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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774442/integrated-models-of-care-for-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-how-do-we-prevent-hiv-and-hcv
#1
REVIEW
Katherine M Rich, Joshua Bia, Frederick L Altice, Judith Feinberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe models of integrated and co-located care for opioid use disorder (OUD), hepatitis C (HCV), and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: The design and scale-up of multidisciplinary care models that engage, retain, and treat individuals with HIV, HCV, and OUD are critical to preventing continued spread of HIV and HCV. We identified 17 models within primary care (N = 3), HIV specialty care (N = 5), opioid treatment programs (N = 6), transitional clinics (N = 2), and community-based harm reduction programs (N = 1), as well as two emerging models...
May 17, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771680/factors-associated-with-time-between-using-a-drug-and-injection-initiation-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-kermanshah-iran
#2
Mehdi Noroozi, Mohammad Hassan Farhadi, Bahram Armoon, Ali Farhoudian, Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari, Asaad Sharhani, Salah Eddin Karimi, Mohammad Sayadnasiri, Omid Rezaei, Hesam Ghiasvand
Background The transition from non-injection to injection drug use dramatically increases the risk of transmitting HIV and other blood borne infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the transition from first illicit drug use to first injection among drug users. Methods Using snowball sampling and convenience sampling through needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), we recruited 500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kermanshah, between September and December 2014...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769349/hiv-1-activation-of-innate-immunity-depends-strongly-on-the-intracellular-level-of-trex1-and-sensing-of-incomplete-reverse-transcription-products
#3
Swati Kumar, James H Morrison, David Dingli, Eric Poeschla
TREX1 has been reported to degrade cytosolic immune-stimulatory DNA, including viral DNA generated during HIV-1 infection, but the dynamic range of its capacity to suppress innate immune stimulation is unknown and its full role in the viral life cycle remains unclear. A main purpose of our study was to determine how the intracellular level of TREX1 affects HIV-1 activation and avoidance of innate immunity. Using stable over-expression and CRISPR-mediated gene disruption, we engineered a range of TREX1 levels in human THP-1 monocytes...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756456/no-time-to-delay-fiebig-stages-and-referral-in-acute-hiv-infection-seattle-primary-infection-program-experience
#4
Joanne Stekler, Kenneth Tapia, Janine Maenza, Claire E Stevens, George Ure, Joshua O'Neal, Aric Lane, James I Mullins, Robert Coombs, Sarah E Holte, Ann Cornwall Collier
INTRODUCTION: There has been increasing recognition of the importance of diagnosing individuals during the earliest stages of HIV infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera from individuals referred to a primary HIV infection research program were screened using the IgG-sensitive Vironostika HIV-1 Microelisa System, IgG/IgM-sensitive GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O antibody EIA, or Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay and confirmed by the Bio-Rad Multispot and Western Blot...
May 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748343/physical-activity-among-hiv-positive-patients-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hanoi-and-nam-dinh-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Anh Kim Dang, Long Hoang Nguyen, Anh Quynh Nguyen, Bach Xuan Tran, Tung Thanh Tran, Carl A Latkin, Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has facilitated the transition of HIV infection into a chronic disease, where adherence to medications is required along with keeping a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, an increase in physical activity has been recommended for patients with HIV in order to maintain their health status. This study looked to determine the physical activity level and its associated factors among patients with HIV receiving ART treatment. SETTINGS: Eight outpatient clinic sites across different levels of the health systems in both rural and urban settings in Hanoi and Nam Dinh, Vietnam...
May 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746295/the-transition-to-dolutegravir-and-other-new-antiretrovirals-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-what-are-the-issues
#6
Marco Vitoria, Andrew Hill, Nathan Ford, Meg Doherty, Polly Clayden, Francois Venter, David Ripin, Charles Flexner, Paul Domanico
: There are currently approximately 16 million people taking NNRTI-based first-line treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these patients are using the combination of tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has shown an improved safety profile compared to EFV in randomised studies. DTG also has a high barrier to development of drug resistance. New co-formulated tablets with TDF/3TC/DTG are being introduced into LMICs, for a median price of $75 per person-year...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737441/long-term-supportive-housing-is-associated-with-decreased-risk-for-new-hiv-diagnoses-among-a-large-cohort-of-homeless-persons-in-new-york-city
#7
Christopher T Lee, Andrea Winquist, Ellen W Wiewel, Sarah Braunstein, Hannah T Jordan, L Hannah Gould, R Charon Gwynn, Sungwoo Lim
It is unknown whether providing housing to persons experiencing homelessness decreases HIV risk. Housing, including access to preventive services and counseling, might provide a period of transition for persons with HIV risk factors. We assessed whether the new HIV diagnosis rate was associated with duration of supportive housing. We linked data from a cohort of 21,689 persons without a previous HIV diagnosis who applied to a supportive housing program in New York City (NYC) during 2007-2013 to the NYC HIV surveillance registry...
May 8, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732988/appearance-of-drug-resistance-mutations-among-the-dominant-hiv-1-subtype-crf01_ae-in-maumere-indonesia
#8
Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Tomohiro Kotaki, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar Matondang, Shuhei Ueda, Nasronudin, Asep Purnama, Dwi Kurniawan, Masanori Kameoka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is still a major health issue in Indonesia. In recent years, the appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations has reduced the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted genotypic studies, including the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations (from first-line regimen drugs), on HIV-1 genes derived from infected individuals in Maumere, West Nusa Tenggara. Maumere, a transit city in West Nusa Tenggara, which has a high HIV-1 transmission rate...
May 1, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715277/metal-cofactor-modulated-folding-and-target-recognition-of-hiv-1-ncp7
#9
Weitong Ren, Dongqing Ji, Xiulian Xu
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid 7 (NCp7) plays crucial roles in multiple stages of HIV-1 life cycle, and its biological functions rely on the binding of zinc ions. Understanding the molecular mechanism of how the zinc ions modulate the conformational dynamics and functions of the NCp7 is essential for the drug development and HIV-1 treatment. In this work, using a structure-based coarse-grained model, we studied the effects of zinc cofactors on the folding and target RNA(SL3) recognition of the NCp7 by molecular dynamics simulations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710061/people-living-with-hiv-implications-for-rehabilitation-nurses
#10
Joseph D Perazzo, Allison R Webel, Ellen McGough, Joachim Voss
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to present a brief overview of challenges faced by people living with HIV (PLHIV) as they age, to discuss the relevance of HIV to rehabilitation nurses, and to provide evidence-based recommendations for rehabilitation professionals working with PLHIV. DESIGN: Current issues article. METHODS: Literature review related to age-related comorbidities in PLHIV with implications for rehabilitation nurses. FINDINGS: Rehabilitation nurses must be prepared to address issues specific to people living with HIV including sensitivity and privacy regarding HIV status and increased risk of delayed or complicated healing...
May 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705491/structural-discordance-in-hiv-1-vpu-from-brain-isolate-alarms-amyloid-fibril-forming-behavior-a-computational-perspective
#11
Sneha Patil, Pritam Kumar Panda, Fatemeh Gharemirshamlu Rahimi, Kourosh Bamdad, Seetharaman Balaji
HIV-1 being the most widespread type worldwide accounts for almost 95% of all infections including HIV associated dementia (HAD) that triggers neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration in patients. The common features associated with HAD and other neurodegenerative diseases are accumulation of amyloid plaques, neuronal loss and deterioration of cognitive abilities, amongst which amyloid fibrillation is considered to be a hallmark. The success of effective therapeutics lies in the understanding of mechanisms leading to neurotoxicity...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697594/factors-associated-with-gaps-in-medicaid-enrollment-among-people-with-hiv-and-the-effect-of-gaps-on-viral-suppression
#12
Anne K Monroe, Leslie Myint, Richard Rutstein, Judith Aberg, Stephen Boswell, Allison Agwu, Kelly Gebo, Richard Moore
IntroductionGaps in Medicaid enrollment may affect HIV outcomes. We evaluated factors associated with Medicaid enrollment gaps and their effect on viral suppression (VS) within the HIV Research Network (HIVRN).MethodsWe used a combined dataset with Medicaid enrollment files from 2006-10 and HIVRN demographic and clinical data. A gap was defined as > 1 month without Medicaid and gap length was determined. We used multivariable logistic regression (MLR) to determine factors associated with a gap and MLR with generalized estimated equations to evaluate factors associated with VS post-gap...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679566/matrix-stiffness-regulate-apoptotic-cell-death-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-hepatocytes-importance-for-liver-fibrosis-progression
#13
Murali Ganesan, Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Edward Makarov, Larisa I Poluektova, Srivatsan Kidambi, Natalia A Osna
HIV-HCV co-infection causes rapid progression of liver fibrosis. These outcomes to liver cirrhosis can be improved, but not stopped by specific antiviral therapies. Due to high significance of HIV-HCV interactions for morbidity and mortality in co-infected patients, our attention was attracted to the multi-component pathogenesis of fibrosis progression as the transition to end-stage liver disease development. In this study, we hypothesize that increased matrix stiffness enhances apoptosis in HCV-HIV-co-infected hepatocytes and that capturing of apoptotic bodies (AB) derived from these infected hepatocytes by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) drives the fibrosis progression...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675995/bridging-the-hiv-treatment-gap-in-nigeria-examining-community-antiretroviral-treatment-models
#14
Edward A Oladele, Okikiolu A Badejo, Christopher Obanubi, Emeka F Okechukwu, Ezekiel James, Golden Owhonda, Onuche I Omeh, Moyosola Abass, Olubunmi R Negedu-Momoh, Norma Ojehomon, Dorothy Oqua, Satish Raj-Pandey, Hadiza Khamofu, Kwasi Torpey
INTRODUCTION: Significant gaps persist in providing HIV treatment to all who are in need. Restricting care delivery to healthcare facilities will continue to perpetuate this gap in limited resource settings. We assessed a large-scale community-based programme for effectiveness in identifying people living with HIV and linking them to antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: A retrospective secular trend study of 14 high burden local government areas of Nigeria was conducted in which two models of community antiretroviral treatment delivery were implemented: Model A (on-site initiation) and Model B (immediate referral) clusters...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658825/alternative-kinship-structures-resilience-and-social-support-among-immigrant-trans-latinas-in-the-usa
#15
Sel J Hwahng, Bennett Allen, Cathy Zadoretzky, Hannah Barber, Courtney McKnight, Don Des Jarlais
Latinas comprise the largest racial/ethnic group of trans women (male-to-female transgender people) in New York City, where HIV seroprevalence among trans Latinas has been found to be as high as 49%. Despite this population's high risk of HIV, little is known about resilience among trans Latinas that may provide protective health factors. Six focus groups and one in-depth interview were conducted with 34 low-income trans/gender-variant people of colour who attended transgender support groups at harm reduction programmes in New York City...
April 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652872/medical-management-of-transgender-children-and-adolescents
#16
María Fernanda Castilla-Peón
Transgender or gender nonconforming (GN) persons identify themselves with a gender which is different from that correspondent to their birth sex. The demand for health services by families with transgender children or adolescents tends to increase. The prevalence of GN in children is unknown; however, it has been estimated to be > 1% in adolescents. Transgender persons are at increased risk of depression, suicide, illicit drug abuse, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and non-accidental injury. The most accepted model for the care of transgender persons assumes that these adverse outcomes are the consequence of social margination rather than the GI condition itself...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649078/point-of-diagnosis-and-patient-retention-in-hiv-care-in-western-kenya
#17
Becky L Genberg, Hana Lee, Joseph W Hogan, Fatma Some, Juddy Wachira, Xiaotian K Wu, Paula Braitstein
BACKGROUND: Home-based counseling and testing (HBCT) achieves earlier HIV diagnosis than other testing modalities; however, retention in care for these healthier patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between point of HIV testing and retention in care and mortality. SETTING: AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) has provided HIV care in western Kenya since 2001. METHODS: AMPATH initiated HBCT in 2007...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649077/circulating-cxcr5-expressing-cd8-t-cells-are-major-producers-of-il-21-and-associate-with-limited-hiv-replication
#18
Federico Perdomo-Celis, Natalia A Taborda, Maria T Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Despite advances made with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in the control of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) infection, a cure has not been achieved due to the persistence of viral reservoirs. The major HIV reservoirs remain in the lymphoid follicles due to, among other factors, the partial absence of CD8T-cells in these structures. Recently, lymphoid follicle-confined and circulating CD8T-cells expressing the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) were described, possessing antiviral mechanisms which could help to control HIV replication...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621950/translation-of-clinical-trial-data-to-changes-in-clinical-practice-rapid-transition-from-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-to-tenofovir-alafenamide-based-therapies-in-a-sydney-hiv-clinic
#19
Don E Smith, Merrion Tom, Bruce H Bowden
The transition of clinical trial data to changes in routine clinical practice is often a slow process. We describe a rapid transition of patients from one form of antiviral therapy to a modified and potentially safer version that can occur quickly when there are no financial or organisational restrictions on the prescribers.
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617965/cost-effectiveness-of-preventive-therapy-for-tuberculosis-with-isoniazid-and-rifapentine-versus-isoniazid-alone-in-high-burden-settings
#20
Karl T Johnson, Gavin J Churchyard, Hojoon Sohn, David W Dowdy
Background: A short-course regimen of three months of weekly rifapentine and isoniazid (3HP) has recently been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an alternative to at least six months of daily isoniazid (isoniazid preventive therapy, IPT) for prevention of tuberculosis (TB). The contexts in which 3HP may be cost-effective compared to IPT among people living with HIV (PLWH) are unknown. Methods: We used a Markov state-transition model to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of 3HP relative to IPT in high-burden settings, using a cohort of 1000 patients in a Ugandan HIV clinic as an emblematic scenario...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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