a critical microenvironmental factor that induces cancer metastasis and proliferation in gastric, liver and hepatic cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms of this are largely unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as crucial factors of several aspects of tumor malignancy, including tumorigenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance. However, the potential association of lncRNAs with hypoxia-induced cancer malignancy remains to be determined. In the present study, the differential expression of lncRNAs following the induction of hypoxia in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells was analyzed reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Jun Chen, Hao Zhang, Jiansheng Luo, Xiaokang Wu, Xueming Li, Xinyi Zhao, Dongkai Zhou, Shian Yu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a worldwide health problem. Early diagnosis and assessment may enhance the quality of life and survival of patients. The present study investigated the potential correlations between the gene and protein expression of laminin-332 (LM-332 or laminin-5) and clinicopathological factors as well as evaluating its influence on the survival of patients with PDA. The expression of LM-332 subunit mRNAs in pancreatic carcinoma specimens from 37 patients was investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Dariusz Kieszko, Paweł Cisek, Izabela Kordzińska-Cisek, Ludmiła Grzybowska-Szatkowska
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of local treatment of liver metastases of various types of cancer using brachytherapy with computed tomography (CT) imaging. Retrospective analysis of 61 patients with unresectable hepatic metastases treated with CT-guided interstitial high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy of the liver between April 2014 and December 2016 was performed. Patients were treated with a single fractional dose of 15-25 Gy. Statistical analysis was performed on local relapse free survival (LRFS), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates across the group...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Anliang Huang, Jinhu Ma, Liyan Huang, Fan Yang, Ping Cheng
Tumor associated antigen (TAA) induces both humoral immunity and cellular immunity. The T cell-mediated immune response has an important role in the immune response induced by TAA. The hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) sequence is mapped with Custer of differentiation (CD)8+ T cell (CTL) epitopes, while a large number of studies have indicated that HBx may enhance the autophagy. In our previous study, a novel hepatocellular carcinoma vaccine was designed that was an irradiated HBx modified hepatocellular carcinoma cell vaccine in autophagic form, which significantly induced antitumor immune responses in vivo ...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Giovanna Scartabelli, Giorgia Querci, Letizia Marconi, Giovanni Ceccarini, Paolo Piaggi, Paola Fierabracci, Guido Salvetti, Giovanni Cizza, Salvatore Mazzeo, Jacopo Vitti, Slava Berger, Antonio Palla, Ferruccio Santini
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is frequently present in patients with severe obesity, but its prevalence especially in women is not well defined. OSAHS and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are common conditions, frequently associated in patients with central obesity and metabolic syndrome and are both the result of the accumulation of ectopic fat mass. Identifying predictors of risk of OSAHS may be useful to select the subjects requiring instrumental sleep evaluation. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the potential role of hepatic left lobe volume (HLLV) in predicting the presence of OSAHS...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Shyam Kottilil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kouichi Kitamura, Lusheng Que, Miyuki Shimadu, Miki Koura, Yuuki Ishihara, Kousho Wakae, Takashi Nakamura, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Masamichi Muramatsu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major etiological pathogens for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic HBV infection is a key factor in these severe liver diseases. During infection, HBV forms a nuclear viral episome in the form of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Current therapies are not able to efficiently eliminate cccDNA from infected hepatocytes. cccDNA is a master template for viral replication that is formed by the conversion of its precursor, relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA)...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Rohini Mehta, Gladys Shaw, Peter Masschelin, Sean Felix, Munkzhul Otgonsuren, Ancha Baranova, Zachary Goodman, Zobair Younossi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and major cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries. Its prevalence is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. As the liver is central to the clearance and catabolism of circulating advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs), AGEs and their cognate receptors-RAGE (receptor for AGEs) system might be involved in NAFLD in obese patients. To examine this, we investigated four common polymorphisms of RAGE gene: 1704G/T (rs184003), G82S (rs2070600), -374T/A (rs1800624) and -429T/C (rs1800625) in 340 obese patients with metabolic syndrome...
2018: PloS One
Shashi N Kapadia, Carrie D Johnston, Kristen M Marks, Bruce R Schackman, Erika G Martin
CONTEXT: Curative treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can alter the course of a devastating epidemic, but high drug prices have contributed to restrictions on HCV treatment access. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to learn how state health agencies have responded to the challenges of treatment access for HCV. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured key informant interviews focused on aspects of HCV treatment access between June 2016 and March 2017...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Antonio Aguilera, Javier Rodríguez-Calviño, Carmen de Mendoza, Vincent Soriano
BACKGROUND: The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most aggressive form of chronic viral hepatitis. As HDV replication requires hepatitis B virus (HBV), HDV screening is limited to HBsAg+ carriers. To date, individuals with HDV-antibodies and markers of resolved hepatitis B are considered cured. However, a subset shows elevated liver enzymes and hepatic fibrosis. Could they represent HBsAg-seronegative occult HDV infections? METHODS: We tested for HDV-antibodies 406 individuals with markers of past HBV exposure...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Niels Mejer, Ulrik Fahnøe, Andrea Galli, Santseharay Ramirez, Thomas Benfield, Jens Bukh
Ribavirin (RBV) has been used for the last 20 years to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This pluripotent drug is believed to induce mutagenesis in HCV RNA. However, for cell-cultured HCV (HCVcc) this phenomenon has only been investigated in genotype 2a recombinants. Here we studied the mutations that developed in HCVcc of genotypes 1a and 3a treated with RBV or ribavirin triphosphate (RBV-TP) compared to non-treated controls. Analysis was performed on the amplified full-length open reading frame (ORF) of recovered viruses following next-generation sequencing and clonal analyses...
June 21, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Alexander L Ticho, Hyunjin Lee, Ravinder K Gill, Pradeep K Dudeja, Seema Saksena, Daesung Lee, Waddah A Alrefai
Bile acid transporters including the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) and the hepatic sodium-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) are crucial for the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Our objective was to develop a method for measuring bile acid transporter activity in real time to precisely evaluate rapid changes in their function. We designed a reporter system relying on a novel probe: cholic acid attached to luciferin via a disulfide-containing, self-immolating linker (CA-SS-Luc)...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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