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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944433/pharmacogenetics-of-lipid-lowering-agents-an-update-review-on-genotype-dependent-effects-of-hdl-targetingand-statin-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Nathan Messas, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Jean-Claude Tardif
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport. Results from randomized trials of HDL-targeting therapies, including cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, have shown a lack of benefit in unsegmented populations. These observations could be explained by inter-individual variability of clinical responses to such agents depending on the patients' genotypes. In parallel, although lowering of LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) with statin therapy reduces the risk of vascular events in a wide range of individuals, inter-individual variability exists with regard to LDL-c-lowering response as well as efficacy in reducing major cardiovascular events...
September 25, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944098/the-role-of-vitamin-k-status-in-cardiovascular-health-evidence-from-observational-and-clinical-studies
#2
REVIEW
A J van Ballegooijen, J W Beulens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin required for the activation of several vitamin K-dependent proteins to confer functioning. A growing body of evidence supports that vitamin K has beneficial effects on bone and cardiovascular health. This review summarizes key evidence on vitamin K status as measured by circulating measures and cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, observational studies indicate that low vitamin K status as measured by high dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein concentrations plays a potential role in cardiovascular disease development, particularly in high-risk and chronic kidney disease populations...
2017: Current Nutrition Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943515/bleeding-impacting-mortality-after-noncardiac-surgery-a-protocol-to-establish-diagnostic-criteria-estimate-prognostic-importance-and-develop-and-validate-a-prediction-guide-in-an-international-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Pavel S Roshanov, John W Eikelboom, Mark Crowther, Vikas Tandon, Flavia K Borges, Clive Kearon, Andre Lamy, Richard Whitlock, Bruce M Biccard, Wojciech Szczeklik, Gordon H Guyatt, Mohamed Panju, Jessica Spence, Amit X Garg, Michael McGillion, Tomas VanHelder, Peter A Kavsak, Justin de Beer, Mitchell Winemaker, Daniel I Sessler, Yannick Le Manach, Tej Sheth, Jehonathan H Pinthus, Lehana Thabane, Marko R I Simunovic, Ryszard Mizera, Sebastian Ribas, P J Devereaux
INTRODUCTION: Various definitions of bleeding have been used in perioperative studies without systematic assessment of the diagnostic criteria for their independent association with outcomes important to patients. Our proposed definition of bleeding impacting mortality after noncardiac surgery (BIMS) is bleeding that is independently associated with death during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. We describe our analysis plan to sequentially 1) establish the diagnostic criteria for BIMS, 2) estimate the independent contribution of BIMS to 30-day mortality and 3) develop and internally validate a clinical prediction guide to estimate patient-specific risk of BIMS...
August 4, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943459/descriptive-cadaveric-study-comparing-the-accuracy-of-ultrasound-versus-fluoroscopic-guidance-for-first-sacral-transforaminal-injections
#4
Bradley F Thompson, Matthew J Pingree, Wenchun Qu, Naveen S Murthy, Nirusha Lachman, Mark Friedrich Hurdle
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound is rarely used for guiding lumbosacral epidural steroid injections due to its technical limitations. For example, sonographic imaging lacks the ability to confirm epidural spread and identify vascular uptake. The perceived risk that these limitations pose to human subjects has precluded any large scale clinical trials to date. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of ultrasound versus fluoroscopic guidance for first sacral transforaminal epidural injections DESIGN: Cadaveric comparative study using dichotomous outcomes...
September 21, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943002/a-feasibility-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-as-a-novel-treatment-for-intermittent-claudication
#5
Amy Elizabeth Harwood, Jordan Green, Thomas Cayton, Ali Raza, Tom Wallace, Daniel Carradice, Ian Clifford Chetter, George Edward Smith
BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication is the most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease. Previous research has suggested that extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) may induce angiogenesis in treated tissue. The objective of this feasibility pilot trial was to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ESWT as a novel treatment. METHODS: Patients with unilateral claudication were randomized to receive ESWT or sham treatment to the calf muscle three times per week for 3 weeks...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942869/mortality-and-operator-experience-with-vascular-access-for-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-pairwise-and-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Rahman Shah, Reza Askari, Showkat A Haji, Abdul Rashid
BACKGROUND: Recently, several meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that transradial access (TRA) reduces mortality compared to transfemoral access (TFA). However, a critical appraisal of these RCTs suggests that the findings could have resulted from a greater incidence of adverse events in the TFA groups rather than a beneficial effect of TRA. METHODS: Scientific databases and websites were searched for RCTs. Patients were divided into groups based on access type and whether the operator was a radial expert (RE) or non-radial expert (NRE)...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942683/a-comparison-of-plate-versus-screw-fixation-for-segmental-scaphoid-fractures-a-biomechanical-study
#7
Jill A Goodwin, Paulo Castañeda, Ryan P Shelhamer, Liam C Bosch, Scott G Edwards
BACKGROUND: Volar locking plate fixation may offer several advantages over headless screw fixation for scaphoid nonunion, or segmental or comminuted fractures: (1) increased surface area for bony healing; (2) preserved vascularity; and (3) maintenance of a gap for graft insertion. The purpose of this study is to compare headless screw and locking plate fixation of segmental scaphoid fractures and to determine whether either fixation provides a greater mechanical advantage in osteoporotic versus nonosteoporotic bone...
September 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941934/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-the-response-to-extremity-cooling-and-endothelial-function-in-individuals-with-cold-sensitivity-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-randomised-control-trial
#8
Clare M Eglin, Joseph T Costello, Stephen J Bailey, Mark Gilchrist, Heather Massey, Anthony I Shepherd
Individuals with cold sensitivity have low peripheral skin blood flow and skin temperature possibly due to reduced nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. Beetroot has a high concentration of inorganic nitrate and may increase NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a placebo-controlled, double blind, randomised, crossover design, this study tested the hypotheses that acute beetroot supplementation would increase the rate of cutaneous rewarming following a local cold challenge and augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation in cold sensitive individuals...
September 20, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941744/comparison-of-manual-compression-and-vascular-hemostasis-devices-after-coronary-angiography-or-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-through-femoral-artery-access-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Khagendra Dahal, Jharendra Rijal, Ravi Shahukhal, Sharan Sharma, Hussam Watti, Michael Azrin, Pavan Katikaneni, Enrique Jimenez, Neeraj Tandon, Kalgi Modi, Juyong Lee
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of manual compression (MC) with vascular hemostasis devices (VHD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) through femoral artery access. INTRODUCTION: The use of femoral artery access for coronary procedures may result in access-related complications, prolonged immobility and discomfort for the patients. MC results in longer time-to-hemostasis (TTH) and time-to-ambulation (TTA) compared to VHDs but its role in access-related complications remains unclear in patients undergoing coronary procedures...
August 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940906/post-stroke-diastolic-blood-pressure-and-risk-of-recurrent-vascular-events
#10
J-H Park, B Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent clinical trials and expert consensus guidelines have typically focused on the issue of systolic blood pressure (SBP) targets for reducing vascular risk. However, little is known about the relationship of the diastolic BP (DBP) level with vascular outcomes after a stroke. METHODS: A multicenter trial dataset involving 3680 recent (<4 months) non-cardioembolic stroke patients followed for 2 years was analyzed. Subjects were categorized per mean DBP level (mmHg) during follow-up: low-normal (<70), normal (70 to <80), high-normal (80-89) and high (≥90)...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940446/the-pd-1-and-pd-l1-pathway-in-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis
#11
Julie Ahn, Justin A Bishop, Richard B S Roden, Clint T Allen, Simon R A Best
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Generation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment may enable a persistent human papillomavirus infection in the setting of an otherwise normal immune system. We hypothesized that expression of the T-lymphocyte co-inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 would be increased in the recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) microenvironment compared to normal controls. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded respiratory papilloma and normal controls were obtained under institutional review board approval, stained for CD4, CD8, FoxP3, and PD-1, and scored by automated cell count...
September 22, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939682/effects-of-pioglitazone-on-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-a-recent-ischaemic-stroke-or-tia-a-report-from-the-iris-trial
#12
Karen L Furie, Catherine M Viscoli, Mark Gorman, Gary A Ford, Lawrence H Young, Silvio E Inzucchi, Peter D Guarino, Anne M Lovejoy, Robin Conwit, David Tanne, Walter N Kernan
INTRODUCTION: Patients with cerebrovascular disease are at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction. Modification of vascular risk factors, including insulin resistance, could improve poststroke cognitive function. METHODS: In the Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke (IRIS) trial, patients with a recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) were randomised to pioglitazone (target 45 mg daily) or placebo. All patients were insulin resistant based on a Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance score >3...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938905/safe-sarpogrelate-anplone-in-femoro-popliteal-artery-intervention-efficacy-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Sanghyun Ahn, Joongyub Lee, Seung-Kee Min, Jongwon Ha, Sang-Il Min, Song-Yi Kim, Min-Ji Cho, Sungsin Cho
BACKGROUND: Sarpogrelate is expected to reduce restenosis by protecting blood vessels from oxidative stress and vascular endothelial dysfunction as well as by acting as an antiplatelet agent after endovascular treatment (EVT). This trial was designed to compare aspirin plus sustained-release (SR) sarpogrelate with aspirin plus clopidogrel for the prevention of restenosis in patients with femoro-popliteal (FP) peripheral artery disease (PAD) who underwent EVT. METHODS/DESIGN: This is an open label, multicenter, prospective randomized controlled clinical trial...
September 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938590/ocular-toxicities-associated-with-targeted-anticancer-agents-an-analysis-of-clinical-data-with-management-suggestions
#14
Chen Fu, Dan S Gombos, Jared Lee, Goldy C George, Kenneth Hess, Andrew Whyte, David S Hong
Ocular toxicities are among the most common adverse events resulting from targeted anticancer agents and are becoming increasingly relevant in the management of patients on these agents. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for management of these challenging toxicities based on objective data from FDA labels and from analysis of the literature. All oncologic drugs approved by the FDA up to March 14, 2015, were screened for inclusion. A total of 16 drugs (12 small-molecule drugs and 4 monoclonal antibodies) were analyzed for ocular toxicity profiles based on evidence of ocular toxicity...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937442/orally-active-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-analogs
#15
William B Campbell, John D Imig, James M Schmitz, John R Falck
Biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases of endothelial, myocardial, and renal tubular cells. EETs relax vascular smooth muscle and decrease inflammatory cell adhesion and cytokine release. Renal EETs promote sodium excretion and vasodilation to decrease hypertension. Cardiac EETs reduce infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion injury and decrease fibrosis and inflammation in heart failure. In diabetes, EETs improve insulin sensitivity, increase glucose tolerance, and reduce the renal injury...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936594/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-outcomes-indications-complications-and-innovations
#16
REVIEW
Michael N Young, Ignacio Inglessis
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the standard of care for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in individuals who are at prohibitive surgical risk and presents a viable alternative to surgery in selected patients who are at high operative risk. To date, outcomes from the PARTNER (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valve) and Medtronic CoreValve® US Pivotal trials continue to show the benefits of TAVR in these high-risk subgroups out to 5 and 3 years, respectively (as reported by Mack et al...
September 22, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936586/role-of-structured-individual-patient-education-in-the-prevention-of-vascular-complications-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-the-individual-therapeutic-education-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-intend-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Adriana Coppola, Livio Luzi, Tiziana Montalcini, Andrea Giustina, Carmine Gazzaruso
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies showed that a structured patient therapeutic education (PTE) may decrease both mortality and the development of diabetes complications. Nevertheless, no data are available in the literature on the impact of individual PTE on the complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the impact of individual PTE on the occurrence of macrovascular complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients when compared to usual care (UC) and group PTE...
September 21, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936405/chemotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Emanuele Rinninella, Lucia Cerrito, Irene Spinelli, Marco Cintoni, Maria Cristina Mele, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini
Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process, heralded by abnormalities in cell differentiation and proliferation and sustained by an aberrant neoangiogenesis. Understanding the underlying molecular pathogenesis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma is a prerequisite to develop new drugs that will hamper or block the steps of these pathways. As hepatocellular carcinoma has higher arterial vascularization than normal liver, this could be a good target for novel molecular therapies. Introduction of the antiangiogenic drug sorafenib into clinical practice since 2008 has led to new perspectives in the management of this tumor...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936196/anti-inflammatory-targets-for-the-treatment-of-reperfusion-injury-in-stroke
#19
REVIEW
Atsushi Mizuma, Midori A Yenari
While the mainstay of acute stroke treatment includes revascularization via recombinant tissue plasminogen activator or mechanical thrombectomy, only a minority of stroke patients are eligible for treatment, as delayed treatment can lead to worsened outcome. This worsened outcome at the experimental level has been attributed to an entity known as reperfusion injury (R/I). R/I is occurred when revascularization is delayed after critical brain and vascular injury has occurred, so that when oxygenated blood is restored, ischemic damage is increased, rather than decreased...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935081/efficacy-and-safety-of-the-absorb-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-in-females-and-males-results-of-an-individual-patient-level-pooled-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Satya Shreenivas, Dean J Kereiakes, Stephen G Ellis, Runlin Gao, Takeshi Kimura, Yoshinobu Onuma, Karine Piard-Ruster, Yunlong Zhang, Kai Koo, Minh-Thien Vu, Patrick W Serruys, Gregg W Stone
OBJECTIVES: Because females are under-represented in coronary trials, this study sought to assess the relative safety and efficacy of Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) and the Xience everolimus-eluting stent in females compared with males. BACKGROUND: The Absorb everolimus-eluting BVS provides drug delivery and mechanical support similar to a metallic drug-eluting stent, followed by resorption and restoration of more normal vascular structure with the potential to improve late clinical outcomes...
September 25, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
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