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tick saliva protein

Cassandra L Olds, Stephen Mwaura, David O Odongo, Glen A Scoles, Richard Bishop, Claudia Daubenberger
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the primary vector of Theileria parva, the etiological agent of East Coast fever (ECF), a devastating disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We hypothesized that a vaccine targeting tick proteins that are involved in attachment and feeding might affect feeding success and possibly reduce tick-borne transmission of T. parva. Here we report the evaluation of a multivalent vaccine cocktail of tick antigens for their ability to reduce R. appendiculatus feeding success and possibly reduce tick-transmission of T...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
James J Valdés, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Radek Sima, Philip T Butterill, Daniel Růžek, Patricia A Nuttall
Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dana K Shaw, Michail Kotsyfakis, Joao H F Pedra
Having emerged during the early part of the Cretaceous period, ticks are an ancient group of hematophagous ectoparasites with significant veterinary and public health importance worldwide. The success of their life strategy can be attributed, in part, to saliva. As we enter into a scientific era where the collection of massive data sets and structures for biological application is possible, we suggest that understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern the life cycle of ticks is within grasp. With this in mind, we discuss what is currently known regarding the manipulation of Toll-like (TLR) and Nod-like (NLR) receptor signaling pathways by tick salivary proteins, and how these molecules impact pathogen transmission...
June 2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
R Manzano-Román, V Díaz-Martín, A Oleaga, P Obolo-Mvoulouga, R Pérez-Sánchez
Recently obtained evidence indicated that an orthologue of the O. savignyi TSGP4 salivary lipocalin was present in the saliva of O. moubata. TSGP4 is known to act as a cysteinyl leukotrienes scavenger helping in the prevention of inflammation and oedema at the tick bite site. Since this function seems to be crucial for successful tick feeding, the novel O. moubata TSGP4 turned into a potential vaccine target. The purposes of the current work were: (i) to clone and characterize the O. moubata TSGP4 and, (ii) to produce it as recombinant to evaluate its protective efficacy as vaccine antigen...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Naylene C S Silva, Vladimir F Vale, Paula F Franco, Nelder F Gontijo, Jesus G Valenzuela, Marcos H Pereira, Mauricio R V Sant'Anna, Daniel S Rodrigues, Walter S Lima, Blima Fux, Ricardo N Araujo
BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the main ectoparasite affecting livestock worldwide. For a successful parasitism, ticks need to evade several immune responses of their hosts, including the activation of the complement system. In spite of the importance of R. microplus, previous work only identified one salivary molecule that blocks the complement system. The current study describes complement inhibitory activities induced by R. microplus salivary components and mechanisms elicited by putative salivary proteins on both classical and alternative complement pathways...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Mayukh Ghosh, Nirmal Sangwan, Arun K Sangwan
AIM: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks transmit Theileria annulata, causative agent of tropical theileriosis to cattle and buffaloes causing a major economic loss in terms of production and mortality in tropical countries. Ticks have evolved several immune evading strategies to circumvent hosts' rejection and achieve engorgement. Successful feeding of ticks relies on a pharmacy of chemicals located in their complex salivary glands and secreted saliva. These chemicals in saliva could inhibit host inflammatory responses through modulating cytokine secretion and detoxifying reactive oxygen species...
June 2015: Veterinary World
Xiaowei Wang, Dana K Shaw, Olivia S Sakhon, Greg A Snyder, Eric J Sundberg, Laura Santambrogio, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, J Stephen Dumler, Kari Ann Shirey, Darren J Perkins, Katharina Richard, Andrezza C Chagas, Eric Calvo, Jan Kopecký, Michail Kotsyfakis, Joao H F Pedra
Tick saliva contains a number of effector molecules that inhibit host immunity and facilitate pathogen transmission. How tick proteins regulate immune signaling, however, is incompletely understood. Here, we describe that loop 2 of sialostatin L2, an anti-inflammatory tick protein, binds to annexin A2 and impairs the formation of the NLRC4 inflammasome during infection with the rickettsial agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum Macrophages deficient in annexin A2 secreted significantly smaller amounts of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and had a defect in NLRC4 inflammasome oligomerization and caspase-1 activation...
June 2016: Infection and Immunity
Rebekah L Bullard, Jaclyn Williams, Shahid Karim
Saliva is an integral factor in the feeding success of veterinary and medically important ticks. Therefore, the characterization of the proteins present in tick saliva is an important area of tick research. Here, we confirmed previously generated sialotranscriptome data using quantitative real-time PCR. The information obtained in this in-depth study of gene expression was used to measure the effects of metalloprotease gene silencing on tick feeding. We analyzed the temporal expression of seven housekeeping genes and 44 differentially expressed salivary molecules selected from a previously published Amblyomma americanum sialotranscriptome...
2016: PloS One
Donghun Kim, Joshua Urban, Daniel L Boyle, Yoonseong Park
Control of salivary secretion in ticks involves autocrine dopamine activating two dopamine receptors: D1 and Invertebrate-specific D1-like dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated Na/K-ATPase as an important component of the secretory process. Immunoreactivity for Na/K-ATPase revealed basal infolding of lamellate cells in type-I, abluminal interstitial (epithelial) cells in type-II, and labyrinth-like infolding structures opening towards the lumen in type-III acini. Ouabain (10 μmol l(-1)), a specific inhibitor of Na/K-ATPase, abolished dopamine-induced salivary secretion by suppressing fluid transport in type III acini...
2016: Scientific Reports
Lucas Tirloni, Tae Kwon Kim, Mariana Loner Coutinho, Abid Ali, Adriana Seixas, Carlos Termignoni, Albert Mulenga, Itabajara da Silva Vaz
Inflammation and hemostasis are part of the host's first line of defense to tick feeding. These systems are in part serine protease mediated and are tightly controlled by their endogenous inhibitors, in the serpin superfamily (serine protease inhibitors). From this perspective ticks are thought to use serpins to evade host defenses during feeding. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus encodes at least 24 serpins, of which RmS-3, RmS-6, and RmS-17 were previously identified in saliva of this tick. In this study, we screened inhibitor functions of these three saliva serpins against a panel of 16 proteases across the mammalian defense pathway...
April 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kotál, Jan Kopecký, Joao H F Pedra, Michail Kotsyfakis
The saliva of ixodid ticks contains a mixture of bioactive molecules that target a wide spectrum of host defense mechanisms to allow ticks to feed on the vertebrate host for several days. Tick salivary proteins cluster in multigenic protein families, and individual family members display redundancy and pluripotency in their action to ameliorate or evade host immune responses. It is now clear that members of different protein families can target the same cellular or molecular pathway of the host physiological response to tick feeding...
May 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi, Katia L P Morais, Mário Thiego Fernandes Pacheco, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita Pasqualoto, Jean Gabriel de Souza
Nowadays, the relationship between cancer blood coagulation is well established. Regarding biodiversity and bioprospection, the tick biology has become quite attractive natural source for coagulation inhibitors, since its saliva has a very rich variety of bioactive molecules. For instance, a Kunitz-type FXa inhibitor, named Amblyomin-X, was found through transcriptome of the salivary gland of the Amblyomma cajennense. tick. This TFPI-like inhibitor, after obtained as recombinant protein, has presented anticoagulant, antigionenic, and antitumor properties...
February 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tae Kwon Kim, Lucas Tirloni, Antônio F M Pinto, James Moresco, John R Yates, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Albert Mulenga
Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2...
January 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tae K Kim, Zeljko Radulovic, Albert Mulenga
Amblyomma americanum tick serine protease inhibitor (serpin, AAS) 19, is a highly conserved protein that is characterized by its functional domain being 100% conserved across tick species. We also reported that AAS19 was an immunogenic tick saliva protein with anti-haemostatic functions and an inhibitor of trypsin-like proteases including five of the eight serine protease factors in the blood clotting cascade. In this study the goal was to validate the importance of AAS19 in A. americanum tick physiology, assess immunogenicity and investigate tick vaccine efficacy of yeast-expressed recombinant (r) AAS19...
April 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kotál, Shahid Karim, Petr Kopacek, Ivo M B Francischetti, Joao H F Pedra, Michail Kotsyfakis
Tick saliva facilitates tick feeding and infection of the host. Gene expression analysis of tick salivary glands and other tissues involved in host-pathogen interactions has revealed a wide range of bioactive tick proteins. Transcriptomic analysis has been a milestone in the field and has recently been enhanced by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, the application of quantitative proteomics to ticks with unknown genomes has provided deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tick hematophagy, pathogen transmission, and tick-host-pathogen interactions...
March 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Monica Di Venere, Marco Fumagalli, Alessandra Cafiso, Leone De Marco, Sara Epis, Olivier Plantard, Anna Bardoni, Roberta Salvini, Simona Viglio, Chiara Bazzocchi, Paolo Iadarola, Davide Sassera
Hard ticks are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of numerous pathogenic microorganisms of high relevance in human and veterinary medicine. Ixodes ricinus is one of the most important tick species in Europe, due to its role of vector of pathogenic bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, of viruses such as tick borne encephalitis virus and of protozoans as Babesia spp. In addition to these pathogens, I. ricinus harbors a symbiotic bacterium, Midichloria mitochondrii. This is the dominant bacteria associated to I...
2015: PloS One
Philipp Kolb, Reinhard Wallich, Michael Nassal
Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF), and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC). Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission...
2015: PloS One
Verónica Díaz-Martín, Raúl Manzano-Román, Ana Oleaga, Ricardo Pérez-Sánchez
Ornithodoros moubata is the main vector of the pathogens causing African swine fever and human relapsing fever in Africa. The development of an efficient vaccine against this tick would facilitate its control and the prevention of the diseases it transmits to a considerable extent. Previous efforts to identify vaccine target candidates led us to the discovery of novel salivary proteins that probably act as anti-haemostatics at the host-tick interface, including a secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a 7DB-like protein (7DB-like), a riboprotein 60S L10 (RP-60S), an apyrase (APY), and a new platelet aggregation inhibitor peptide, designated mougrin (MOU)...
September 15, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
Francielle A Cordeiro, Fernanda G Amorim, Fernando A P Anjolette, Eliane C Arantes
Arachnida is the largest class among the arthropods, constituting over 60,000 described species (spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions, palpigrades, pseudoscorpions, solpugids and harvestmen). Many accidents are caused by arachnids, especially spiders and scorpions, while some diseases can be transmitted by mites and ticks. These animals are widely dispersed in urban centers due to the large availability of shelter and food, increasing the incidence of accidents. Several protein and non-protein compounds present in the venom and saliva of these animals are responsible for symptoms observed in envenoming, exhibiting neurotoxic, dermonecrotic and hemorrhagic activities...
2015: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Kaikhushroo H Banajee, Monica E Embers, Ingeborg M Langohr, Lara A Doyle, Nicole R Hasenkampf, Kevin R Macaluso
Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp...
2015: PloS One
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