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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317200/self-limiting-non-medical-pharmaceutical-opioid-use-among-young-people-in-sydney-australia-an-exploratory-study
#1
George C Dertadian, Thomas C Dixon, Jennifer Iversen, Lisa Maher
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Indicators suggest an escalation in opioid use globally, with recent HIV outbreaks linked to non-medical pharmaceutical opioid (NMPO) use. Little is known about how young Australians engage in NMPO use. DESIGN AND METHODS: During 2015, we conducted qualitative interviews with young people (16-29 years) who reported oral NMPO use at least twice in the past 90 days. The study included a sample of injecting (n = 14) and oral (n = 22) users...
March 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304114/antiviral-and-cytostatic-evaluation-of-5-1-halo-2-sulfonylvinyl-and-5-2-furyl-uracil-nucleosides
#2
Zhiwei Wen, Sazzad H Suzol, Jufang Peng, Yong Liang, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei, Sandra Liekens, Stanislaw F Wnuk
Transition metal-catalyzed halosulfonylation of 5-ethynyl uracil nucleosides provided (E)-5-(1-chloro-2-tosylvinyl)uridines. Tetrabutylammonium fluoride-mediated direct CH arylation of 5-iodouracil nucleosides with furan or 2-heptylfuran gave 5-furyl-substituted nucleosides without the necessity of using the organometallic substrates. These two classes of 5-substituted uracil nucleosides as well their corresponding ester derivatives were tested against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
March 17, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303660/brazilin-inhibits-prostatic-acidic-phosphatase-fibrillogenesis-and-reduces-its-cytotoxicity
#3
Ming Li, Xiaoyan Dong, Yang Liu, Yan Sun
The 39-amino acid peptide fragment derived from prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP), PAP248-286, is secreted in large amount into human semen and form amyloid fibrils. The fibrils can capture HIV virions and increase the attachment of virions to target cells, so they are called semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI). Therefore, it is of significance to inhibit the formation of PAP248-286 amyloid fibrils. Herein, we have demonstrated that brazilin could effectively inhibit PAP248-286 aggregation. The inhibition effect increased with increasing brazilin concentration...
March 16, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301424/joint-estimation-of-cd4-progression-and-survival-in-untreated-individuals-with-hiv-1-infection-a-pooled-analysis-of-data-from-25-countries
#4
T D Mangal
OBJECTIVE: We compiled the largest dataset of seroconverter cohorts to date from 25 countries across Africa, North America, Europe, and SE/E. Asia to simultaneously estimate transition rates between CD4 stages and death, in ART-naive HIV-1 infected individuals. DESIGN: A hidden Markov model incorporating a misclassification matrix was used to represent natural short-term fluctuations and measurement errors in CD4 counts. Covariates were included to estimate the transition rates and survival probabilities for each subgroup...
March 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291051/30-day-readmission-rates-in-an-hiv-infected-cohort-from-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#5
Lara E Coelho, Sayonara R Ribeiro, Andre M Japiassu, Ronaldo I Moreira, Priscila C Lara, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Paula M Luz
BACKGROUND: The 30-day readmission rate is an indicator of the quality of hospital care and transition to the outpatient setting. Recent studies suggest HIV infection might increase the risk of readmission though estimates of 30-day readmission rates are unavailable among HIV infected individuals living in middle/low income settings. Additionally, factors that may increase readmission risk in HIV infected populations are poorly understood. METHODS: 30-day readmission rates were estimated for HIV-infected adults from the Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas/Fiocruz cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January 2007 to December 2013...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290256/preparing-the-sexual-health-workforce-to-deliver-integrated-services-is-education-the-answer-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-impact-of-sexual-health-education-on-developing-integrated-policy-and-practice
#6
Judy Brook, Debra Salmon, Rachael-Anne Knight
Aim This study aimed to explore the ability of sexual health nurses working in the South West of England, to implement new learning within existing sexual health service delivery models. Drawing on Lipsky's account of street-level bureaucracy to conceptualise policy implementation, the impact of workforce learning on the development of integrated services across this region of the United Kingdom was assessed. BACKGROUND: In order to achieve the United Nations' goal of universal access to sexual health, it is essential for reproductive and sexual health, including HIV provision, to integrate into a single service...
March 14, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277487/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-intervention-to-maintain-suppression-of-hiv-viremia-following-prison-release-the-impact-trial
#7
David Alain Wohl, Carol E Golin, Kevin Knight, Michele Gould, Jessica Carda-Auten, Jennifer S Groves, Sonia Napravnik, Stephen R Cole, Becky L White, Cathie Fogel, David L Rosen, Michael J Mugavaro, Brian W Pence, Patrick M Flynn
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals transitioning from incarceration to the community are at risk for loss of viral suppression. We compared the effects of imPACT, a multi-dimensional intervention to promote care engagement after release, to standard care on sustaining viral suppression after community re-entry. METHODS: This trial randomized 405 HIV-infected inmates being released from prisons in Texas and North Carolina with HIV-1 RNA levels <400 copies/mL to imPACT versus standard care...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275193/structure-based-design-of-a-soluble-prefusion-closed-hiv-1-env-trimer-with-reduced-cd4-affinity-and-improved-immunogenicity
#8
Gwo-Yu Chuang, Hui Geng, Marie Pancera, Kai Xu, Cheng Cheng, Priyamvada Acharya, Michael Chambers, Aliaksandr Druz, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Timothy G Wanninger, Yongping Yang, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Ivelin S Georgiev, Jason Gorman, M Gordon Joyce, Sijy O'Dell, Tongqing Zhou, Adrian B McDermott, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
The HIV-1-envelope (Env) trimer is a target for vaccine design as well as a conformational machine that facilitates virus entry by transitioning between prefusion-closed, CD4-bound, and co-receptor-bound conformations before rearranging into a postfusion state. Vaccine designers have sought to restrict the conformation of the HIV-1-Env trimer to its prefusion-closed state, as this state is recognized by most broadly neutralizing -but not by non-neutralizing- antibodies. We previously identified a disulfide bond, I201C-A433C (DS), which stabilizes Env in the vaccine-desired prefusion-closed state...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273373/acute-care-management-of-the-hiv-infected-patient-a-report-from-the-hiv-practice-and-research-network-of-the-american-college-of-clinical-pharmacy
#9
Spencer H Durham, Melissa E Badowski, Michelle D Liedtke, R Chris Rathbun, Patricia Pecora Fulco
OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected patients admitted to the hospital have complex antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens with an increased medication error rate upon admission. This report is intended to provide a resource for clinicians managing HIV-infected patients and ART in the inpatient setting. METHODS: A survey of the authors was conducted to evaluate common issues that arise during an acute hospitalization for HIV-infected patients. After a group consensus, a review of the medical literature was performed to determine the supporting evidence for the following HIV associated hospital queries: admission/discharge orders, antiretroviral hospital formularies, laboratory monitoring, altered hepatic/renal function, drug-drug interactions (DDIs), enteral administration, and therapeutic drug monitoring...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271846/non-communicable-disease-syndemics-poverty-depression-and-diabetes-among-low-income-populations
#10
REVIEW
Emily Mendenhall, Brandon A Kohrt, Shane A Norris, David Ndetei, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
The co-occurrence of health burdens in transitioning populations, particularly in specific socioeconomic and cultural contexts, calls for conceptual frameworks to improve understanding of risk factors, so as to better design and implement prevention and intervention programmes to address comorbidities. The concept of a syndemic, developed by medical anthropologists, provides such a framework for preventing and treating comorbidities. The term syndemic refers to synergistic health problems that affect the health of a population within the context of persistent social and economic inequalities...
March 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264054/delineating-cd4-dependency-of-hiv-1-adaptation-to-infect-low-level-cd4-expressing-target-cells-widens-cellular-tropism-but-severely-impacts-on-envelope-functionality
#11
David Beauparlant, Peter Rusert, Carsten Magnus, Claus Kadelka, Jacqueline Weber, Therese Uhr, Osvaldo Zagordi, Corinna Oberle, Maria J Duenas-Decamp, Paul R Clapham, Karin J Metzner, Huldrych F Günthard, Alexandra Trkola
A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the continuously declining number of the virus' predominant target cells, activated CD4+ T cells. With diminishing CD4+ T cell levels, the capacity to utilize alternate cell types and receptors, including cells that express low CD4 receptor levels such as macrophages, thus becomes crucial. To explore evolutionary paths that allow HIV-1 to acquire a wider host cell range by infecting cells with lower CD4 levels, we dissected the evolution of the envelope-CD4 interaction under in vitro culture conditions that mimicked the decline of CD4high target cells, using a prototypic subtype B, R5-tropic strain...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260679/cobalt-based-paramagnetic-probe-to-study-rna-protein-interactions-by-nmr
#12
Leah M Seebald, Christopher M DeMott, Srivathsan Ranganathan, Papa Nii Asare-Okai, Anastasia Glazunova, Alan Chen, Alexander Shekhtman, Maksim Royzen
Paramagnetic resonance enhancement (PRE) is an NMR technique that allows studying three-dimensional structures of RNA-protein complexes in solution. RNA strands are typically spin labeled using nitroxide reagents, which provide minimal perturbation to the native structure. The current work describes an alternative approach, which is based on a Co(2+)-based probe that can be covalently attached to RNA in the vicinity of the protein's binding site using 'click' chemistry. Similar to nitroxide spin labels, the transition metal based probe is capable of attenuating NMR signal intensities from protein residues localized <40Å away...
May 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260636/hiv-risk-behaviours-among-immigrant-and-ethnic-minority-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-north-america-and-europe-a-systematic-review
#13
Nathaniel M Lewis, Kathi Wilson
HIV surveillance systems show that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV in North American and European countries. Within the MSM category, HIV prevalence is often elevated among ethnic minority (i.e., Latino, Asian, and Black) MSM, many of whom are also foreign-born immigrants. Little research has focused specifically on foreign-born populations, though studies that provide data on the nativity of their samples offer an opportunity to investigate the potential role of transnational migration in informing HIV risk among ethnic minority MSM...
February 24, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250512/political-commitment-for-vulnerable-populations-during-donor-transition
#14
Daniela C Rodríguez, Alan Whiteside, Sara Bennett
The responsibilities for the programmatic, technical and financial support of health programmes are increasingly being passed from external donors to governments. Programmes for family planning, human immunodeficiency virus, immunization, malaria and tuberculosis have already faced such donor transition, which is a difficult and often political process. Wherever programmes and services aimed at vulnerable populations are primarily supported by donors, the post-transition future is uncertain. Overreliance on donor support is often a reflection of limited domestic political commitment...
February 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250118/imaging-hiv-1-genomic-dna-from-entry-through-productive-infection
#15
Ryan D Stultz, Jennifer J Cenker, David McDonald
In order to track the fate of HIV-1 particles from early entry events through productive infection, we developed a method to visualize HIV-1 DNA reverse transcription complexes by incorporation and fluorescent labeling of the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2' -deoxyuridine (EdU) into nascent viral DNA during cellular entry. Monocyte-derived macrophages were chosen as natural targets of HIV-1 which do not divide and therefore do not incorporate the EdU into chromosomal DNA, which would obscure detection of intranuclear HIV-1 genomes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242537/primary-healthcare-based-integrated-care-with-opioid-agonist-treatment-first-experience-from-ukraine
#16
Olga Morozova, Sergey Dvoriak, Iryna Pykalo, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Ukraine's HIV epidemic is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), however, coverage with opioid agonist therapies (OATs) available mostly at specialty addiction clinics is extremely low. OAT integrated into primary healthcare clinics (PHCs) provides an opportunity for integrating comprehensive healthcare services and scaling up OAT. METHODS: A pilot study of PHC-based integrated care for drug users conducted in two Ukrainian cities between 2014 and 2016 included three sub-studies: 1) cross-sectional treatment site preference assessment among current OAT patients (N=755); 2) observational cohort of 107 PWID who continued the standard of care versus transition of stabilized and newly enrolled PWID into PHC-based integrated care; and 3) pre/post analysis of attitudes toward PWID and HIV patients by PHC staff (N=26)...
February 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219799/uplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-quantification-of-three-new-antiretroviral-drugs-dolutegravir-elvitegravir-and-rilpivirine-and-other-thirteen-antiretroviral-agents-plus-cobicistat-and-ritonavir-boosters-in-human-plasma
#17
Marco Simiele, Alessandra Ariaudo, Amedeo De Nicolò, Fabio Favata, Martina Ferrante, Chiara Carcieri, Stefano Bonora, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio De Avolio
Rilpivirine (RPV), dolutegravir (DTG) and elvitegravir (EVG) are the latest antiretroviral drugs approved for treatment of HIV infection. Currently, poor information is currently available concerning their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, thus making the use of therapeutic drug monitoring for these drugs not useful. This lack of information is partially due to the absence of an high-throughput method for their simultaneous quantification together with other antiretroviral drugs. In this work, we describe the development and validation of a new UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify these drugs, together with other fourteen antiretroviral agents, in human plasma...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202428/patient-use-of-electronic-prescription-refill-and-secure-messaging-and-its-association-with-undetectable-hiv-viral-load-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
D Keith McInnes, Stephanie L Shimada, Amanda M Midboe, Kim M Nazi, Shibei Zhao, Justina Wu, Casey M Garvey, Thomas K Houston
BACKGROUND: Electronic personal health records (PHRs) can support patient self-management of chronic conditions. Managing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load, through taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial to long term survival of persons with HIV. Many persons with HIV have difficulty adhering to their ART over long periods of time. PHRs contribute to chronic disease self-care and may help persons with HIV remain adherent to ART. Proportionally veterans with HIV are among the most active users of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) PHR, called My HealtheVet...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195778/transitioning-from-medicaid-disability-coverage-to-long-term-medicare-coverage-the-case-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-california
#19
Warren S Comulada, Katherine A Desmond, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
Medicaid can serve as a bridge to Medicare coverage for the long-term disabled with sufficient covered work experience. We perform multinomial logistic regression on 2007-2010 Medicare and Medicaid claims data to examine transitions to Medicare for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in California who had Medicaid coverage in 2007. We find only 16% had obtained Medicare coverage by 2010. African-Americans, women, individuals with schizophrenia diagnoses, alcohol or substance abuse disorders, and any physical comorbidity were significantly less likely than others to obtain Medicare (p < 0...
February 2017: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193290/transitional-care-for-formerly-incarcerated-persons-with-hiv-protocol-for-a-realist-review
#20
Jenkin Tsang, Sharmistha Mishra, Janet Rowe, Patricia O'Campo, Carolyn Ziegler, Fiona G Kouyoumdjian, Flora I Matheson, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Shatabdy Zahid, Tony Antoniou
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the mechanisms that influence the success or failure of programs to facilitate re-engagement with health and social services for formerly incarcerated persons with HIV. This review aims to identify how interventions to address such transitions work, for whom and under what circumstances. METHODS: We will use realist review methodology to conduct our analysis. We will systematically search electronic databases and grey literature for English language qualitative and quantitative studies of interventions...
February 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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