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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154688/substance-use-and-cognitive-function-as-drivers-of-condomless-anal-sex-among-hiv-positive-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-aged-50-and-older-the-gold-studies
#1
Sandra A Kupprat, Kristen D Krause, Danielle C Ompad, Perry N Halkitis
PURPOSE: Substance use has been linked to the sexual transmission of HIV among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) across the lifespan. Among older, HIV-positive, MSM populations, cognitive dysfunction associated with age and HIV disease progression also may play a role in sexual risk-taking. People aged 50 years and older represent a growing proportion of the overall HIV-positive population. This study aimed to explore relationships between substance use and cognitive function, and their impact on condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other MSM aged 50 years and older...
November 20, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139476/detection-of-hiv-1-specific-gastrointestinal-tissue-resident-cd8-t-cells-in-chronic-infection
#2
Brenna E Kiniry, Shengbin Li, Anupama Ganesh, Peter W Hunt, Ma Somsouk, Pamela J Skinner, Steven G Deeks, Barbara L Shacklett
Tissue-resident memory (TRM) CD8(+) T-cells are non-recirculating, long-lived cells housed in tissues that can confer protection against mucosal pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a mucosal pathogen and the gastrointestinal tract is an important site of viral pathogenesis and transmission. Thus, CD8(+) TRM cells may be an important effector subset for controlling HIV-1 in mucosal tissues. This study sought to determine the abundance, phenotype, and functionality of CD8(+) TRM cells in the context of chronic HIV-1 infection...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136017/practices-in-security-and-confidentiality-of-hiv-aids-patients-information-a-national-survey-among-staff-at-hiv-outpatient-clinics-in-vietnam
#3
Nguyen Khac Hai, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Podjanee Jittamala, Phan Thi Thu Huong, Jaranit Kaewkungwal
INTRODUCTION: Breach of confidentiality or invasion of privacy from the collection and use of medical records, particularly those of patients with HIV/AIDS or other diseases sensitive to stigmatization, should be prevented by all related stakeholders in healthcare settings. The main focus of this study was to assess practices regarding security and confidentiality of HIV-related information among staff at HIV outpatient clinics (HIV-OPCs) in Vietnam. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at all 312 HIV-OPCs across the country using an online survey technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117244/re-establishing-safer-medical-circumcision-integrated-initiation-ceremonies-for-hiv-prevention-in-a-rural-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-multi-method-acceptability-study
#4
Clement Morris Manineng, David MacLaren, Maggie Baigry, Emil Trowalle, Reinhold Muller, Andrew Vallely, Patrick Gesch, Francis Hombhanje, William John McBride
BACKGROUND: Efforts to stem the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are hampered by multiple interrelated factors including limited health services, extreme diversities in culture and language and highly prevalent gender inequity, domestic violence and poverty. In the rural district of Yangoru-Saussia, a revival of previously ceased male initiation ceremonies (MICs) is being considered for a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. In this study, we explore the local acceptability of this undertaking including replacing traditional penile cutting practices with medical male circumcision (MMC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107569/school-support-as-structural-hiv-prevention-for-adolescent-orphans-in-western-kenya
#5
Hyunsan Cho, Isabella Mbai, Winnie Kavulani Luseno, Marcia Hobbs, Carolyn Halpern, Denise Dion Hallfors
PURPOSE: Using a clustered randomized controlled trial design, we evaluated whether support to keep Kenyan orphaned adolescents in school reduces the risk of HIV infection. METHODS: Participants included 835 orphaned boys and girls in grades 7 and 8 (mean age at the baseline = 15 years) in western Kenya. Primary schools (N = 26) were randomized to the study condition. Intervention participants received school uniforms, payment of tuition when they transitioned into high school, and nurse visits to monitor school absenteeism and provide assistance to stay in school...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103190/factors-related-to-incomplete-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-adolescents-attending-three-hiv-clinics-in-the-copperbelt-zambia
#6
Julie A Denison, Catherine Packer, Randy M Stalter, Harry Banda, Sarah Mercer, Namakau Nyambe, Patrick Katayamoyo, Jonathan K Mwansa, Donna R McCarraher
Little is known about adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the world's HIV-positive adolescents reside. We assessed individual, household, and HIV self-management characteristics associated with a 48-hour treatment gap in the preceding 3 months, and a pharmacy medication possession ratio (MPR) that assessed the number of ART pills dispensed divided by the number of ART pills required in the past 6 months, among 285 Zambians, ages 15-19 years...
November 4, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093088/polyploidy-and-mitotic-cell-death-are-two-distinct-hiv-1-vpr-driven-outcomes-in-renal-tubule-epithelial-cells
#7
Emily H Payne, Dhivya Ramalingam, Donald T Fox, Mary E Klotman
Prior studies found that HIV, through the Vpr protein, promotes genome reduplication (polyploidy) in infection-surviving epithelial cells within renal tissue. However, the temporal progression and molecular regulation through which Vpr promotes polyploidy remained unclear. Here, we define a sequential progression to Vpr-mediated polyploidy in human renal tubule epithelial cells (RTECs). As in many cell types, we find that Vpr first initiates a G2 cell cycle arrest in RTECs. We then identified a previously unreported cascade of Vpr-dependent events that lead to renal cell survival and polyploidy...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072305/life-history-theory-hypotheses-on-child-growth-potential-implications-for-short-and-long-term-child-growth-development-and-health
#8
EDITORIAL
Rihlat Said-Mohamed, John M Pettifor, Shane A Norris
Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066510/evidence-for-kaposi-s-sarcoma-originating-from%C3%A2-mesenchymal-stem-cell-through-kshv-induced-mesenchymal-to-endothelial-transition
#9
Yuqing Li, Canrong Zhong, Dawei Liu, Wenjing Yu, Weikang Chen, Yan Wang, Songtao Shi, Yan Yuan
The major transmission route for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is the oral cavity through saliva. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) frequently occurs in the oral cavity in HIV-positive individuals and is often the first presenting sign of AIDS. However, the oral target cells for KSHV infection and the cellular origin of KS remain unknown. Here we present clinical and experimental evidences that KS spindle cells may originate from virally modified oral mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). AIDS-KS spindle cells expressed neuroectodermal stem cell marker (Nestin) and oral MSC marker CD29, suggesting an oral/craniofacial MSC lineage of AIDS-associated KS...
October 24, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061072/perinatally-hiv-infected-youths-after-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-a-single-center-experience-from-northern-italy
#10
Ilaria Izzo, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Barbara Saccani, Erika Chiari, Salvatore Casari, Emanuele Focà, Maria Chiara Pezzoli, Maria Antonia Forleo, Andrea Bonito, Raffaele Badolato, Laura Dotta, Francesco Castelli
With the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected children has reached young adulthood. A retrospective study was conducted on perinatally HIV-infected young adults after transition to adult care in Brescia (Northern Italy). Twenty-four patients were transferred to Infectious Disease outpatient Clinic from Pediatric Clinic between 2004 and 2016. Median age at transition was 18 years. 37.5% were male, and 75% were Italian. Median CD4(+) T-cell count was 534 cell/μL, and 9/24 presented detectable HIV-RNA at the time of transition...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058481/effects-of-antiretroviral-treatment-and-nadir-cd4-count-in-progression-to-cardiovascular-events-and-related-comorbidities-in-a-hiv-brazilian-cohort-a-multi-stage-approach
#11
Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Silvia Emiko Shimakura, Dayse Pereira Campos, Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg, Flaviana Pavan Victoriano, Sayonara Ribeiro, Valdiléa G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Marilia Sá Carvalho
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has resulted in changes of comorbidity profile in people living with HIV (PLHIV), increasing non-AIDS-related events. The occurrence of cardiovascular events is greater in PLHIV, but the mechanism responsible for it is still controversial. This article aimed to investigate factors associated with the progression to cardiovascular events in PLHIV using HAART. A 15-years cohort study with 1135 PLHIV was conducted in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. Clinical progression was stratified in five states: No comorbidities (s1), arterial hypertension (s2), lipid abnormalities (s3), hypertension and lipid abnormalities (s4) and major cardiovascular events (stroke, coronary artery disease, thrombosis or death) (s5)...
October 23, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051495/the-%C3%AE-20-%C3%AE-21-of-gp120-is-a-regulatory-switch-for-hiv-1-env-conformational-transitions
#12
Alon Herschhorn, Christopher Gu, Francesca Moraca, Xiaochu Ma, Mark Farrell, Amos B Smith, Marie Pancera, Peter D Kwong, Arne Schön, Ernesto Freire, Cameron Abrams, Scott C Blanchard, Walther Mothes, Joseph G Sodroski
The entry of HIV-1 into target cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env). Binding to the CD4 receptor triggers a cascade of conformational changes in distant domains that move Env from a functionally "closed" State 1 to more "open" conformations, but the molecular mechanisms underlying allosteric regulation of these transitions are still elusive. Here, we develop chemical probes that block CD4-induced conformational changes in Env and use them to identify a potential control switch for Env structural rearrangements...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048508/characterizing-human-immunodeficiency-virus-antiretroviral-therapy-interruption-and-resulting-disease-progression-using-population-level-data-in-british-columbia-1996-2015
#13
Linwei Wang, Jeong Eun Min, Xiao Zang, Paul Sereda, Richard P Harrigan, Julio S G Montaner, Bohdan Nosyk
Background: Suboptimal retention is among the biggest challenges to realize the full benefits of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to describe ART interruption patterns and identify determinants of disease progression while off ART in British Columbia, Canada. Methods: With population-level data on ART utilization and laboratory testing in British Columbia (1996-2015), we described the timing, frequency, and duration of ART interruptions (a gap of ≥90 days in ART dispensation records)...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045905/transcriptional-reprogramming-during-effector-to-memory-transition-renders-cd4-t-cells-permissive-for-latent-hiv-1-infection
#14
Liang Shan, Kai Deng, Hongbo Gao, Sifei Xing, Adam A Capoferri, Christine M Durand, S Alireza Rabi, Gregory M Laird, Michelle Kim, Nina N Hosmane, Hung-Chih Yang, Hao Zhang, Joseph B Margolick, Linghua Li, Weiping Cai, Ruian Ke, Richard A Flavell, Janet D Siliciano, Robert F Siliciano
The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4(+) T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Studies of HIV-1 latency have focused on regulation of viral gene expression in cells in which latent infection is established. However, it remains unclear how infection initially becomes latent. Here we described a unique set of properties of CD4(+) T cells undergoing effector-to-memory transition including temporary upregulation of CCR5 expression and rapid downregulation of cellular gene transcription...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045893/hiv-1-latency-by-transition
#15
Boris Julg, Dan H Barouch
The latent HIV-1 reservoir represents the major barrier for the development of an HIV-1 cure. In this issue of Immunity, Shan et al. (2017) highlight that effector-to-memory transitioning (EMT) CD4(+) T cells are particularly permissive for the establishment of latent HIV-1 infection.
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036208/transitioning-couple-s-voluntary-hiv-counseling-and-testing-cvct-from-stand-alone-weekend-services-into-routine-antenatal-and-vct-services-in-government-clinics-in-zambia-s-two-largest-cities
#16
Mubiana Inambao, William Kilembe, Lauren A Canary, Nancy L Czaicki, Matilda Kakungu-Simpungwe, Roy Chavuma, Kristin M Wall, Amanda Tichacek, Julie Pulerwitz, Ibou Thior, Elwyn Chomba, Susan A Allen
INTRODUCTION: Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described. METHODS: Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029187/evidence-for-the-selective-basis-of-transition-to-transversion-substitution-bias-in-two-rna-viruses
#17
Daniel M Lyons, Adam S Lauring
The substitution rates of transitions are higher than expected by chance relative to those of transversions. Many have argued that selection disfavors transversions, as nonsynonymous transversions are less likely to conserve biochemical properties of the original amino acid. Only recently has it become feasible to directly test this selective hypothesis by comparing the fitness effects of a large number of transition and transversion mutations. For example, a recent study of six viruses and one beta-lactamase gene did not find evidence supporting the selective hypothesis...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020239/reproductive-aging-and-hepatic-fibrosis-progression-in-hiv-hepatitis-c-virus-co-infected-women
#18
Monika Sarkar, Jennifer L Dodge, Ruth M Greenblatt, Mark H Kuniholm, Jack DeHovitz, Michael Plankey, Andrea Kovacs, Audrey L French, Eric C Seaberg, Igho Ofotokun, Margaret Fischl, Edgar Overton, Erin Kelly, Peter Bacchetti, Marion G Peters
Background: Severity of hepatic fibrosis is greater in post- as compared to pre-menopausal women, perhaps due to protective effects of estrogens. However, prior studies of estrogen and liver fibrosis lack serial fibrosis measures, adjustment for age, or longitudinal observations in co-infected populations. Methods: In a longitudinal cohort of HIV/HCV co-infected women we assessed fibrosis progression across reproductive age using validated serum fibrosis markers, APRI and FIB-4...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987321/the-role-of-human-dopamine-transporter-in-neuroaids
#19
REVIEW
Jun Zhu, Subramaniam Ananthan, Chang-Guo Zhan
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains highly prevalent in HIV infected individuals and represents a special group of neuropathological disorders, which are associated with HIV-1 viral proteins, such as transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. Cocaine abuse increases the incidence of HAND and exacerbates its severity by enhancing viral replication. Perturbation of dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk factor of HAND. The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is essential for DA homeostasis and dopaminergic modulation of the brain function including cognition...
October 5, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981535/predictors-of-transitions-in-frailty-severity-and-mortality-among-people-aging-with-hiv
#20
Thomas D Brothers, Susan Kirkland, Olga Theou, Stefano Zona, Andrea Malagoli, Lindsay M K Wallace, Chiara Stentarelli, Cristina Mussini, Julian Falutz, Giovanni Guaraldi, Kenneth Rockwood
BACKGROUND: People aging with HIV show variable health trajectories. Our objective was to identify longitudinal predictors of frailty severity and mortality among a group aging with HIV. METHODS: Exploratory analyses employing a multistate transition model, with data from the prospective Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic Cohort Study, based in Northern Italy, begun in 2004. Participants were followed over four years from their first available visit. We included all 963 participants (mean age 46...
2017: PloS One
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