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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900073/-molecular-mechanisms-of-hiv-1-genetic-diversity
#1
D V Sosin, N A Tchurikov
High genetic diversity of HIV-1 is the main factor behind the fact that HIV infection is widespread and difficult to treat. Although a limited number (or only one) of virus particles enters the blood upon infection, the particles are replicated in infected cells and rapidly produce new genetic variants that are resistant to the host immune system and antiretroviral drugs. This circumstance hampers the development of anti-HIV-1 vaccines and requires new antiretroviral drugs to be designed. The cause of the high variation of HIV-1 is related to the properties of its reverse transcriptase, which is error prone and often makes mistakes when transcribing virus RNA...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895527/assessing-the-danger-of-self-sustained-hiv-epidemics-in-heterosexuals-by-population-based-phylogenetic-cluster-analysis
#2
Teja Turk, Nadine Bachmann, Claus Kadelka, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Vincent Aubert, Thomas Klimkait, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Alexandra Calmy, Matthias Cavassini, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Hoffmann, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger D Kouyos
Assessing the danger of transition of HIV transmission from a concentrated to a generalized epidemic is of major importance for public health. In this study, we develop a phylogeny-based statistical approach to address this question. As a case study, we use this to investigate the trends and determinants of HIV transmission among Swiss heterosexuals. We extract the corresponding transmission clusters from a phylogenetic tree. To capture the incomplete sampling, the delayed introduction of imported infections to Switzerland, and potential factors associated with basic reproductive number R0, we extend the branching process model to infer transmission parameters...
September 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895487/-%C3%A2-like-because-you-are-a-grownup-you-do-not-need-help-experiences-of-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-among-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-infection-their-caregivers-and-health-care-providers-in-the-dominican-republic
#3
María C Pinzón-Iregui, Gladys Ibanez, Consuelo Beck-Sagué, Mina Halpern, Rosa M Mendoza
With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide, youth with perinatal HIV infection are increasingly surviving childhood and transitioning to adult care. Although a normal life span is anticipated posttransition, successful transition to adult HIV care has proven difficult, with worse outcomes posttransition than in pediatric and adult care. This study is a qualitative analysis of data from 4 focus groups of pre- and posttransition patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers in the Dominican Republic at an institution that provides comprehensive treatment including ART for HIV-infected persons of all ages...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893089/investigation-of-the-solvent-dependent-photolysis-of-a-nonnucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-antiviral-agent-efavirenz
#4
Maryam A Jordaan, Michael Shapi
This study sought to investigate the solvent-dependency on the photolysis of efavirenz to gain insight into the photoprocesses involved. The primary mechanisms were firstly the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (i.e. phototautomerization), which generated the imidic acid phototautomer observed as [M-H](-) quasimolecular ion at m/z 314.0070 in the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Secondly, the photoinduced α-cleavage with the loss of a carbonyl group occurred (i...
January 1, 2017: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886092/prediction-of-long-term-outcomes-of-hiv-infected-patients-developing-non-aids-events-using-a-multistate-approach
#5
Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Santiago Moreno, Xavier Barber, Jose A Iribarren, Jorge Del Romero, Juan L Gómez-Sirvent, María Rivero, Francesc Vidal, Antonio A Campins, Félix Gutiérrez
OBJETIVES: Outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH) developing non-AIDS events (NAEs) remain poorly defined. We aimed to classify NAEs according to severity, and to describe clinical outcomes and prognostic factors after NAE occurrence using data from CoRIS, a large Spanish HIV cohort from 2004 to 2013. DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. METHODS: Using a multistate approach we estimated 3 transition probabilities: from alive and NAE-free to alive and NAE-experienced ("NAE development"); from alive and NAE-experienced to death ("Death after NAE"); and from alive and NAE-free to death ("Death without NAE")...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875332/the-population-education-transition-curve-education-gradients-across-population-exposure-to-new-health-risks
#6
David P Baker, William C Smith, Ismael G Muñoz, Haram Jeon, Tian Fu, Juan Leon, Daniel Salinas, Renata Horvatek
The salutary effect of formal education on health-risk behaviors and mortality is extensively documented: ceteris paribus, greater educational attainment leads to healthier lives and longevity. Even though the epidemiological evidence has strongly indicated formal education as a leading "social vaccine," there is intermittent reporting of counter-education gradients for health-risk behavior and associated outcomes for certain populations during specific periods. How can education have both beneficial and harmful effects on health, and under which contexts do particular effects emerge? It is useful to conceptualize the influence of education as a process sensitive to the nature, timing of entry, and uniqueness of a new pleasurable and desirable lifestyle and/or product (such as smoking) with initially unclear health risks for populations...
September 5, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875247/-it-was-supposed-to-be-a-onetime-thing-experiences-of-romantic-and-sexual-relationship-typologies-among-young-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#7
Stephen P Sullivan, Emily S Pingel, Rob Stephenson, José A Bauermeister
Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at elevated risk for HIV infection, highlighting the need to understand the elements of prevention and risk associated with their relationships. We employed a phenomenological approach to explore how young MSM become involved in different romantic and sexual experiences. We analyzed 28 semi-structured interviews conducted with young MSM living in Michigan. Using a phenomenological approach, we analyzed the data using an inductive coding strategy and thematic analysis...
September 5, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872281/transitioning-young-adults-from-paediatric-to-adult-care-and-the-hiv-care-continuum-in-atlanta-georgia-usa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Sophia A Hussen, Rana Chakraborty, Andrea Knezevic, Andres Camacho-Gonzalez, Eugene Huang, Rob Stephenson, Carlos Del Rio
INTRODUCTION: The transition from paediatric to adult HIV care is a particularly high-risk time for disengagement among young adults; however, empirical data are lacking. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 72 youth seen in both the paediatric and the adult clinics of the Grady Infectious Disease Program in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from 2004 to 2014. We abstracted clinical data on linkage, retention and virologic suppression from the last two years in the paediatric clinic through the first two years in the adult clinic...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861551/access-to-medical-and-mental-health-services-across-the-hiv-care-continuum-among-young-transgender-women-a-qualitative-study
#9
Nadia Dowshen, Susan Lee, Joshua Franklin, Marné Castillo, Frances Barg
Purpose: (1) To describe psychosocial, medical, and mental health outcomes of young transgender women (YTW) living with or at risk for HIV infection and (2) to explore barriers and facilitators to medical and mental health services across the HIV care continuum. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of YTW aged 16-24 years who were at risk for contracting or living with HIV. Participants were recruited from an adolescent HIV clinic and local community-based organizations that serve YTW...
2017: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854929/transition-from-f-75-to-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-an-observational-study-in-uganda
#10
Betty Lanyero, Hanifa Namusoke, Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Benedikte Grenov, Ezekiel Mupere, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard, Vibeke Brix Christensen, Henrik Friis, André Briend
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization now recommends the transition from F-75 to ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) in the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). We described the transition from F-75 to RUTF and identified correlates of failed transition. METHODS: We conducted an observational study among children aged 6-59 months treated for SAM at Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Therapeutic feeding during transition phase was provided by first offering half of the energy requirements from RUTF and the other half from F-75 and then increasing gradually to RUTF as only energy source...
August 30, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854263/assessment-of-metabolic-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-positive-individuals-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Jesse J R Masson, Andrew J Murphy, Man K S Lee, Matias Ostrowski, Suzanne M Crowe, Clovis S Palmer
Metabolism plays a fundamental role in supporting the growth, proliferation and effector functions of T cells. We investigated the impact of HIV infection on key processes that regulate glucose uptake and mitochondrial biogenesis in subpopulations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from 18 virologically-suppressed HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART; median CD4+ cell count: 728 cells/μl) and 13 HIV seronegative controls. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also analysed in total CD4+ and CD8+ T cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838570/-dis-integrated-care-barriers-to-health-care-utilization-for-trans-women-living-with-hiv
#12
Lauren Munro, Zack Marshall, Greta Bauer, Rebecca Hammond, Caleb Nault, Robb Travers
Transgender (trans) women have been particularly impacted by HIV. To seek insights into the dynamics of health service utilization, interviews were conducted with trans women living with HIV (n = 14) as part of the Trans PULSE community-based research project in Ontario, Canada. Service providers (n = 10) were also interviewed to provide additional details about communication between trans women, social service providers, and clinicians. Results highlight how both problematic interactions with individuals and health systems navigation challenges affect access to services and impede the development of trans-specific HIV supports...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836573/stress-and-stability-applying-the-anna-karenina-principle-to-animal-microbiomes
#13
Jesse R Zaneveld, Ryan McMinds, Rebecca Vega Thurber
All animals studied to date are associated with symbiotic communities of microorganisms. These animal microbiotas often play important roles in normal physiological function and susceptibility to disease; predicting their responses to perturbation represents an essential challenge for microbiology. Most studies of microbiome dynamics test for patterns in which perturbation shifts animal microbiomes from a healthy to a dysbiotic stable state. Here, we consider a complementary alternative: that the microbiological changes induced by many perturbations are stochastic, and therefore lead to transitions from stable to unstable community states...
August 24, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833949/argon-plasma-coagulation-treatment-of-anal-high-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-living-with-hiv-results-of-a-2-year-prospective-pilot-study
#14
A de Pokomandy, D Rouleau, R Lalonde, C Beauvais, C de Castro, F Coutlée
OBJECTIVES: Men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV are at high risk for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and cancer. The best management of anal HSIL remains unclear. Our objective was to assess whether argon plasma coagulation (APC) could be safe, well tolerated and efficient to treat anal HSILs in MSM living with HIV. METHODS: A prospective phase II, open-label, pilot study was conducted to evaluate APC to treat anal HSILs in 20 HIV-positive MSM...
August 23, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832781/health-transition-in-brazil-regional-variations-and-divergence-convergence-in-mortality
#15
Gabriel Mendes Borges
This study analyzes the main characteristics of the health transition in Brazil and its five major regions, using a framework that accounts for regional inequalities in mortality trends. The regional mortality divergence/convergence process is described and discussed by considering the specific contributions of age groups and causes of death in life expectancy variations. Results show that mortality change in Brazil has follow the epidemiologic transition theory to some extent during the period under analysis - for instance, the sharp decline in infant mortality in all regions (first from infectious and parasitic diseases and then from causes associated with the perinatal period) and the increase in the participation of chronic and degenerative diseases as the main cause of death...
August 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825711/crystal-structures-of-trimeric-hiv-envelope-with-entry-inhibitors-bms-378806-and-bms-626529
#16
Marie Pancera, Yen-Ting Lai, Tatsiana Bylund, Aliaksandr Druz, Sandeep Narpala, Sijy O'Dell, Arne Schön, Robert T Bailer, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Hui Geng, Mark K Louder, Reda Rawi, Djade I Soumana, Andrés Finzi, Alon Herschhorn, Navid Madani, Joseph Sodroski, Ernesto Freire, David R Langley, John R Mascola, Adrian B McDermott, Peter D Kwong
The HIV-1 envelope (Env) spike is a conformational machine that transitions between prefusion (closed, CD4- and CCR5-bound) and postfusion states to facilitate HIV-1 entry into cells. Although the prefusion closed conformation is a potential target for inhibition, development of small-molecule leads has been stymied by difficulties in obtaining structural information. Here, we report crystal structures at 3.8-Å resolution of an HIV-1-Env trimer with BMS-378806 and a derivative BMS-626529 for which a prodrug version is currently in Phase III clinical trials...
August 21, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821264/impact-of-early-initiation-versus-national-standard-of-care-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-swaziland-s-public-sector-health-system-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomized-trial
#17
Fiona J Walsh, Till Bärnighausen, Wim Delva, Yvette Fleming, Gavin Khumalo, Charlotte L Lejeune, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Charmaine Khudzie Mlambo, Ria Reis, Donna Spiegelman, Mandisa Zwane, Velephi Okello
BACKGROUND: There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820622/latent-growth-curve-modeling-of-non-injection-drug-use-and-condomless-sexual-behavior-from-ages-18-to-21-in-gay-bisexual-and-other-ymsm-the-p18-cohort-study
#18
Perry N Halkitis, Kristen Bub, Christopher B Stults, Francesca C Bates, Farzana Kapadia
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS continues to be a health disparity faced by sexual minority men, and is exacerbated by non-injection drug use. OBJECTIVES: We sought to delineate growth in non-injection drug use and condomless sex in a sample of racially and economically diverse of gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as they emerged into adulthood between the ages of 18 and 21 and who came of age in the post-HAART era. METHODS: Behavioral data on drug use and condomless sex, collected via a calendar based technique over 7 waves of a cohort study of 600 YMSM, were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling to document patterns of growth in these behaviors, their associations, and the extent to which patterns and associations are moderated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status...
August 18, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818082/comparing-chronic-condition-rates-using-icd-9-and-icd-10-in-va-patients-fy2014-2016
#19
Jean Yoon, Adam Chow
BACKGROUND: Management of patients with chronic conditions relies on accurate measurement. It is unknown how transition to the ICD-10 coding system affected reporting of chronic condition rates over time. We measured chronic condition rates 2 years before and 1 year after the transition to ICD-10 to examine changes in prevalence rates and potential measurement issues in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. METHODS: We developed definitions for 34 chronic conditions using ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes and compared the prevalence rates of these conditions from FY2014 to 2016 in a 20% random sample (1...
August 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818055/patterns-of-hiv-testing-practices-among-young-gay-and-bisexual-men-living-in-scotland-a-qualitative-study
#20
Nicola Boydell, Katie Buston, Lisa Margaret McDaid
BACKGROUND: Increasing overall rates, and frequency, of HIV testing in populations at risk is a key public health objective and a critical dimension of HIV prevention efforts. In the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the communities most at risk of HIV and, within this, young gay men are a key risk group. Understanding HIV testing practices is important in the development of interventions to promote testing among young gay and bisexual men. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty young gay and bisexual men (aged 18-29) in Scotland...
August 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
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