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retinoid investigation

Hye-Jin Tak, Tae-Jin Park, Piao Zhengguo, Sang-Hwy Lee
BACKGROUND: Syngnathia is a congenital craniofacial disorder characterized by bony or soft tissue fusion of upper and lower jaws. Previous studies suggested some causative signals, such as Foxc1 or Bmp4, cause the disruption of maxillomandibular identity, but their location and the interactive signals involved remain unexplored. We thus wanted to examine the embryonic origin of syngnathia based on the assumption that it may be located at the separation between the maxillary and mandibular processes...
October 18, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Yoo-Sun Kim, Eunju Kim, Yoon Jung Park, Yuri Kim
Neuroblastoma (NB) is childhood malignancy that retains characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Targeting the CSCs is one of the therapeutic strategies proposed to achieve complete remission of NB. β-carotene (BC), an active precursor of retinoids, is a well-known antioxidant reported to possess anti-CSCs effects. Here, we investigated the involvement of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in the anti-CSCs effects of BC. Treatment with BC or retinoic acid (RA) upregulated RARβ mRNA expression in two NB cell lines...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shu-Jing Yu, Rong Jiang, Ying Z Mazzu, Cai-Bing Wei, Zong-Liang Sun, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most common cause of acute liver failure. Disruption of the Th17/Treg balance can lead to hepatic inflammation, which causes the main symptoms of DILI. Here we investigate the protective mechanisms of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on triptolide (TP)-induced DILI that shows the Th17/Treg imbalance. Pretreatment with EGCG (5[Formula: see text]mg/kg) for 10 days before TP (0.5[Formula: see text]mg/kg) administration in mice significantly reduced the increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ([Formula: see text]) induced by TP treatment...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Nathália Grave, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Janaína da Silveira, Diego Luiz Rovaris, Simone Morelo Dal Bosco, Verônica Contini, Júlia Pasqualini Genro
Much evidence suggests an association between vitamin D deficiency and chronic diseases such as obesity and dyslipidemia. Although genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of these diseases, only a few studies have investigated the relationship between vitamin D-related genes and anthropometric and lipid profiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of three vitamin D-related genes with anthropometric and lipid parameters in 542 adult individuals. We analyzed the rs2228570 polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), rs2134095 in the retinoid X receptor gamma gene (RXRG) and rs7041 in the vitamin D-binding protein gene (GC)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Liqiong Zhu, Hui Chen, Meilan Liu, Yu Yuan, Zhaohua Wang, Ying Chen, Jing Wei, Fang Su, Jianping Zhang
Regulatory T cells (Treg) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) are 2 distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells, which are mutually antagonistic in the immune response. Recently, dysregulation of these 2 cell subsets have been described in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Treg/Th17 balance was perturbed in URSA patients and to explore contributing factors. We found that the proportion of Treg cells and expression of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) messenger RNA (mRNA) were significantly lower in URSA patients than in healthy controls...
October 2, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Jessica Mounessa, Talayesa Buntinx-Krieg, Rosie Qin, Cory A Dunnick, Robert P Dellavalle
The incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) continues to rise in the United States. While sun protection and full body skin examinations remain the mainstay of preventative care, chemoprevention of the deadly disease has become an increasingly popular field of study. In this focused review, we discuss current findings and analyze the risks and benefits of various agents investigated for the primary and secondary chemoprevention of MM. Such agents include topical retinoids, vitamins, and supplements, Polypodium leucotomas extracts, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), statins, sunscreens, and field therapy with topical imiquimod for primary and secondary chemoprevention...
September 24, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Magdalena Zurawek, Marta Fichna, Marta Kazimierska, Piotr Fichna, Agnieszka Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Grzegorz Przybylski, Marek Ruchala, Jerzy Nowak
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is an intracellular adaptor molecule, downstream of viral sensors, retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). Impaired antiviral cell signaling might contribute to autoimmunity. Studies have recently shown variations in genes encoding RLRs as risk factors for autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether MAVS coding polymorphisms are associated with Addison's disease (AD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Polish population. We genotyped 140 AD, 532 T1D patients and 600 healthy controls for MAVS rs17857295, rs7262903, rs45437096 and rs7269320...
September 20, 2016: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Yixiao Xu, Hongzhou Lin, Wenjie Zheng, Xiaohua Ye, Lingfang Yu, Jieqiu Zhuang, Qing Yang, Dexuan Wang
Matrine (MAT) is an active alkaloid extracted from Radix Sophora flavescens. The present study was to investigate whether MAT could effectively treat Adriamycin-induced nephropathy (AIN). AIN was induced in rats using a single injection of Adriamycin (ADR). Renal interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-17 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) levels, and the expression of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) and retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor γt (Rorγt) was measured. AIN rats developed severe albuminuria, hypoalbuminaemia, hyperlipidaemia and podocyte injury...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Trupti Surana, Bela Padhiar, Umesh Karia, Purna Pandya
Palmoplantarkeratodermas (PPKs) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders with underlying gene defects, and characterized by hyperkeratosis of palms and soles with or without other ectodermal and systemic abnormalities. Huriez syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant transgradient type of PPK with high frequency of squamous cell carcinoma in the affected skin. We hereby describe a case of a very rare autosomal dominant PPK in a 40-year-old male patient presenting since birth with PPK extending onto the dorsal aspects of hands and feet with peeling of the skin...
July 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Fatemeh Sabbaghziarani, Keywan Mortezaee, Mohammad Akbari, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Mansooreh Soleimani, Ashraf Moini, Nahid Ataeinejad, Adib Zendedel, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh
Stroke is the consequence of limited blood flow to the brain with no established treatment to reduce the neurological deficits. Focusing on therapeutic protocols in targeting subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis has been investigated recently. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of retinoic acid (RA)-pretreated Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) in combination with triiodothyronine (T3) in the ischemia stroke model. Male Wistar rats were used to induce focal cerebral ischemia by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
August 22, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Supawadee Sukseree, Ying-Ting Chen, Maria Laggner, Florian Gruber, Valérie Petit, Ionela-Mariana Nagelreiter, Veronika Mlitz, Heidemarie Rossiter, Andreas Pollreisz, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Lionel Larue, Erwin Tschachler, Leopold Eckhart
Targeted gene knockout mouse models have helped to identify roles of autophagy in many tissues. Here, we investigated the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of Atg7f/f Tyr-Cre mice (on a C57BL/6 background), in which Cre recombinase is expressed under the control of the tyrosinase promoter to delete the autophagy gene Atg7. In line with pigment cell-directed blockade of autophagy, the RPE and the melanocytes of the choroid showed strong accumulation of the autophagy adaptor and substrate, sequestosome 1 (Sqstm1)/p62, relative to the levels in control mice...
2016: PloS One
Loan Nguyen-Yamamoto, Andrew C Karaplis, Rene St-Arnaud, David Goltzman
Circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increase during the early stages of kidney disease, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely characterized. We investigated the role of vitamin D metabolites in regulating intact FGF23 production in genetically modified mice without and with adenine-induced uremia. Exogenous calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) and high circulating levels of calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) each increased serum FGF23 levels in wild-type mice and in mice with global deficiency of the Cyp27b1 gene encoding 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1-α-hydroxylase, which produces 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D...
August 17, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
A Heather Eliassen, Erica T Warner, Bernard Rosner, Laura C Collins, Andrew H Beck, Liza M Quintana, Rulla M Tamimi, Susan E Hankinson
Experimental evidence supports a protective role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in breast carcinogenesis, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. Whether plasma 25(OH)D interacts with breast tumor expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoid X receptor-α (RXR) has not been investigated. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Nurses' Health Study, with 1,506 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed after blood donation in 1989-1990, 417 of whom donated a second sample in 2000-2002. VDR and RXR expression were assessed by immunohistochemical staining of tumor microarrays (n = 669 cases)...
September 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Nancy E Chen, N Vanessa Maldonado, Vazgen Khankaldyyan, Hiroyuki Shimada, Michael M Song, Barry J Maurer, C Patrick Reynolds
ABT-751 is a colchicine-binding site microtubule inhibitor. Fenretinide (4-HPR) is a synthetic retinoid. Both agents have shown activity against neuroblastoma in laboratory models and clinical trials. We investigated the antitumor activity of 4-HPR + the microtubule-targeting agents ABT-751, vincristine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, or colchicine in laboratory models of recurrent neuroblastoma. Drug cytotoxicity was assessed in vitro by a fluorescence-based assay (DIMSCAN) and in subcutaneous xenografts in nu/nu mice...
August 16, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Lizelle Fox, Candice Csongradi, Marique Aucamp, Jeanetta du Plessis, Minja Gerber
Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease which affects the pilosebaceous units of the skin. It can have severe psychological effects and can leave the patient with severe skin scarring. There are four well-recognized pathological factors responsible for acne which is also the target for acne therapy. In this review, different treatment options are discussed, including topical (i.e., retinoids, and antibiotics) and systemic (i.e., retinoids, antibiotics, and hormonal) treatments. Since the general public has been showing an increasing interest in more natural and generally safer treatment options, the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) for treating acne was also discussed...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Vivek M Ghate, Shaila A Lewis, Prabhakara Prabhu, Akhilesh Dubey, Nilkumar Patel
Cosmetic skin care products currently in the market demonstrate an increasing trend toward antiaging products. Selection of the right formulation approach is the key to successful consumer acceptance. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for dermal application can render added benefits to the formulation. Tretinoin a derivative of vitamin A, is a retinoid with anti-aging and anti-acne potential. The present study was aimed at formulating NLCs of tretinoin for reducing the skin irritation potential, increasing the drug loading capacity and prolonging the duration of action...
August 9, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Lisa-Mari Mörk, Stephen C Strom, Agneta Mode, Ewa C S Ellis
BACKGROUND: Primary human hepatocytes offer the best human in vitro model for studies on human liver cell metabolism. Investigators use a variety of different media supplements and matrix biocoatings and the type of culture system used may influence the outcome. OBJECTIVES: To optimize in vitro conditions for primary human hepatocytes with regard to bile acid synthesis. METHODS: Human hepatocytes were isolated and cultured on collagen type I or EHS matrigel in cell media with or without dexamethasone...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Sandra González-Rubio, Clara I Linares, Patricia Aguilar-Melero, Manuel Rodríguez-Perálvarez, José L Montero-Álvarez, Manuel de la Mata, Gustavo Ferrín
The harmful effects of bile acid accumulation occurring during cholestatic liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress increase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS-3) expression decrease in liver cells. We have previously reported that glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) down-regulates gene expression by increasing SP1 binding to the NOS-3 promoter in an oxidative stress dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of transcription factor (TF) AP-1 on the NOS-3 deregulation during GCDCA-induced cholestasis...
2016: PloS One
Hyun-Suk Lee, Sun-Ouck Kim, Kyuyoun Ahn, Kwangsung Park
INTRODUCTION: Water channel aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is an aquaglyceroporin that transports small neutral solutes and water. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a member of the retinoid drug class, acts as a regulator in several biological processes. AIM: To investigate the effect of ATRA on the expression of AQP3 in human vaginal epithelial cells. METHODS: Human vaginal mucosal epithelial cells (CRL2616) were treated with ATRA 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μmol/L for 24 hours to examine the dose-dependent effects of ATRA and with ATRA 1 μmol/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours...
July 22, 2016: Sexual Medicine
Kohei Fuchinoue, Atsushi Fukui, Hitomi Chiba, Mai Kamoi, Ayano Funamizu, Ayako Taima, Rie Fukuhara, Hideki Mizunuma
AIM: Recently, NK22 cells, a subset of interleukin (IL)-22-producing natural killer (NK) cells, were identified. We have previously reported the higher percentage of NK22 cells in women suffering recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Moreover, we have also reported lower expression of NKp46, a kind of natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR), on NK cells and the changes of NK cell producing cytokines in women who experience RPL. NK22 cells express NCRs, such as NKp44 or NKp46. Retinoid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) is known as a regulator of NK22 cells; however, in NK22 cells of peripheral blood (PB) and the uterine endometrium (UE), the relationship between NCRs and RORγt is unclear...
July 3, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
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