keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Transition in hiv

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921633/healthcare-resources-are-inadequate-to-address-the-burden-of-illness-among-hiv-infected-male-prisoners-in-malaysia
#1
Joseph Bick, Gabriel Culbert, Haider A Al-Darraji, Clayton Koh, Veena Pillai, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Frederick Altice
Purpose Criminalization of drug use in Malaysia has concentrated people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV into prisons where health services are minimal and HIV-related mortality is high. Few studies have comprehensively assessed the complex health needs of this population. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach From October 2012 through March 2013, 221 sequentially selected HIV-infected male prisoners underwent a comprehensive health assessment that included a structured history, physical examination, and clinically indicated diagnostic studies...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906026/plasma-hiv-1-rna-viral-load-rebound-among-people-who-inject-drugs-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-art-in-a-canadian-setting-an-ethno-epidemiological-study
#3
Will Small, M J Milloy, Ryan McNeil, Lisa Maher, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) living with HIV often experience sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment outcomes, including HIV plasma viral load (PVL) rebound. While previous studies have identified risk factors for PVL rebound among PWID, no study has examined the perspectives of PWID who have experienced PVL rebound episodes. We conducted an ethno-epidemiological study to investigate the circumstances surrounding the emergence of rebound episodes among PWID in Vancouver, BC, Canada...
July 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905943/social-patterns-and-differentials-in-the-fertility-transition-in-the-context-of-hiv-aids-evidence-from-population-surveillance-rural-south-africa-1993-2013
#4
Brian Houle, Athena Pantazis, Chodziwadziwa Kabudula, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Literature is limited on the effects of high prevalence HIV on fertility in the absence of treatment, and the effects of the introduction of sustained access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on fertility. We summarize fertility patterns in rural northeast South Africa over 21 years during dynamic social and epidemiological change. METHODS: We use data for females aged 15-49 from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (1993-2013)...
March 25, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898736/long-term-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-in-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-adults-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#5
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Cissy Kityo, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Maria Roura
BACKGROUND: Long-term success of HIV antiretroviral therapy requires near-perfect adherence, maintained throughout one's lifetime. However, perceptions towards ART and patterns of adherence may change during the life course. We assessed challenges to long-term adherence in adolescents and adults in three regional HIV treatment centers in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted 24 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions with a total of 33 health-care providers and expert clients (HIV patients on long-term ART who assist with adherence support of fellow patients)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895697/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888370/understanding-the-impact-of-migration-on-hiv-risk-an-analysis-of-mexican-migrants-sexual-practices-partners-and-contexts-by-migration-phase
#7
Xiao Zhang, Natalie Rhoads, Maria Gudelia Rangel, Melbourne F Hovell, Carlos Magis-Rodriguez, Carol L Sipan, J Eduardo Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Ana P Martínez-Donate
HIV risk among Mexican migrants varies across migration phases (pre-departure, transit, destination, interception, and return), but there is limited knowledge about specific sexual behaviors, characteristics of sexual partners, and sexual contexts at different migration stages. To fill the gap, we used data from a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tijuana, Mexico. Information on migration phase and last sexual encounter was collected from 1219 male migrants. Our findings suggest that compared to pre-departure migrants, repeat migrants returning from communities of origin were more likely to have sex with male partners, use substances before sex, and not use condoms; migrants in the transit phase in the Mexican border were more likely to have sex with casual partners and sex workers; and migrants in the interception phase were more likely to engage in anal sex and use substances before sex...
November 25, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887666/contributions-of-national-and-global-health-estimates-to-monitoring-health-related-sustainable-development-goals
#8
Kanitta Bundhamcharoen, Supon Limwattananon, Khanitta Kusreesakul, Viroj Tangcharoensathien
The millennium development goals triggered an increased demand for data on child and maternal mortalities for monitoring progress. With the advent of the sustainable development goals and growing evidence of an epidemiological transition toward non-communicable diseases, policymakers need data on mortality and disease trends and distribution to inform effective policies and support monitoring progress. Where there are limited capacities to produce national health estimates (NHEs), global health estimates (GHEs) can fill gaps for global monitoring and comparisons...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881650/mechanism-of-enhanced-hiv-restriction-by-virion-coencapsidated-cytidine-deaminases-apobec3f-and-apobec3g
#9
Anjuman Ara, Robin P Love, Tyson B Follack, Khawaja A Ahmed, Madison B Adolph, Linda Chelico
: The APOBEC3 (A3) enzymes, A3G and A3F, are coordinately expressed in CD4+ T cells and can become coencapsidated into HIV-1 virions, primarily in the absence of the viral infectivity factor (Vif). A3F and A3G are deoxycytidine deaminases that inhibit HIV-1 replication by inducing guanine to adenine hypermutation through deamination of cytosine to form uracil in (-)DNA. The effect of the simultaneous presence of both A3G and A3F on HIV-1 restriction ability is not clear. Here, we used a single cycle infectivity assay and biochemical analyses to determine if coencapsidated A3G and A3F differ in their restriction capacity than A3G or A3F alone...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862187/treating-the-capability-for-suicide-a-vital-and-understudied-frontier-in-suicide-prevention
#10
Michael D Anestis, Keyne C Law, Hyejin Jin, Claire Houtsma, Lauren R Khazem, Brittney L Assavedo
Current efforts at suicide prevention center largely on reducing suicidal desire among individuals hospitalized for suicidality or being treated for related psychopathology. Such efforts have yielded evidence-based treatments, and yet the national suicide rate has continued to climb. We propose that this disconnect is heavily influenced by an unmet need to consider population-level interventions aimed at reducing the capability for suicide. Drawing on lessons learned from other public health phenomena that have seen drastic declines in frequency in recent decades (HIV, lung cancer, motor vehicle accidents), we propose that current suicidality treatment efforts trail current suicidality theories in their lack of focus on the extent to which individuals thinking about suicide are capable of transitioning from ideation to attempt...
November 10, 2016: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851829/diversification-in-the-hiv-1-envelope-hyper-variable-domains-v2-v4-and-v5-and-higher-probability-of-transmitted-founder-envelope-glycosylation-favor-the-development-of-heterologous-neutralization-breadth
#11
S Abigail Smith, Samantha L Burton, William Kilembe, Shabir Lakhi, Etienne Karita, Matt Price, Susan Allen, Eric Hunter, Cynthia A Derdeyn
A recent study of plasma neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infected individuals at nine International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) sites reported that viral load, HLA-A*03 genotype, and subtype C infection were strongly associated with the development of neutralization breadth. Here, we refine the findings of that study by analyzing the impact of the transmitted/founder (T/F) envelope (Env), early Env diversification, and autologous neutralization on the development of plasma neutralization breadth in 21 participants identified during recent infection at two of those sites: Kigali, Rwanda (n = 9) and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 12)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851713/a-multi-state-model-examining-patterns-of-transitioning-among-states-of-engagement-in-care-in-hiv-positive-individuals-initiating-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Jennifer Gillis, Mona Loutfy, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Tony Antoniou, Ann N Burchell, Sharon Walmsley, Curtis Cooper, Marina B Klein, Nima Machouf, Julio S G Montaner, Sean B Rourke, Christos Tsoukas, Robert Hogg, Janet Raboud
BACKGROUND: Common measures of engagement in care fail to acknowledge that infrequent follow-up may occur either intentionally among patients with sustained virologic suppression or unintentionally among patients with poor clinical outcomes. METHODS: Five states of HIV care were defined within the Canadian Observational Cohort Collaboration following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation: (1) guidelines HIV care [suppressed viral load (VL) and CD4 >200 cells per cubic millimeter, no gaps in cART >3 months, no gaps in CD4 or VL measurement >6 months], (2) successful care with decreased frequency of follow-up (as above except no gaps in CD4 or VL measurement >12 months), (3) suboptimal care (unsuppressed VL, CD4 <200 cells per cubic millimeter on 2 consecutive visits, ≥1 gap in cART >3 months, or ≥1 gap in CD4 or VL measurement >12 months), (4) loss to follow-up (no contact for 18 months), and (5) death...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827447/molecular-basis-for-epitope-recognition-by-non-neutralizing-anti-gp41-antibody-f240
#13
Neelakshi Gohain, William D Tolbert, Chiara Orlandi, Jonathan Richard, Shilei Ding, Xishan Chen, Daniel A Bonsor, Eric J Sundberg, Wuyuan Lu, Krishanu Ray, Andrés Finzi, George K Lewis, Marzena Pazgier
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) specific to the HIV envelope (Env) glycoproteins present at the surface of virus sensitized or infected cells plays a role in the effective adaptive immune response to HIV. Here, we explore the molecular basis for the epitope at the disulfide loop region (DLR) of the principal immunodominant domain of gp41, recognized by the well-known nnAb F240. Our structural studies reveal details of the F240-gp41 interface and describe a structure of DLR that is distinct from known conformations of this region studied in the context of either CD4-unliganded Env trimer or the gp41 peptide in the unbound state...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812216/hiv-cell-to-cell-spread-results-in-earlier-onset-of-viral-gene-expression-by-multiple-infections-per-cell
#14
Mikaël Boullé, Thorsten G Müller, Sabrina Dähling, Yashica Ganga, Laurelle Jackson, Deeqa Mahamed, Lance Oom, Gila Lustig, Richard A Neher, Alex Sigal
Cell-to-cell spread of HIV, a directed mode of viral transmission, has been observed to be more rapid than cell-free infection. However, a mechanism for earlier onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was previously uncharacterized. Here we used time-lapse microscopy combined with automated image analysis to quantify the timing of the onset of HIV gene expression in a fluorescent reporter cell line, as well as single cell staining for infection over time in primary cells. We compared cell-to-cell spread of HIV to cell-free infection, and limited both types of transmission to a two-hour window to minimize differences due to virus transit time to the cell...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795397/release-of-gp120-restraints-leads-to-an-entry-competent-intermediate-state-of-the-hiv-1-envelope-glycoproteins
#15
Alon Herschhorn, Xiaochu Ma, Christopher Gu, John D Ventura, Luis Castillo-Menendez, Bruno Melillo, Daniel S Terry, Amos B Smith, Scott C Blanchard, James B Munro, Walther Mothes, Andrés Finzi, Joseph Sodroski
: Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers [(gp120/gp41)3] typically exist in a metastable closed conformation (state 1). Binding the CD4 receptor triggers Env to undergo extensive conformational changes to mediate virus entry. We identified specific gp120 residues that restrain Env in state 1. Alteration of these restraining residues destabilized state 1, allowing Env to populate a functional conformation (state 2) intermediate between state 1 and the full CD4-bound state (state 3)...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793124/virological-failure-reduced-with-hiv-serostatus-disclosure-extra-baseline-weight-and-rising-cd4-cells-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-northwestern-uganda
#16
Jonathan Izudi, Sunday Alioni, Emmanuel Kerukadho, David Ndungutse
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence of virological failure among Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults after Uganda transitioned from Zidovidine/Lamivudine/ Nevirapine (AZT/3TC/NVP) to Tenofovir/Lamivudine/Efavirenze (TDF/3 T/EFV) as a first-line anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in 2013. This was the first study in Uganda to investigate the incidence and predictors of virological failure among HIV-positive adults in Northwestern Uganda. METHOD: A retrospective cohort of 383 HIV-positive adults at Arua Teaching and Regional Referral Hospital HIV Clinic with at least six months of ART duration and five consecutive good adherence levels was used...
October 28, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789102/nps-and-the-methadone-queue-spillages-of-space-and-time
#17
Liviu Alexandrescu
BACKGROUND: Between 2008 and 2013, powder-stimulants sold by 'head shops' as novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or 'legal highs' have displaced heroin among groups of injecting substance users in Bucharest, Romania. Rising HIV-infection rates and other medical or social harms have been reported to follow this trend. METHODS: The study builds on two sets of original (N=30) and existing (N=20) interview data and on observations collected mainly at the site of a methadone substitution treatment facility...
October 24, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776677/from-long-term-injecting-to-long-term-non-injecting-heroin-and-cocaine-use-the-persistence-of-changed-drug-habits
#18
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, David M Barnes, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Hannah L F Cooper, Holly Hagan
OBJECTIVES: Transitioning from injecting to non-injecting routes of drug administration can provide important individual and community health benefits. We assessed characteristics of persons who had ceased injecting while continuing to use heroin and/or cocaine in New York City. METHODS: We recruited subjects entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel detoxification and methadone maintenance programs between 2011 and 2015. Demographic information, drug use histories, sexual behaviors, and "reverse transitions" from injecting to non-injecting drug use were assessed in structured face-to-face interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768731/predictors-of-patient-dissatisfaction-with-services-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#19
Helga Naburi, Phares Mujinja, Charles Kilewo, Till Bärnighausen, Nicola Orsini, Karim Manji, Gunnel Biberfeld, David Sando, Pascal Geldsetzer, Guerino Chalamila, Anna Mia Ekström
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major source of new HIV infections in children. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) using lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV (Option B+) is the major strategy for eliminating paediatric HIV. Ensuring that patients are satisfied with PMTCT services is important for optimizing uptake, adherence and retention in treatment. METHODS: We conducted a facility based quantitative cross-sectional survey in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between March and April 2014, when the country was transitioning to the implementation of PMTCT Option B+...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762157/individualizing-management-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-diagnostics-treatment-and-biomarkers
#20
Jan-Willem Alffenaar, Onno W Akkerman, Richard Anthony, Simon Tiberi, Scott Heysell, M P Grobusch, Frank Cobelens, Dick van Soolingen
Success rates for treatment of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are low due to limited treatment options, delayed diagnosis and inadequate health care infrastructure. Areas covered: This review analyses existing programmes of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of XDR-TB. Improved diagnostic procedures and rapid molecular tests help to select appropriate drugs and dosages. Drugs dosages can be further tailored to the specific conditions of the patient based on quantitative susceptibility testing of the M...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
keyword
keyword
107619
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"