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Mitochondrial dysfunction neurodegenerative disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337125/neuronal-mitophagy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Marta Martinez-Vicente
Neuronal homeostasis depends on the proper functioning of different quality control systems. All intracellular components are subjected to continuous turnover through the coordinated synthesis, degradation and recycling of their constituent elements. Autophagy is the catabolic mechanism by which intracellular cytosolic components, including proteins, organelles, aggregates and any other intracellular materials, are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Among the different types of selective autophagy described to date, the process of mitophagy involves the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325755/loss-of-pink1-leads-to-metabolic-deficits-in-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-impedes-differentiation-of-newborn-neurons-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#2
Sandeep Kumar Agnihotri, Ruifang Shen, Jihong Li, Xu Gao, Hansruedi Büeler
Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial dynamics regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Although abnormal AHN has been linked to depression, anxiety, and cognitive dysfunction, which are features of neurodegenerative conditions, including Parkinson's disease (PD), the impact of mitochondrial deficits on AHN have not been explored previously in a model of neurodegeneration. Here, we used PTEN-induced kinase 1-deficient (PINK1(-/-) ) mice that lacked a mitochondrial kinase mutated in recessive familial PD...
March 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322921/linking-deregulation-of-non-coding-rna-to-the-core-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-integrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Mark J Millan
The human genome encodes a vast repertoire of protein non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), some specific to the brain. MicroRNAs, which interfere with the translation of target mRNAs, are of particular interest since their deregulation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains challenging to link the complex body of observations on miRNAs and AD into a coherent framework. Using extensive graphical support, this article discusses how a diverse panoply of miRNAs convergently and divergently impact (and are impacted by) core pathophysiological processes underlying AD: neuroinflammation and oxidative stress; aberrant generation of β-amyloid-42 (Aβ42); anomalies in the production, cleavage and post-translational marking of Tau; impaired clearance of Aβ42 and Tau; perturbation of axonal organisation; disruption of synaptic plasticity; endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response; mitochondrial dysfunction; aberrant induction of cell cycle re-entry; and apoptotic loss of neurons...
March 17, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322794/involvement-of-vimentin-in-neurite-outgrowth-damage-induced-by-fipronil-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#4
Theetat Ruangjaroon, Daranee Chokchaichamnankit, Chantragan Srisomsap, Jisnuson Svasti, N Monique Paricharttanakul
Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, is more selective in its potency towards insects than humans and is thus commonly used. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure to fipronil may pose a human health risk. We observed in vitro the shortening of neurite outgrowths of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells upon treatment with fipronil, even at a non-cytotoxic concentration. Fipronil induced apoptosis involving caspase-6, which is an apoptotic effector highly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, at a concentration that did not induce apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic vacuole formation were detected...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322751/neuroprotective-effects-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-in-an-acute-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Yujeong Lee, Gwangbeom Heo, Kyung Moon Lee, Ah Hyun Kim, Ki Wung Chung, Eunok Im, Hae Young Chung, Jaewon Lee
Neurons depend on mitochondria for homeostasis and survival, and thus, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence indicates the mitochondrial uncoupler, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), protects neurons against neurodegeneration and enhances neural plasticity. Here, the authors evaluated the protective effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered low dose DNP in an acute mouse model of PD. Mice were administered DNP (1 or 5 mg/kg) for 12 consecutive days, and then on day 13, MPTP (20 mg/kg, i...
March 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322741/evidence-of-k-homeostasis-disruption-in-cellular-dysfunction-triggered-by-7-ketocholesterol-24s-hydroxycholesterol-and-tetracosanoic-acid-c24-0-in-158n-murine-oligodendrocytes
#6
Maryem Bezine, Meryam Debbabi, Thomas Nury, Rym Ben-Khalifa, Mohammad Samadi, Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki, Anne Vejux, Jérôme de Sèze, Thibault Moreau, Mohamed El-Ayeb, Gérard Lizard
Imbalance in the homeostasis of K(+) ions has been reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC), and tetracosanoic acid (C24:0), often found at increased levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and X-ALD, are able to trigger numerous nerve cell dysfunctions. We therefore studied the impact of 7KC, 24S-OHC, and C24:0 on 158N murine oligodendrocytes, and determined their impact on K(+) homeostasis. The effects of 7KC, 24S-OHC and C24:0 on lipid membrane organization and membrane potential were examined with merocyanine 540 (MC540) and bis-(1,3-diethylthiobarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiSBAC2(3)), respectively...
March 17, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#7
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317877/transcription-factor-nf-kappa-b-represses-ant1-transcription-and-leads-to-mitochondrial-dysfunctions
#8
Chen Zhang, Hui Jiang, Pin Wang, Heng Liu, Xiulian Sun
Mitochondria are intracellular organelles involved in cell survival and death, and dysfunctions of mitochondria are related to neurodegenerative diseases. As the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial inner membrane, adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) plays a critical role in mitochondrial function, including the exchange of adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) in mitochondria, basal proton leak and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we show that ANT1 transcription is regulated by transcription factor NF-kappa B (NF-κB)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315370/control-of-mitochondrial-physiology-and-cell-death-by-the-bcl-2-family-proteins-bax-and-bok
#9
Beatrice D'Orsi, Julia Mateyka, Jochen H M Prehn
Neuronal cell death is often triggered by events that involve intracellular increases in Ca(2+). Under resting conditions, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is tightly controlled by a number of extrusion and sequestering mechanisms involving the plasma membrane, mitochondria, and ER. These mechanisms act to prevent a disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis. As these processes require ATP, excessive Ca(2+) overloading may cause energy depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and may eventually lead to Ca(2+)-dependent cell death...
March 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315269/sigma-1-receptors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-towards-a-hypothesis-of-sigma-1-receptors-as-amplifiers-of-neurodegeneration-and-neuroprotection
#10
Linda Nguyen, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Shona Mookerjee, Nidhi Kaushal, Rae R Matsumoto
Sigma-1 receptors are molecular chaperones that may act as pathological mediators and targets for novel therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence indicates that sigma-1 ligands can either directly or indirectly modulate multiple neurodegenerative processes, including excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction, inflammation, and astrogliosis. In addition, sigma-1 ligands may act as disease-modifying agents in the treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases by promoting the activity of neurotrophic factors and neural plasticity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302704/swimming-attenuates-d-galactose-induced-brain-aging-via-suppressing-mir-34a-mediated-autophagy-impairment-and-abnormal-mitochondrial-dynamics
#11
Xianjuan Kou, Jie Li, Xingran Liu, Jingru Chang, Qingxia Zhao, Shaohui Jia, Jingjing Fan, Ning Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. In order to explore the regulatory role of miR-34a in aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) during exercise intervention, we constructed a rat model with (D-galactose) D-gal-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment coupled with dysfunctional autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, determined the mitigation of cognitive impairment of D-gal-induced aging rats during swimming intervention, and evaluated miR-34a-mediated functional status of autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302504/mitochondrial-nudix-hydrolases-a-metabolic-link-between-nad-catabolism-gtp-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#12
Aaron Long, Nina Klimova, Tibor Kristian
NAD(+) catabolism and mitochondrial dynamics are important parts of normal mitochondrial function and are both reported to be disrupted in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and acute brain injury. While both processes have been extensively studied there has been little reported on how the mechanisms of these two processes are linked. This review focuses on how downstream NAD(+) catabolism via NUDIX hydrolases affects mitochondrial dynamics under pathologic conditions. Additionally, several potential targets in mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation are discussed, including the roles of mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1(mtPARP1), AMPK, AMP, and intra-mitochondrial GTP metabolism...
March 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283884/resveratrol-and-brain-mitochondria-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Fernanda Rafaela Jardim, Fernando Tonon de Rossi, Marielle Xavier Nascimento, Renata Gabriele da Silva Barros, Paula Agrizzi Borges, Isabella Cristina Prescilio, Marcos Roberto de Oliveira
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; C14H12O3) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes, berries, peanuts, and wines. Resveratrol has been viewed as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anticancer agent. Moreover, it has been reported that resveratrol modulates mitochondrial function, redox biology, and dynamics in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Resveratrol also attenuates mitochondrial impairment induced by certain stressors. Resveratrol upregulates, for example, mitochondria-located antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the production of reactive species by these organelles...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276702/integrating-the-upr-mt-into-the-mitochondrial-maintenance-network
#14
Christopher J Fiorese, Cole M Haynes
Mitochondrial function is central to many different processes in the cell, from oxidative phosphorylation to the synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction underlies a diverse array of diseases, from neurodegenerative diseases to cancer. Stress can be communicated to the cytosol and nucleus from the mitochondria through many different signals, and in response the cell can effect everything from transcriptional to post-transcriptional responses to protect the mitochondrial network...
February 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271403/combination-treatment-with-methylene-blue-and-hypothermia-in-global-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Lei Li, Rongli Yang, Pingjing Li, Hailong Lu, Jingbo Hao, Liyan Li, Donovan Tucker, Quanguang Zhang
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the most potent therapeutic strategy for global cerebral ischemia (GCI), usually induced by cardiac arrest. TH has been shown both to suppress the delayed neuronal cell death in the vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subregion and to improve neurological outcomes in experimental animals after GCI. However, given the multiple adverse effects resulting from TH, application of such a therapy is typically limited. In recent years, methylene blue (MB) has emerged as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265856/dram-is-involved-in-regulating-nucleoside-analog-induced-neuronal-autophagy-in-a-p53-independent-manner
#16
Ziyun Gao, Junqi Shan, Bishi Wang, Luxin Qiao, Dexi Chen, Yulin Zhang
The widespread use of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has not decreased the prevalence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a type of neurodegenerative disease, even though cART effectively inhibits virus colonization in the central nervous system. Therefore, anti-retroviral agents cannot be fully excluded from the pathogenesis of HAND. Our previous study reported that long-term nucleoside analogue (NA) exposure induced mitochondrial toxicity in the cortical neurons of HAND patients and mice, but the exact mechanism of NA-associated neurotoxicity has remained unclear...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253990/mitochondrial-perturbation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-diabetes
#17
F Akhter, D Chen, S F Yan, S S Yan
Mitochondria are well-known cellular organelles that play a vital role in cellular bioenergetics, heme biosynthesis, thermogenesis, calcium homeostasis, lipid catabolism, and other metabolic activities. Given the extensive role of mitochondria in cell function, mitochondrial dysfunction plays a part in many diseases, including diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In most cases, there is overwhelming evidence that impaired mitochondrial function is a causative factor in these diseases. Studying mitochondrial function in diseased cells vs healthy cells may reveal the modified mechanisms and molecular components involved in specific disease states...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253988/mitochondria-cybrids-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
R H Swerdlow, S Koppel, I Weidling, C Hayley, Y Ji, H M Wilkins
Mitochondrial and bioenergetic function change with advancing age and may drive aging phenotypes. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are also documented in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In some instances AD mitochondrial and bioenergetic changes are reminiscent of those observed with advancing age but are greater in magnitude. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction could, therefore, link neurodegeneration to brain aging. Interestingly, mitochondrial defects in AD patients are not brain-limited, and mitochondrial function can be linked to classic AD histologic changes including amyloid precursor protein processing to beta amyloid...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253984/therapeutic-strategies-for-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-age-related-metabolic-disorders
#19
J S Bhatti, S Kumar, M Vijayan, G K Bhatti, P H Reddy
Mitochondria are complex, intercellular organelles present in the cells and are involved in multiple roles including ATP formation, free radicals generation and scavenging, calcium homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and cell death. Many studies depicted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in aging and pathogenesis of age-related metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Remarkable advancements have been made in understanding the structure, function, and physiology of mitochondria in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252608/-clinical-guidelines-for-the-use-of-dimethyl-fumarate-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#20
V M Alifirova, A N Boiko, Ya V Vlasov, M V Davydovskaya, M N Zakharova, N A Malkova, E V Popova, S A Sivertseva, N N Spirin, N V Khachanova, Т Е Shmidt
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, in which autoimmune inflammation and oxidative stress play essential pathogenetic roles. Activation and infiltration of immune cells in brain tissues, lipid peroxidation products, mitochondrial dysfunction, defective antioxidant protection, and many other pathological factors result in demyelination, axonal injury and death, and apoptosis of oligodendrocytes and neurons, all of which causes constant progression of the disease...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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