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Transition in hiv

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422610/joint-bent-cable-tobit-models-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#1
Getachew A Dagne
In this article, we show how to estimate a transition period for the evolvement of drug resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drug or other related treatments in the framework of developing a Bayesian method for jointly analyzing time to event and longitudinal data. For HIV/AIDS longitudinal data, developmental trajectories of viral loads tend to show a gradual change from a declining trend after initiation of treatment to an increasing trend without an abrupt change. Such characteristics of trajectories are also associated with a time-to-event process...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422280/integrating-frailty-research-into-the-medical-specialties-report-from-a-u13-conference
#2
Jeremy Walston, Thomas N Robinson, Susan Zieman, Frances McFarland, Christopher R Carpenter, Keri N Althoff, Melissa K Andrew, Caroline S Blaum, Patrick J Brown, Brian Buta, E Wesley Ely, Luigi Ferrucci, Kevin P High, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Kenneth Rockwood, Kenneth E Schmader, Felipe Sierra, Kaycee M Sink, Ravi Varadhan, Arti Hurria
Although the field of frailty research has expanded rapidly, it is still a nascent concept within the clinical specialties. Frailty, conceptualized as greater vulnerability to stressors because of significant depletion of physiological reserves, predicts poorer outcomes in several medical specialties, including cardiology, human immunodeficiency virus care, and nephrology, and in the behavioral and social sciences. Lack of a consensus definition, proliferation of measurement tools, inadequate understanding of the biology of frailty, and lack of validated clinical algorithms for frail individuals hinders incorporation of frailty assessment and frailty research into the specialties...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414687/disseminated-cryptococcal-disease-with-diffuse-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-a-non-hiv-host
#3
M Hughes, K Trivedi, M Rudrappa
INTRODUCTION: We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus in a non-HIV host, where the primary manifestation was pulmonary with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. This patient was on high dose corticosteroids for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. CASE: A 79 year old Caucasian man with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia on 100 mg of prednisone daily, coronary artery disease s/p bypass surgery, ischemic cardiomyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease, and history of bilateral pulmonary emboli presented to Hematology/Oncology clinic with symptoms of productive cough, worsening shortness of breath, hemoptysis...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409538/prevalence-and-predictors-of-severe-menopause-symptoms-among-hiv-positive-and-negative-nigerian-women
#4
Patricia A Agaba, Seema T Meloni, Halima M Sule, Amaka N Ocheke, Emmanuel I Agaba, John A Idoko, Phyllis J Kanki
We compared the prevalence of menopause symptoms between women living with HIV to their HIV-negative peers and determined predictors of severe menopause symptoms in Jos, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 714 women aged 40-80 years. We compared prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms using the menopause rating scale (MRS). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of severe symptoms. Six-hundred and seven (85.0%) were HIV-positive, with a mean duration of infection of 5...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406836/transitioning-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-hiv-into-care
#5
Joseph D Perazzo
Fewer than half of the individuals in the United States with HIV are receiving the full benefit of treatment. Primary care providers play a pivotal role in creating a pipeline into HIV care following diagnosis. Using interview data and current literature, this article provides recommendations for promoting care initiation for individuals newly diagnosed with HIV.
May 12, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398999/confronting-challenges-in-monitoring-and-evaluation-innovation-in-the-context-of-the-global-plan-towards-the-elimination-of-new-hiv-infections-among-children-by-2015-and-keeping-their-mothers-alive
#6
Anna K Radin, Andrew A Abutu, Margaret A Okwero, Michelle R Adler, Chukwuma Anyaike, Hilda T Asiimwe, Prosper Behumbiize, Timothy A Efuntoye, Rachel L King, Linda Nabitaka Kisaakye, Dolapo T Ogundehin, Benjamin Ryan Phelps, Heather Watts, Fitti Weissglas
The Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive (Global Plan), which was launched in 2011, set a series of ambitious targets, including a reduction of new HIV infections among children by 90% by 2015 (from a baseline year of 2009) and AIDS-related maternal mortality by 50% by 2015. To reach these targets, the Global Plan called for unprecedented investments in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), innovative new approaches to service delivery, immense collective effort on the programmatic and policy fronts, and importantly, a renewed focus on data collection and use...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398996/lessons-learned-from-option-b-in-the-evolution-toward-test-and-start-from-malawi-cameroon-and-the-united-republic-of-tanzania
#7
Thokozani Kalua, Beth A Tippett Barr, Joep J van Oosterhout, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Erik J Schouten, Sundeep Gupta, Amakobe Sande, Gerald Zomba, Hannock Tweya, Edgar Lungu, Deborah Kajoka, Pius Tih, Andreas Jahn
The acceleration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities, coupled with the rollout of 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, led to important discussions and innovations at global and country levels. One paradigm-shifting innovation was Option B+ in Malawi. It was later included in WHO guidelines and eventually adopted by all 22 Global Plan priority countries. This article presents Malawi's experience with designing and implementing Option B+ and provides complementary narratives from Cameroon and Tanzania...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394721/hiv-related-syndemic-pathways-and-risk-subjectivities-among-gay-and-bisexual-men-a-qualitative-investigation
#8
Barry D Adam, Trevor A Hart, Jack Mohr, Todd Coleman, Julia Vernon
Life history interviews were conducted with 40 gay and bisexual men to identify modes of syndemic experience and risk practice. Out of the interview narratives emerged one major and two minor modes of developmental pathway whereby syndemic conditions are navigated and expressed: (1) a combination of adverse childhood events with later episodes of depression and/or substantial substance use; (2) personal disruption that led to periods of depression and anxiety associated with the stresses of migration; and (3) a disorientation and an unravelling of life trajectory in the transition from family of origin to college or work...
April 10, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387330/profiling-the-neutralizing-antibody-response-in-chronically-hiv-1-crf07_bc-infected-intravenous-drug-users-na%C3%A3-ve-to-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Xintao Hu, Yuanyuan Hu, Chunhong Zhao, Hongmei Gao, Kelli M Greene, Li Ren, Liying Ma, Yuhua Ruan, Marcella Sarzotti-Kelsoe, David C Montefiori, Kunxue Hong, Yiming Shao
Characterizing neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses in individuals infected with diverse HIV-1 strains is necessary to reveal the novel targets for regional preventive and therapeutic strategies development. We evaluated the prevalence, breadth, and potency of NAb responses in 98 CRF07_BC-infected individuals using a large, multi-subtype panel of 30 tier 2-3 Env-pseudotyped viruses. Furthermore, we compared the neutralization pattern of CRF07_BC-infected people with that of subtype B'-infected individuals in China...
April 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367724/sexual-hiv-risk-among-gay-bisexual-and-queer-transgender-men-findings-from-interviews-in-vancouver-canada
#10
Ashleigh Rich, Kai Scott, Caitlin Johnston, Everett Blackwell, Nathan Lachowsky, Zishan Cui, Paul Sereda, David Moore, Robert Hogg, Eric Roth
Gay, bisexual, queer and other men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. While up to 63% of transgender men identify as gay, bisexual or queer and report a variety of HIV sexual risk behaviours, transgender men are often overlooked within epidemiological HIV surveillance and research. While a growing body of research has begun to examine sexual risk for transgender gay, bisexual and queer men, most studies have been conducted in the USA. This study explored sexual HIV risk for this population in the Canadian context, specifically in British Columbia, in an environment of publically funded universal access to healthcare, including HIV testing and treatment...
April 3, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364563/changes-in-second-line-regimen-durability-and-continuity-of-care-in-relation-to-national-art-guideline-changes-in-south-africa
#11
Dorina Onoya, Alana T Brennan, Rebecca Berhanu, Liudmyla van der Berg, Thulasizwe Buthelezi, Matthew P Fox
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) guideline changes on the durability of second-line ART and continuity of care. This study examines predictors of early drug substitutions and treatment interruptions using a cohort analysis of HIV positive adults switched to second-line ART between January 2004 and September 2013 in Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: The main outcomes were having a drug substitution or treatment interruption in the first 24 months on second-line ART...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359674/design-and-synthesis-of-bicyclic-acetals-as-beta-secretase-bace1-inhibitors
#12
Riccardo Innocenti, Elena Lenci, Gloria Menchi, Alberto Pupi, Andrea Trabocchi
Taking advantage of the structural similarity between aspartic proteases, small-molecule peptidomimetic inhibitors that already showed activity towards Secreted Aspartic Protease 2 as anti-Candida agents and HIV protease inhibitors were exploited as potential BACE1 inhibitors. A focused library of 6,8-dioxa-3-azabicyclo[3.2.1]-octane peptidomimetic scaffolds was synthesized and assayed towards BACE1 enzyme, resulting in the identification of a thiolactam-containing hit compound possessing IC50 in the low micromolar range, and confirming the bicyclic acetal portion as a potential transition state analogue in the interaction with catalytic aspartic acid residues...
March 18, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348636/hiv-and-reproductive-healthcare-in-pregnant-and-postpartum-hiv-infected-women-adapting-successful-strategies
#13
Bassam H Rimawi, Somer L Smith, Martina L Badell, Leilah D Zahedi-Spung, Anandi N Sheth, Lisa Haddad, Rana Chakraborty
Linkage and retention in care for many HIV-infected women in the postpartum period is suboptimal, which compromises long-term virologic suppression and the HIV Care Continuum. Efforts are needed to improve individual outcomes by addressing transitions in care. We summarize some successful strategies to engage and retain HIV-infected women in care during the postpartum period.
August 2016: Future Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338951/measuring-transitions-in-sexual-risk-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-novel-use-of-latent-class-and-latent-transition-analysis-in-hiv-sentinel-surveillance
#14
Anna L Wilkinson, Carol El-Hayek, Christopher K Fairley, Norm Roth, B K Tee, Emma McBryde, Margaret Hellard, Mark Stoové
New combination human acquired deficiency (HIV) prevention strategies that include biomedical and primary prevention approaches add complexity to the task of measuring sexual risk. Latent transition models are beneficial for understanding complex phenomena; therefore, we trialed the application of latent class and latent transition models to HIV surveillance data. Our aims were to identify sexual risk states and model individuals' transitions between states. A total of 4,685 HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) completed behavioral questionnaires alongside tests for HIV and sexually transmissible infections at one of 2 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, general practices (2007-2013)...
April 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335609/early-and-delayed-antiretroviral-therapy-art-result-in-comparable-reductions-in-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-marker-expression
#15
Rachel Rutishauser, Wendy Hartogensis, Christian D Deguit, Melissa Krone, Rebecca Hoh, Rick Hecht, Christopher D Pilcher, Peter Bacchetti, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Joseph M McCune
In untreated HIV infection, CD8+ T cell exhaustion (i.e., decreased proliferative and effector capacity) is associated with high levels of expression of co-inhibitory receptors, including PD-1, TIGIT, CD160, and 2B4. This is evident for both HIV-specific and non-HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated during chronic infection decreases but may not completely normalize the expression of such "exhaustion markers." Compared to initiation of ART later in the course of disease, initiation soon after infection reduces some parameters of chronic inflammation and adaptive immune dysfunction...
March 23, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334661/extended-release-naltrexone-reduces-alcohol-consumption-among-released-prisoners-with-hiv-disease-as-they-transition-to-the-community
#16
Sandra A Springer, Angela Di Paola, Marwan M Azar, Russell Barbour, Archana Krishnan, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLH) within the criminal justice system (CJS). Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) has not been previously evaluated among CJS-involved PLH with AUDs. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 100 HIV+ prisoners with AUDs. Participants were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX or placebo starting one week prior to release...
March 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332510/recent-advances-in-understanding-hypertension-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
REVIEW
A E Schutte, S Botha, C M T Fourie, L F Gafane-Matemane, R Kruger, L Lammertyn, L Malan, C M C Mels, R Schutte, W Smith, J M van Rooyen, L J Ware, H W Huisman
Consistent reports indicate that hypertension is a particularly common finding in black populations. Hypertension occurs at younger ages and is often more severe in terms of blood pressure levels and organ damage than in whites, resulting in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This review provides an outline of recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding of blood pressure elevation and the consequences thereof in black populations in Africa. This is set against the backdrop of populations undergoing demanding and rapid demographic transition, where infection with the human immunodeficiency virus predominates, and where under and over-nutrition coexist...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332090/disparities-in-the-clinical-evolution-of-anal-neoplasia-in-an-hiv-infected-cohort
#18
Edward R Cachay, Wollelaw Agmas, Wm Christopher Mathews
BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis suggested that anal intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive anal cancer are more prevalent among black men having sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected adult patients under care between 2001 and 2012. Disparities in clinical evolution of anal intraepithelial neoplasia to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive anal cancer were evaluated in a three-state Markov model adjusted for cytology misclassification...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331636/patient-experiences-of-decentralized-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-plateau-state-north-central-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#19
Grace O Kolawole, Hannah N Gilbert, Nancin Y Dadem, Becky L Genberg, Patricia A Agaba, Prosper Okonkwo, Oche O Agbaji, Norma C Ware
Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331088/bst-2-expression-modulates-small-cd4-mimetic-sensitization-of-hiv-1-infected-cells-to-adcc
#20
Jonathan Richard, Jérémie Prévost, Benjamin von Bredow, Shilei Ding, Nathalie Brassard, Halima Medjahed, Mathieu Coutu, Bruno Melillo, Frédéric Bibollet-Ruche, Beatrice H Hahn, Daniel E Kaufmann, Amos B Smith, Joseph Sodroski, Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff, Katrina Gee, Stuart J Neil, David T Evans, Andrés Finzi
Antibodies recognizing conserved CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on HIV-1 Env and able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been shown to be present in sera from most HIV-1-infected individuals. These antibodies preferentially recognize Env in its CD4-bound conformation. CD4 downregulation by Nef and Vpu dramatically reduces exposure of CD4i HIV-1 Env epitopes and therefore reduce the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera. Importantly, this mechanism of immune evasion can be circumvented with small-molecule CD4-mimetics (CD4mc) which are able to transition Env into the CD4-bound conformation and sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
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