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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26880934/mimicking-neural-stem-cell-niche-by-biocompatible-substrates
#1
REVIEW
Citlalli Regalado-Santiago, Enrique Juárez-Aguilar, Juan David Olivares-Hernández, Elisa Tamariz
Neural stem cells (NSCs) participate in the maintenance, repair, and regeneration of the central nervous system. During development, the primary NSCs are distributed along the ventricular zone of the neural tube, while, in adults, NSCs are mainly restricted to the subependymal layer of the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The circumscribed areas where the NSCs are located contain the secreted proteins and extracellular matrix components that conform their niche...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26185123/progressive-accumulation-of-the-abnormal-conformer-of-the-prion-protein-and-spongiform-encephalopathy-in-the-obex-of-nonsymptomatic-and-symptomatic-rocky-mountain-elk-cervus-elaphus-nelsoni-with-chronic-wasting-disease
#2
Terry R Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Jenny G Powers, Tracy Nichols, Aru Balachandran, Bruce Cummings, Margaret A Wild, Kurt VerCauteren, Katherine I O'Rourke
The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans)...
July 2015: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26085200/distribution-of-dipeptide-repeat-proteins-in-cellular-models-and-c9orf72-mutation-cases-suggests-link-to-transcriptional-silencing
#3
Martin H Schludi, Stephanie May, Friedrich A Grässer, Kristin Rentzsch, Elisabeth Kremmer, Clemens Küpper, Thomas Klopstock, Thomas Arzberger, Dieter Edbauer
A massive expansion of a GGGGCC repeat upstream of the C9orf72 coding region is the most common known cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Despite its intronic localization and lack of a canonical start codon, both strands are translated into aggregating dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins: poly-GA, poly-GP, poly-GR, poly-PR and poly-PA. To address conflicting findings on the predominant toxicity of the different DPR species in model systems, we compared the expression pattern of the DPR proteins in rat primary neurons and postmortem brain and spinal cord of C9orf72 mutation patients...
October 2015: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26014007/superior-medullary-velum-anatomical-histological-study-in-the-sheep-brain-and-a-preliminary-tractographic-study-in-the-human-brain
#4
Nuriye Guzin Ozdemir, Merih Is, Süheyla Uyar Bozkurt, Kaya Kilic, Askin Seker
AIM: To study the anatomy, histology and fiber relations of the superior medullary velum. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten previously frozen and formalin-fixed sheep brains were used. The fiber dissection was done using the operating microscope at the Rhoton Anatomy Laboratory of Marmara Faculty of Medicine. A tractographic study was conducted on five volunteer patients to see the fiber anatomy of the superior medullary velum. RESULTS: The average thickness and length was found to be 0...
2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26011179/the-rage-receptor-and-its-ligands-are-highly-expressed-in-astrocytes-in-a-grade-dependant-manner-in-the-striatum-and-subependymal-layer-in-huntington-s-disease
#5
Joanne Kim, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull, Maurice A Curtis, Louise F B Nicholson
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of the CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. One of the brain changes that occurs in HD is the expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a receptor protein capable of activating multiple signalling pathways by interacting with a range of ligands leading to either beneficial or harmful effects to the cell. Here, we demonstrate in human HD brains a high degree of co-localization of RAGE with its putative ligands S100B and N-carboxymethyllysine (CML) in the caudate nucleus (CN) and the subependymal layer (SEL)...
September 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25938107/luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone-distribution-in-the-anterior-hypothalamus-of-the-female-rats
#6
Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz, Ibrahim González-Marrero, Agustín Castañeyra-Ruiz, Juan M González-Toledo, María Castañeyra-Ruiz, Héctor de Paz-Carmona, Agustín Castañeyra-Perdomo, Emilia M Carmona-Calero
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons and fibers are located in the anteroventral hypothalamus, specifically in the preoptic medial area and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. Most luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons project to the median eminence where they are secreted in the pituitary portal system in order to control the release of gonadotropin. The aim of this study is to provide, using immunohistochemistry and female brain rats, a new description of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone fibers and neuron localization in the anterior hypothalamus...
2013: ISRN Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25853134/neuroinflammation-induced-by-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-microbial-neuraminidase
#7
Pablo Granados-Durán, María D López-Ávalos, Jesús M Grondona, María Del Carmen Gómez-Roldán, Manuel Cifuentes, Margarita Pérez-Martín, Martina Alvarez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Pedro Fernández-Llebrez
In the present paper, we describe the facts that took place in the rat brain after a single injection of the enzyme neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens into the right lateral ventricle. After injection, it diffused through the cerebrospinal fluid of the ipsilateral ventricle and the third ventricle, and about 400 μm into the periventricular brain parenchyma. The expression of ICAM1 in the endothelial cells of the periventricular vessels, IBA1 in microglia, and GFAP in astrocytes notably increased in the regions reached by the injected neuraminidase...
2015: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25698936/olfactory-and-cortical-projections-to-bulbar-and-hippocampal-adult-born-neurons
#8
Carlos De La Rosa-Prieto, Miguel De Moya-Pinilla, Daniel Saiz-Sanchez, Isabel Ubeda-Banon, Dulce M Arzate, Alicia Flores-Cuadrado, Teresa Liberia, Carlos Crespo, Alino Martinez-Marcos
New neurons are continually generated in the subependymal layer of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus during adulthood. In the subventricular zone, neuroblasts migrate a long distance to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into granule or periglomerular interneurons. In the hippocampus, neuroblasts migrate a short distance from the subgranular zone to the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus to become granule neurons. In addition to the short-distance inputs, bulbar interneurons receive long-distance centrifugal afferents from olfactory-recipient structures...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25282829/-subependymal-microgliocytes-of-the-third-ventricle-of-the-brain
#9
O V Kirik, E G Sukhorukova, O S Alekseeva, D É Korzhevskiĭ
The goal of the study was to identify the subependymal microglial cells of the III ventricle of the rat brain and to determine their structural characteristics. The sections of the brain of intact Wistar (n = 3) and Sprague-Dawley (n = 3) male rats were studied using the methods of immunocytochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. Subependymal microglia of the III ventricle was found to be a constantly present cell population. Two types of subependymal microgliocytes were identified--spindle-like and basket cells...
2014: Morfologi︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24613567/the-pathologic-spectrum-of-oculoleptomeningeal-amyloidosis-with-val30gly-transthyretin-gene-mutation-in-a-postmortem-case
#10
Sarah E Martin, Merrill D Benson, Eyas M Hattab
We report the clinical and postmortem pathologic features of a 60-year-old woman with oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis with a Val30Gly transthyretin gene mutation. Unlike other forms of hereditary amyloidosis, this rare type displays amyloid deposition predominantly in the eyes and central nervous system. Our patient belongs to 1 of only 2 kindreds known to carry this transthyretin mutation. Previous reports focused on examination of the brain and spinal cord, largely ignoring postmortem examination of the eyes...
May 2014: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24010161/distribution-of-axons-showing-neurophysin-like-immunoreactivity-in-cortical-and-anterior-basal-forebrain-sites
#11
O T Phillipson, C B Gonzalez
The distribution of fibres reacting with neurophysin antisera has been studied in the frontal cortex and anterior basal forebrain of young and adult rats. Fibres reacting with antisera raised against neurophysin A (vasopressin-neurophysin) were observed in the medial bank of frontal cortex, the anterior hippocampal rudiment, the rostral extension of substantia innominata lying between nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, ventral pallidum, substantia innominata, lateral preoptic and magnocellular preoptic area...
January 3, 1983: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24008127/secretagogin-containing-neurons-in-the-mouse-main-olfactory-bulb
#12
Katsuko Kosaka, Toshio Kosaka
Secretagogin (SCGN) is a recently discovered calcium binding protein of the EF hand family. We studied the structural features of SCGN-positive neurons in the mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB). SCGN-positive neurons were localized throughout layers but clustered in the glomerular layer (GL), mitral cell layer (MCL) and granule cell layer (GCL). They were heterogeneous, including numerous juxtaglomerular neurons, granule cells, small to medium-sized neurons in the external plexiform layer (EPL), and a few small cells in the ependymal/subependymal layer...
September 2013: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23832509/oculomotor-nerve-injury-induces-nuerogenesis-in-the-oculomotor-and-edinger-westphal-nucleus-of-adult-dog
#13
Ningxi Zhu, Chunmei Zhang, Zhen Li, Youqiang Meng, Baohui Feng, Xuhui Wang, Min Yang, Liang Wan, Bo Ning, Shiting Li
Technical developments have extensively promoted experimental and clinical studies on cranial nerve regeneration, but intracranial nerve recovery is still an unexplored research area compared to peripheral nerve repair. In this study, we researched whether neurogenesis occurs in adult oculomotor (OMN) and Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWN) or not after oculomotor nerve injury. To assess cell proliferation in response to unilateral oculomotor nerve crush (ONC) in adult beagle dog, repetitive 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) intravenous injections were performed during 3 or 7 days before the dogs were euthanized 2 h after the last injection on days 3, 7, 14, and 28 post-ONC...
November 2013: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23459364/female-mice-lacking-cholecystokinin-1-receptors-have-compromised-neurogenesis-and-fewer-dopaminergic-cells-in-the-olfactory-bulb
#14
Yi Sui, Rob Vermeulen, Tomas Hökfelt, Malcolm K Horne, Davor Stanić
Neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain is largely restricted to the subependymal zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). We examined whether cholecystokinin (CCK) through actions mediated by CCK1 receptors (CCK1R) is involved in regulating neurogenesis. Proliferating cells in the SVZ, measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) injected 2 h prior to death or by immunoreactivity against Ki67, were reduced by 37 and 42%, respectively, in female (but not male) mice lacking CCK1Rs (CCK1R(-/-)) compared to wild-type (WT)...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23322825/from-the-radiologic-pathology-archives-intraventricular-neoplasms-radiologic-pathologic-correlation
#15
REVIEW
Alice Boyd Smith, James G Smirniotopoulos, Iren Horkanyne-Szakaly
A variety of neoplasms may arise in the ventricular system. Intraventricular neoplasms may be discovered as an incidental finding at cross-sectional imaging or may manifest with varied symptoms depending on their location, including symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. These lesions may arise from various ventricular structures, including the ependymal lining (eg, ependymoma), subependymal layer (eg, subependymoma), or choroid plexus (eg, choroid plexus neoplasms), or they may have a cell of origin that has yet to be determined (eg, chordoid glioma)...
January 2013: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23308251/a-specialized-microvascular-domain-in-the-mouse-neural-stem-cell-niche
#16
James C Culver, Tegy J Vadakkan, Mary E Dickinson
The microenvironment of the subependymal zone (SEZ) neural stem cell niche is necessary for regulating adult neurogenesis. In particular, signaling from the microvasculature is essential for adult neural stem cell maintenance, but microvascular structure and blood flow dynamics in the SEZ are not well understood. In this work, we show that the mouse SEZ constitutes a specialized microvascular domain defined by unique vessel architecture and reduced rates of blood flow. Additionally, we demonstrate that hypoxic conditions are detectable in the ependymal layer that lines the ventricle, and in a subpopulation of neurons throughout the SEZ and striatum...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22938200/the-relationship-between-ventricular-dilatation-neuropathological-and-neurobehavioural-changes-in-hydrocephalic-rats
#17
Funmilayo Eniola Olopade, Matthew Temitayo Shokunbi, Anna-Leena Sirén
BACKGROUND: The motor and cognitive deficits observed in hydrocephalus are thought to be due to axonal damage within the periventricular white matter. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between ventricular size, cellular changes in brain, and neurobehavioural deficits in rats with experimental hydrocephalus. METHODS: Hydrocephalus was induced in three-week old rats by intracisternal injection of kaolin. Behavioural and motor function were tested four weeks after hydrocephalus induction and correlated to ventricular enlargement which was classified into mild, moderate or severe...
2012: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22909904/astrocitary-niches-in-human-adult-medulla-oblongata
#18
Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Dan Dermengiu, Carla Loreto, Andrei Gheorghe Marius Motoc, Elena Pop
Astrocytes are considered as neuromodulators of the CNS. Whereas experimental studies on astrocitary functions are gaining importance, the anatomy of the astrocitary niches in the human CNS has been overlooked. The study was performed on the brainstem of 10 adult cadavers. We aimed to determine astrocitary niches in the human medulla oblongata using immunohistochemical labeling with vimentin and also CD34 immunostaining to accurately diagnose associated microvessels. Niches rich in astrocytes were identified as follows: (a) the superficial layer of astrocytes, ventral and ventrolateral, in the rostral medulla oblongata; (b) the median raphe; (c) medullary nuclei: arcuate nucleus, area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract; (d) the subependymal zone (SEZ, caudal medulla) and subventricular zone (SVZ, rostral medulla)...
April 2013: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22576081/astrocytes-acquire-morphological-and-functional-characteristics-of-ependymal-cells-following-disruption-of-ependyma-in-hydrocephalus
#19
Ruth Roales-Buján, Patricia Páez, Montserrat Guerra, Sara Rodríguez, Karin Vío, Ailec Ho-Plagaro, María García-Bonilla, Luis-Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez, María-Dolores Domínguez-Pinos, Esteban-Martín Rodríguez, José-Manuel Pérez-Fígares, Antonio-Jesús Jiménez
Hydrocephalic hyh mutant mice undergo a programmed loss of the neuroepithelium/ependyma followed by a reaction of periventricular astrocytes, which form a new cell layer covering the denuded ventricular surface. We present a comparative morphological and functional study of the newly formed layer of astrocytes and the multiciliated ependyma of hyh mice. Transmission electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry for junction proteins (N-cadherin, connexin 43) and proteins involved in permeability (aquaporin 4) and endocytosis (caveolin-1, EEA1) were used...
October 2012: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22570378/properties-of-subependymal-cerebrospinal-fluid-contacting-neurones-in-the-dorsal-vagal-complex-of-the-mouse-brainstem
#20
Adeline Orts-Del'immagine, Nicolas Wanaverbecq, Catherine Tardivel, Vanessa Tillement, Michel Dallaporta, Jérôme Trouslard
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contacting neurones have been observed in various brain regions such as the hypothalamus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe and around the central canal (cc) of the spinal cord but their functional role remains unclear. At the level of the spinal cord, subependymal cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurones (S-CSF-cNs) present a peculiar morphology with a soma close to the ependymal layer, a process projecting towards the cc and ending with a bud and a cilium. These neurones were recently shown to express polycystin kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1 or TRPP3) channels that are members of the polycystin subtype of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily and that have been proposed as either chemo- or mechanoreceptors in several tissues...
August 15, 2012: Journal of Physiology
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