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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104505/hospitalizations-for-communicable-diseases-in-a-developing-country-prevalence-and-trend-monastir-tunisia-2002-2013
#1
Manel Ben Fredj, Asma Sriha Belguith, Hela Abroug, Wafa Dhouib, Sana El Mhamdi, Arwa Ben Salah, Inès Bouanene, Amal Amara, Sana Bhiri, Mounira Sahtout, C Loussaief, Mohamed Soussi Soltani
BACKGROUND: In spite of the epidemiological transition, communicable diseases (CD) remains a public health problem and represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in developing countries. This study aimed at determining the crude and standardized prevalence rate of hospitalizations for CD (HCD) in Monastir, and at assessing trends of HCD by age and gender at the University Hospital of Monastir during a period of 12 years (2002-2013). METHODS: We have included all hospitalizations for CD from 2002 to 2013 at University hospital departments...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104377/changes-in-lipid-bilayer-structure-caused-by-the-helix-to-sheet-tansition-of-an-hiv-1-gp41-fusion-peptide-derivative
#2
William T Heller, Durgesh K Rai
HIV-1, like other enveloped viruses, undergoes fusion with the cell membrane to infect it. Viral coat proteins are thought to bind the virus to the membrane and actively fuse the viral and cellular membranes together. The actual molecular mechanism of fusion is challenging to visualize, resulting in the use of model systems. Here, the bilayer curvature modifying properties of a synthetic variant of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide with lipid bilayer vesicles composed of a mixture of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) were studied...
January 16, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099228/transitioning-to-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-among-adolescents-in-copperbelt-province-zambia-predictors-of-treatment-switching-and-adherence-to-second-line-regimens
#3
Randy M Stalter, Patrick Katayamoyo, Catherine Packer, Harry Banda, Pai-Lien Chen, Jonathan K Mwansa, Donna R McCarraher, Julie A Denison
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience less favorable antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes than other age groups. First-line treatment failure complicates ART management as second-line regimens can be costlier and have greater pill burdens. Understanding predictors of switching ART regimens and adherence among adolescents on second-line ART may help to prevent poor treatment outcomes. METHODS: A quantitative survey was administered to 309 ALHIV attending three ART clinics in the Copperbelt Province, Zambia...
January 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094201/diagnosing-urogenital-schistosomiasis-dealing-with-diminishing-returns
#4
REVIEW
Loc Le, Michael H Hsieh
Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma haematobium, is the most prevalent form of schistosomiasis affecting humans, and can result in severe bladder, kidney, ureteral, and genital pathologies. Chronic infection with S. haematobium has been linked with bladder cancer and increased risk for HIV infection. As mass drug administration with praziquantel increases in an attempt to transition from control to elimination of schistosomiasis, the need for updated, more sensitive diagnostic tools becomes more apparent, especially for use in areas of low infection intensity and for individuals with light infections...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073681/association-of-cytoplasmic-cxcr4-with-loss-of-epithelial-marker-and-activation-of-erk1-2-and-akt-signaling-pathways-in-non-small-cell-lung%C3%A2-cancer
#5
Nabil F Saba, Yuxiang Wang, Hongpeng Fu, Lydia Koenig, Fadlo R Khuri, Dong M Shin, Zhuo Georgia Chen
OBJECTIVES: Compelling evidence demonstrates that CXC-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in tumor invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy in addition to being one of the coreceptors for T-tropic human immunodeficiency virus entry into T cells. However, it remains controversial as to how to identify functionally activated CXCR4 in tumor biopsies, which would assist in determining which patients may benefit from potential CXCR4-targeted therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining on archival tissues of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was used to detect a panel of biomarkers, including phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-AKT, and E-cadherin, which are relevant to downstream signaling of CXCR4 and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063260/prevalence-of-communication-between-mothers-and-daughters-on-sexuality-and-associated-factors-in-sagamu-southwest-nigeria
#6
Oluwadamilola A Opawale, Victor J Animasahun, Helena J Chapman
BACKGROUND: As adolescents transition from childhood to adulthood, effective mother-daughter communication on sexuality plays a role in reducing high-risk behaviours linked to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and early pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of the study was to examine the prevalence of mother-daughter communication on sexuality and associated factors in Sagamu, southwest Nigeria. METHODS: Using multistage sampling, surveys were conducted using 234 female youth enrolled at a secondary school...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060897/visualization-of-x4-and-r5-tropic-hiv-1-viruses-expressing-fluorescent-proteins-in-human-endometrial-cells-application-to-tropism-study
#7
Rachel Terrasse, Meriam Memmi, Sabine Palle, Leo Heyndrickx, Guido Vanham, Bruno Pozzetto, Thomas Bourlet
Worldwide most HIV infections occur through heterosexual transmission, involving complex interactions of cell-free and cell-associated particles with cells of the female genital tract mucosa. The ability of HIV-1 to "infect" epithelial cells remains poorly understood. To address this question, replicative-competent chimeric constructs expressing fluorescent proteins and harboring the envelope of X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 strains were used to "infect" endometrial HEC1-A cells. The virus-cell interactions were visualized using confocal microscopy (CM) at various times post infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049451/feasibility-study-of-hiv-sentinel-surveillance-using-pmtct-data-in-cameroon-from-scientific-success-to-programmatic-failure
#8
Serge C Billong, Jacob Dee, Joseph Fokam, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Gabriel L Ekali, Raoul Fodjo, Edith S Temgoua, Edson-Joan Billong, Samuel M Sosso, Jembia J Mosoko, Francisca Monebenimp, Alexis Ndjolo, Anne-Cecile Z-K Bissek, Omotayo Bolu, Jean-Bosco N Elat
BACKGROUND: In low-income countries (LICs), HIV sentinel surveillance surveys (HIV-SSS) are recommended in between two demographic and health surveys, due to low-cost than the latter. Using the classical unlinked anonymous testing (UAT), HIV-SSS among pregnant women raised certain ethical and financial challenges. We therefore aimed at evaluating how to use prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) routine data as an alternative approach for HIV-SSS in LICs. METHODS: A survey conducted through 2012 among first antenatal-care attendees (ANC1) in the ten regions of Cameroon...
January 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043129/physical-stabilization-of-pharmaceutical-glasses-based-on-hydrogen-bond-reorganization-under-sub-tg-temperature
#9
Satoshi Tominaka, Kohsaku Kawakami, Mayuko Fukushima, Aoi Miyazaki
Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) play a key role in the pharmaceutical industry through the use of high-energy amorphous state to improve solubility of pharmaceutical agents. Understanding the physical stability of pharmaceutical glasses is of great importance for their successful development. We focused on the anti-HIV agent, ritonavir (RTV), and investigated the influence of annealing at temperatures below the glass transition temperature (sub-Tg) on physical stability, and found that the sub-Tg annealing effectively stabilized RTV glasses...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039305/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-memory-and-activation-profiles-of-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-african-women
#10
Ramla F Tanko, Andreia P Soares, Tracey L Müller, Nigel J Garrett, Natasha Samsunder, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Catherine Riou, Wendy A Burgers
Human immunodeficiency virus infection induces a wide range of effects in B cells, including skewed memory cell differentiation, compromised B cell function, and hypergammaglobulinemia. However, data on the extent to which these B cell abnormalities can be reversed by antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. To investigate the effect of ART on B cells, the activation (CD86) and differentiation (IgD, CD27, and CD38) profiles of B cells were measured longitudinally in 19 HIV-infected individuals before (median, 2 mo) and after ART initiation (median, 12 mo) and compared with 19 age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals using flow cytometry...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036372/collapse-of-cytolytic-potential-in-siv-specific-cd8-t-cells-following-acute-siv-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#11
Emily R Roberts, Diane G Carnathan, Hui Li, George M Shaw, Guido Silvestri, Michael R Betts
Poor maintenance of cytotoxic factor expression among HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, in part caused by dysregulated expression of the transcription factor T-bet, is associated with HIV disease progression. However, the precise evolution and context in which CD8+ T cell cytotoxic functions become dysregulated in HIV infection remain unclear. Using the rhesus macaque (RM) SIV infection model, we evaluated the kinetics of SIV-specific CD8+ T cell cytolytic factor expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, spleen, and gut mucosa from early acute infection through chronic infection...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012709/the-history-and-challenges-of-blood-donor-screening-in-china
#12
REVIEW
Ling Li, Ka Yi Li, Ke Yan, Guojin Ou, Wenhui Li, Jue Wang, Ning Song, Li Tian, Xin Ji, Yongjun Chen, Xiaohua Liang, Zhong Liu, Yanyun Wu
Since the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has encountered several catastrophes related to transfusion transmitted diseases. The government's increasing attention to blood safety has prompted the initiation of a series of policies and measures that have enhanced the level of safety for the blood supply and met the basic clinical demands of blood for 1.3 billion people in the country. Blood donation screening strategies in China predominantly comprise donor screening and donor testing...
November 12, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003492/residues-in-the-gp41-ectodomain-regulate-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-conformational-transitions-induced-by-gp120-directed-inhibitors
#13
Beatriz Pacheco, Nirmin Alsahafi, Olfa Debbeche, Jérémie Prévost, Shilei Ding, Jean-Philippe Chapleau, Alon Herschhorn, Navid Madani, Amy Princiotto, Bruno Melillo, Christopher Gu, Xin Zeng, Youdong Mao, Amos B Smith, Joseph Sodroski, Andrés Finzi
: Interactions between the gp120 and gp41 subunits of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer maintain the metastable unliganded form of the viral spike. Binding of gp120 to the receptor, CD4, changes the Env conformation to promote gp120 interaction with the second receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4. CD4 binding also induces the transformation of Env into the pre-hairpin intermediate, in which the gp41 heptad repeat (HR1) coiled coil is assembled at the trimer axis...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997758/comprehensive-mass-cytometry-analysis-of-cell-cycle-activation-and-co-inhibitory-receptors-expression-in-cd4-t-cells-from-healthy-and-hiv-infected-individuals
#14
REVIEW
Aurélien Corneau, Antonio Cosma, Sophie Even, Christine Katlama, Roger Legrand, Véronique Frachet, Catherine Blanc, Brigitte Autran
RATIONALE: Mass cytometry allows large multiplex analysis of cell cycle stages together with differentiation, activation and exhaustion markers, allowing further assessment of the quiescence status of resting CD4 T cells. METHODS: peripheral blood CD4 T lymphocytes from 8 individuals, 4 healthy donors (HD) and 4 HIV-infected on anti-retroviral treatment (T) were stained with the same 26 monoclonal antibodies and dyes targeting surface and intra-cellular markers of differentiation, activation, exhaustion and cell cycle stages...
December 20, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997613/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-virus-infection-spreading-in-tissues
#15
Gennady Bocharov, Andreas Meyerhans, Nickolai Bessonov, Sergei Trofimchuk, Vitaly Volpert
Virus spreading in tissues is determined by virus transport, virus multiplication in host cells and the virus-induced immune response. Cytotoxic T cells remove infected cells with a rate determined by the infection level. The intensity of the immune response has a bell-shaped dependence on the concentration of virus, i.e., it increases at low and decays at high infection levels. A combination of these effects and a time delay in the immune response determine the development of virus infection in tissues like spleen or lymph nodes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995434/predictors-of-hiv-risk-behaviors-among-a-national-sample-of-russian-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#16
Rigmor C Berg, Vegard Skogen, Nailya Vinogradova, Andrey Beloglazov, Tatiana Kazantseva
Russia has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world and is at the point of transitioning from injection drug use to sexual transmissions. We sought to identify factors associated with unprotected sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Russia, separately for Moscow, St. Petersburg and the rest of the country. Multivariable data from a national cross-sectional study (n = 5035) demonstrate that significant correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a non-steady partner across all areas were visiting sex-related venues (AOR range 1...
December 19, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992602/receptor-activation-of-hiv-1-env-leads-to-asymmetric-exposure-of-the-gp41-trimer
#17
Mukta D Khasnis, Konstantine Halkidis, Anshul Bhardwaj, Michael J Root
Structural rearrangements of HIV-1 glycoprotein Env promote viral entry through membrane fusion. Env is a symmetric homotrimer with each protomer composed of surface subunit gp120 and transmembrane subunit gp41. Cellular CD4- and chemokine receptor-binding to gp120 coordinate conformational changes in gp41, first to an extended prehairpin intermediate (PHI) and, ultimately, into a fusogenic trimer-of-hairpins (TOH). HIV-1 fusion inhibitors target gp41 in the PHI and block TOH formation. To characterize structural transformations into and through the PHI, we employed asymmetric Env trimers containing both high and low affinity binding sites for individual fusion inhibitors...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989576/population-levels-and-geographical-distribution-of-hiv-rna-in-rural-ugandan-and-kenyan-communities-including-serodiscordant-couples-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#18
Vivek Jain, Maya L Petersen, Teri Liegler, Dathan M Byonanebye, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Gabriel Chamie, Norton Sang, Doug Black, Tamara D Clark, Andras Ladai, Albert Plenty, Jane Kabami, Emmanuel Ssemmondo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Edwin D Charlebois, Moses R Kamya, Diane V Havlir
BACKGROUND: As sub-Saharan Africa transitions to a new era of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART), up-to-date assessments of population-level HIV RNA suppression are needed to inform interventions to optimise ART delivery. We sought to measure population viral load metrics to assess viral suppression and characterise demographic groups and geographical locations with high-level detectable viraemia in east Africa. METHODS: The Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health (SEARCH) study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an HIV test-and-treat strategy in 32 rural communities in Uganda and Kenya, selected on the basis of rural setting, having an approximate population of 10 000 people, and being within the catchment area of a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinic...
December 15, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984552/increased-detection-of-pharyngeal-and-rectal-gonorrhea-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-after-transition-from-culture-to-nucleic-acid-amplification-testing
#19
Vincent J Cornelisse, Eric P F Chow, Sarah Huffam, Christopher K Fairley, Melanie Bissessor, Vesna De Petra, Benjamin P Howden, Ian Denham, Catriona S Bradshaw, Deborah Williamson, Marcus Y Chen
BACKGROUND: This before-and-after study measured the impact of a change in testing methods from culture to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) on the detection of pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhea in men who have sex with men (MSM) on a sexual health service level, including the effect on subgroups anticipated to have higher rates of gonorrhea. METHODS: In March 2015, Melbourne Sexual Health Centre changed its laboratory method for gonococcal testing from culture to NAAT using the Aptima Combo 2 and Aptima GC tests...
December 14, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979784/less-research-on-tuberculosis-than-hiv-and-malaria-when-research-agendas-are-poorly-coordinated-a-systematic-review-of-research-outputs-from-cambodia
#20
REVIEW
Mishal Khan, Richard James, Neisha Sundaram, Shishi Wu, Mao Tang Eang, Saphonn Vonthanak, Richard Coker
OBJECTIVE: Coordination of health interventions and research is often weak during periods of political transition and unprecedented aid inflows, which Cambodia has recently experienced. Although HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria have been a focus of international funding, TB has received much less. This study compares the numbers and methodologies of studies conducted on TB, malaria, and HIV in Cambodia, identifying evidence gaps and future research needs. METHODS: Three electronic databases and the grey literature were searched for studies on HIV, TB, and malaria published between January 2000 and October 2015...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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