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tick saliva protein

Gustavo Rocha Garcia, Sandra Regina Maruyama, Kristina T Nelson, José Marcos Chaves Ribeiro, Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi, Antonio Augusto Mendes Maia, Beatriz Rossetti Ferreira, Frans N J Kooyman, Isabel K F de Miranda Santos
BACKGROUND: Males of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus produce salivary immunoglobulin-binding proteins and allotypic variations in IgG are associated with tick loads in bovines. These findings indicate that antibody responses may be essential to control tick infestations. Infestation loads with cattle ticks are heritable: some breeds carry high loads of reproductively successful ticks, in others, few ticks feed and they reproduce inefficiently. Different patterns of humoral immunity against tick salivary proteins may explain these phenotypes...
March 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Guillaume Blanchet, Simran Kaur, R Manjunatha Kini, Robin Doley
Saliva of hematophagous animals, such as ticks, is an excellent source of anticoagulant proteins and polypeptides. Here we describe the identification and characterization of two thrombin inhibitors named as haemathrin 1 and 2 from the salivary gland of tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa using genomic approach. Haemathrins are cysteine-less peptide anticoagulants, which share about 65-70% identity with madanins, and belong to inhibitor I53 superfamily of inhibitors of the MEROPS database. Haemathrins were overexpressed in E...
January 31, 2017: Thrombosis Research
Darko Mihaljica, Dragana Marković, Željko Radulović, Albert Mulenga, Sanja Ćakić, Ratko Sukara, Jelena Samardžić, Snežana Tomanović
Tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. One of the promising candidates for developing such a test is AV422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of the AV422 homologue from Ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both Prostriata and Metastriata. We expressed recombinant (r) I. ricinus (Ir) AV422 in E. coli and subjected it to Western blot analysis using rat antibodies to saliva proteins of both I...
January 10, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
José M C Ribeiro, Mirko Slovák, Ivo M B Francischetti
Tick saliva contains hundreds or thousands of proteins that help blood feeding by impairing their hosts' hemostasis, inflammation and immunity. Salivary gland transcriptomes allow the disclosure of this pharmacologically active potion that consists of several multi-gene families, many of which are tick-specific. We here report the "de novo" assembly of ∼138 million reads deriving from a cDNA library from salivary glands of adult male and female Hyalomma excavatum leading to the public deposition of 5337 coding sequences to GenBank...
February 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Surbhi, Nirmal Sangwan, Arun K Sangwan, Vijender Singh, Ankit Kumar
AIM: Ticks are obligate ectoparasites that have an impact on wide range of vertebrates and also act as a potential vector for the transmission of tropical theileriosis, babesiosis, etc., causing significant loss to livestock production worldwide. While feeding, they introduce their saliva containing different bioactive molecules into the host. These molecules have the capability to counteract the host hemostatic mechanism to suck host blood successfully. Therefore, the study was aimed to isolate anti-platelet aggregating peptides from salivary gland extract (SGE) of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks, a commonly available tick in India...
November 2016: Veterinary World
Daniele Porretta, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Valentina Mastrantonio, Roberta Iatta, Domenico Otranto, Sandra Urbanelli
BACKGROUND: Calreticulin proteins (CRTs) are important components of tick saliva, which is involved in the blood meal success, pathogen transmission and host allergic responses. The characterization of the genes encoding for salivary proteins, such as CRTs, is pivotal to understand the mechanisms of tick-host interaction during blood meal and to develop tick control strategies based on their inhibition. In hard ticks, crt genes were shown to have only one intron with conserved position among species...
December 12, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Cassandra L Olds, Stephen Mwaura, David O Odongo, Glen A Scoles, Richard Bishop, Claudia Daubenberger
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the primary vector of Theileria parva, the etiological agent of East Coast fever (ECF), a devastating disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that a vaccine targeting tick proteins that are involved in attachment and feeding might affect feeding success and possibly reduce tick-borne transmission of T. parva. Here we report the evaluation of a multivalent vaccine cocktail of tick antigens for their ability to reduce R. appendiculatus feeding success and possibly reduce tick-transmission of T...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
James J Valdés, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Radek Sima, Philip T Butterill, Daniel Růžek, Patricia A Nuttall
Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dana K Shaw, Michail Kotsyfakis, Joao H F Pedra
Having emerged during the early part of the Cretaceous period, ticks are an ancient group of hematophagous ectoparasites with significant veterinary and public health importance worldwide. The success of their life strategy can be attributed, in part, to saliva. As we enter into a scientific era where the collection of massive data sets and structures for biological application is possible, we suggest that understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern the life cycle of ticks is within grasp. With this in mind, we discuss what is currently known regarding the manipulation of Toll-like (TLR) and Nod-like (NLR) receptor signaling pathways by tick salivary proteins, and how these molecules impact pathogen transmission...
June 2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
R Manzano-Román, V Díaz-Martín, A Oleaga, P Obolo-Mvoulouga, R Pérez-Sánchez
Recently obtained evidence indicated that an orthologue of the O. savignyi TSGP4 salivary lipocalin was present in the saliva of O. moubata. TSGP4 is known to act as a cysteinyl leukotrienes scavenger helping in the prevention of inflammation and oedema at the tick bite site. Since this function seems to be crucial for successful tick feeding, the novel O. moubata TSGP4 turned into a potential vaccine target. The purposes of the current work were: (i) to clone and characterize the O. moubata TSGP4 and, (ii) to produce it as recombinant to evaluate its protective efficacy as vaccine antigen...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Naylene C S Silva, Vladimir F Vale, Paula F Franco, Nelder F Gontijo, Jesus G Valenzuela, Marcos H Pereira, Mauricio R V Sant'Anna, Daniel S Rodrigues, Walter S Lima, Blima Fux, Ricardo N Araujo
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the main ectoparasite affecting livestock worldwide. For a successful parasitism, ticks need to evade several immune responses of their hosts, including the activation of the complement system. In spite of the importance of R. microplus, previous work only identified one salivary molecule that blocks the complement system. The current study describes complement inhibitory activities induced by R. microplus salivary components and mechanisms elicited by putative salivary proteins on both classical and alternative complement pathways...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Mayukh Ghosh, Nirmal Sangwan, Arun K Sangwan
AIM: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit Theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. Ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts' rejection and achieve engorgement. Successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. These chemicals in saliva could inhibit host inflammatory responses through modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species...
June 2015: Veterinary World
Xiaowei Wang, Dana K Shaw, Olivia S Sakhon, Greg A Snyder, Eric J Sundberg, Laura Santambrogio, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, J Stephen Dumler, Kari Ann Shirey, Darren J Perkins, Katharina Richard, Andrezza C Chagas, Eric Calvo, Jan Kopecký, Michail Kotsyfakis, Joao H F Pedra
Tick saliva contains a number of effector molecules that inhibit host immunity and facilitate pathogen transmission. How tick proteins regulate immune signaling, however, is incompletely understood. Here, we describe that loop 2 of sialostatin L2, an anti-inflammatory tick protein, binds to annexin A2 and impairs the formation of the NLRC4 inflammasome during infection with the rickettsial agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum Macrophages deficient in annexin A2 secreted significantly smaller amounts of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and had a defect in NLRC4 inflammasome oligomerization and caspase-1 activation...
June 2016: Infection and Immunity
Rebekah L Bullard, Jaclyn Williams, Shahid Karim
Saliva is an integral factor in the feeding success of veterinary and medically important ticks. Therefore, the characterization of the proteins present in tick saliva is an important area of tick research. Here, we confirmed previously generated sialotranscriptome data using quantitative real-time PCR. The information obtained in this in-depth study of gene expression was used to measure the effects of metalloprotease gene silencing on tick feeding. We analyzed the temporal expression of seven housekeeping genes and 44 differentially expressed salivary molecules selected from a previously published Amblyomma americanum sialotranscriptome...
2016: PloS One
Donghun Kim, Joshua Urban, Daniel L Boyle, Yoonseong Park
Control of salivary secretion in ticks involves autocrine dopamine activating two dopamine receptors: D1 and Invertebrate-specific D1-like dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated Na/K-ATPase as an important component of the secretory process. Immunoreactivity for Na/K-ATPase revealed basal infolding of lamellate cells in type-I, abluminal interstitial (epithelial) cells in type-II, and labyrinth-like infolding structures opening towards the lumen in type-III acini. Ouabain (10 μmol l(-1)), a specific inhibitor of Na/K-ATPase, abolished dopamine-induced salivary secretion by suppressing fluid transport in type III acini...
February 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lucas Tirloni, Tae Kwon Kim, Mariana Loner Coutinho, Abid Ali, Adriana Seixas, Carlos Termignoni, Albert Mulenga, Itabajara da Silva Vaz
Inflammation and hemostasis are part of the host's first line of defense to tick feeding. These systems are in part serine protease mediated and are tightly controlled by their endogenous inhibitors, in the serpin superfamily (serine protease inhibitors). From this perspective ticks are thought to use serpins to evade host defenses during feeding. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus encodes at least 24 serpins, of which RmS-3, RmS-6, and RmS-17 were previously identified in saliva of this tick. In this study, we screened inhibitor functions of these three saliva serpins against a panel of 16 proteases across the mammalian defense pathway...
April 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kotál, Jan Kopecký, Joao H F Pedra, Michail Kotsyfakis
The saliva of ixodid ticks contains a mixture of bioactive molecules that target a wide spectrum of host defense mechanisms to allow ticks to feed on the vertebrate host for several days. Tick salivary proteins cluster in multigenic protein families, and individual family members display redundancy and pluripotency in their action to ameliorate or evade host immune responses. It is now clear that members of different protein families can target the same cellular or molecular pathway of the host physiological response to tick feeding...
May 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi, Katia L P Morais, Mário Thiego Fernandes Pacheco, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita Pasqualoto, Jean Gabriel de Souza
Nowadays, the relationship between cancer blood coagulation is well established. Regarding biodiversity and bioprospection, the tick biology has become quite attractive natural source for coagulation inhibitors, since its saliva has a very rich variety of bioactive molecules. For instance, a Kunitz-type FXa inhibitor, named Amblyomin-X, was found through transcriptome of the salivary gland of the Amblyomma cajennense. tick. This TFPI-like inhibitor, after obtained as recombinant protein, has presented anticoagulant, antigionenic, and antitumor properties...
February 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tae Kwon Kim, Lucas Tirloni, Antônio F M Pinto, James Moresco, John R Yates, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Albert Mulenga
Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2...
January 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tae K Kim, Zeljko Radulovic, Albert Mulenga
Amblyomma americanum tick serine protease inhibitor (serpin, AAS) 19, is a highly conserved protein that is characterized by its functional domain being 100% conserved across tick species. We also reported that AAS19 was an immunogenic tick saliva protein with anti-haemostatic functions and an inhibitor of trypsin-like proteases including five of the eight serine protease factors in the blood clotting cascade. In this study the goal was to validate the importance of AAS19 in A. americanum tick physiology, assess immunogenicity and investigate tick vaccine efficacy of yeast-expressed recombinant (r) AAS19...
April 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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