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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550423/tactile-feedback-is-an-effective-instrument-for-the-training-of-grasping-with-a-prosthesis-at-low-and-medium-force-levels
#1
Alessandro Marco De Nunzio, Strahinja Dosen, Sabrina Lemling, Marko Markovic, Meike Annika Schweisfurth, Nan Ge, Bernhard Graimann, Deborah Falla, Dario Farina
Grasping is a complex task routinely performed in an anticipatory (feedforward) manner, where sensory feedback is responsible for learning and updating the internal model of grasp dynamics. This study aims at evaluating whether providing a proportional tactile force feedback during the myoelectric control of a prosthesis facilitates learning a stable internal model of the prosthesis force control. Ten able-bodied subjects controlled a sensorized myoelectric prosthesis performing four blocks of consecutive grasps at three levels of target force (30, 50, and 70%), repeatedly closing the fully opened hand...
May 26, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544947/measuring-cortical-motor-hemodynamics-during-assisted-stepping-an-fnirs-feasibility-study-of-using-a-walker
#2
Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Guilherme A Zimeo Morais, Joana Bisol Balardin, Daniel Boari Coelho, Nametala Maia Azzi, Luis Augusto Teixeira, João Ricardo Sato
Walkers are commonly prescribed worldwide to individuals unable to walk independently. Walker usage leads to improved postural control and voluntary movement during step. In the present study, we aimed to provide a concept-proof on the feasibility of an event-related protocol integrating the analyses of biomechanical variables of step initiation and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) while using a walker. Healthy young participants were tested while stepping with versus without the use of the walker...
May 17, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543936/counselling-parents-on-young-children-s-healthy-diet-a-modified-scoping-review
#3
REVIEW
Bettina Holmberg Fagerlund, Sølvi Helseth, Jenny Owe, Kari Glavin
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To map and describe key information in existing research about counselling of parents of children aged 0-2 years on the child's healthy diet in preventive health care settings, particularly in public health nursing. BACKGROUND: Many parents are likely to be concerned with their infant's food-related happiness "here and now", disregarding the child's long-term health and development related to feeding practices. Hence, a focus on counselling parents in considering young children's healthy diet is important...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543920/uncertainty-increases-neural-indices-of-attention-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Raoul Dieterich, Tanja Endrass, Norbert Kathmann
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience abnormally high levels of uncertainty, and unpredictability is evaluated negatively and not well tolerated. The current study examined neural correlates of attentional processing in response to experimentally induced uncertainty in OCD. METHODS: Twenty-four OCD patients and 24 healthy controls performed a task where neutral and negative pictures were preceded by a cue, either being predictive (certain condition) or nonpredictive (uncertain condition) of subsequent picture valence...
May 25, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541285/endogenous-opioids-regulate-social-threat-learning-in-humans
#5
Jan Haaker, Jonathan Yi, Predrag Petrovic, Andreas Olsson
Many fearful expectations are shaped by observation of aversive outcomes to others. Yet, the neurochemistry regulating social learning is unknown. Previous research has shown that during direct (Pavlovian) threat learning, information about personally experienced outcomes is regulated by the release of endogenous opioids, and activity within the amygdala and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Here we report that blockade of this opioidergic circuit enhances social threat learning through observation in humans involving activity within the amygdala, midline thalamus and the PAG...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539875/trait-rumination-influences-neural-correlates-of-the-anticipation-but-not-the-consumption-phase-of-reward-processing
#6
Natália Kocsel, Edina Szabó, Attila Galambos, Andrea Édes, Dorottya Pap, Rebecca Elliott, Lajos R Kozák, György Bagdy, Gabriella Juhász, Gyöngyi Kökönyei
Cumulative evidence suggests that trait rumination can be defined as an abstract information processing mode, which leads people to constantly anticipate the likely impact of present events on future events and experiences. A previous study with remitted depressed patients suggested that enhanced rumination tendencies distort brain mechanisms of anticipatory processes associated with reward and loss cues. In the present study, we explored the impact of trait rumination on neural activity during reward and loss anticipation among never-depressed people...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539601/temporal-dynamics-of-tms-interference-over-preparatory-alpha-activity-during-semantic-decisions
#7
Sara Spadone, Carlo Sestieri, Antonello Baldassarre, Paolo Capotosto
The mean amplitude of the EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) power de-synchronization (ERD) is a robust electrophysiological correlate of task anticipation. Furthermore, in paradigms using a fixed period between warning and target stimuli, such alpha de-synchronization tends to increase and to peak just before target presentation. Previous studies from our group showed that the anticipatory alpha ERD can be modulated when magnetic stimulation is delivered over specific cortical regions during a variety of cognitive tasks...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537007/from-anticipation-to-integration-the-role-of-integrated-action-effects-in-building-sensorimotor-contingencies
#8
Thomas Camus, Bernhard Hommel, Lionel Brunel, Thibaut Brouillet
Ideomotor approaches to action control have provided evidence that the activation of an anticipatory image of previously learned action-effects plays a decisive role in action selection. This study sought for converging evidence by combining three previous experimental paradigms: the response-effect compatibility protocol introduced by Kunde (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(2), 387-394, 2001), the acquisition-test paradigm developed by Elsner and Hommel (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 27(1), 229, 2001), and the object-action compatibility manipulation of Tucker and Ellis (Visual Cognition, 8(6), 769-800, 2001)...
May 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530656/metabolic-anticipation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#9
Hyungjin Eoh, Zhe Wang, Emilie Layre, Poonam Rath, Roxanne Morris, D Branch Moody, Kyu Y Rhee
Humans serve as both host and reservoir for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, making tuberculosis a theoretically eradicable disease. How M. tuberculosis alternates between host-imposed quiescence and sporadic bouts of replication to complete its life cycle, however, remains unknown. Here, we identify a metabolic adaptation that is triggered upon entry into hypoxia-induced quiescence but facilitates subsequent cell cycle re-entry. Catabolic remodelling of the cell surface trehalose mycolates of M. tuberculosis specifically generates metabolic intermediates reserved for re-initiation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis...
May 22, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529060/the-effect-of-anxiety-sensitivity-on-psychological-and-biological-variables-during-the-cold-pressor-test
#10
Naomi Dodo, Ryusaku Hashimoto
We examined the relationship between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and autonomic nervous system responses (ANS) during the cold pressor test (CPT). Seventy-four university students participated and were divided into low-AS (M=9.06, SD=3.97) and high-AS groups (M=28.68, SD=6.63) based on AS Index scores (n's=36 and 38, respectively). The study included three phases: Rest, CPT, and Recovery. We measured the psychological variables (fear of pain and subjective pain) at pre- and post-CPT. ANS response data were collected during each phase...
May 13, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527681/decreased-food-anticipatory-activity-of-obese-mice-relates-to-hypothalamic-c-fos-expression
#11
C Luna-Illades, T Morales, M Miranda-Anaya
During daily Food Restriction (FR), obese Neotomodon alstoni mice present decreased Food Anticipatory Activity (FAA) compared to lean mice. Here, we investigated whether FOS expression in hypothalamic nuclei involved in food synchronization and anticipation parallels decreased FAA during daily FR of obese N. alstoni. Locomotor activity of lean and obese mice in ad libitum feeding conditions was monitored for at least two weeks. Then, a gradual restriction of food access was followed to establish a 5h period of daily food access...
May 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527423/task-related-and-person-related-variables-influence-the-effect-of-low-back-pain-on-anticipatory-postural-adjustments
#12
Jesse V Jacobs, Courtney A Lyman, Juvena R Hitt, Sharon M Henry
BACKGROUND: People with low back pain exhibit altered postural coordination that has been suggested as a target for treatment, but heterogeneous presentation has rendered it difficult to identify appropriate candidates and protocols for such treatments. This study evaluated the associations of task-related and person-related factors with the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments. METHODS: Thirteen subjects with and 13 without low back pain performed seated, rapid arm flexion in self-initiated and cued conditions...
May 17, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522331/internal-mechanisms-underlying-anticipatory-language-processing-evidence-from-event-related-potentials-and-neural-oscillations
#13
Xiaoqing Li, Yuping Zhang, Jinyan Xia, Tamara Y Swaab
Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts...
May 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521266/neural-mechanisms-of-reward-processing-associated-with-depression-related-personality-traits
#14
Akina Umemoto, Clay B Holroyd
OBJECTIVE: Although impaired reward processing in depression has been well-documented, the exact nature of that deficit remains poorly understood. To investigate the link between depression and the neural mechanisms of reward processing, we examined individual differences in personality. METHODS: We recorded the electroencephalogram from healthy college students engaged in a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. Participants also completed several personality questionnaires that assessed traits related to reward sensitivity, motivation, and depression...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521155/is-laughter-a-better-vocal-change-detector-than-a-growl
#15
Ana P Pinheiro, Carla Barros, Margarida Vasconcelos, Christian Obermeier, Sonja A Kotz
The capacity to predict what should happen next and to minimize any discrepancy between an expected and an actual sensory input (prediction error) is a central aspect of perception. Particularly in vocal communication, the effective prediction of an auditory input that informs the listener about the emotionality of a speaker is critical. What is currently unknown is how the perceived valence of an emotional vocalization affects the capacity to predict and detect a change in the auditory input. This question was probed in a combined event-related potential (ERP) and time-frequency analysis approach...
April 11, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521137/a-map-of-anticipatory-activity-in-mouse-motor-cortex
#16
Tsai-Wen Chen, Nuo Li, Kayvon Daie, Karel Svoboda
Activity in the mouse anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) instructs directional movements, often seconds before movement initiation. It is unknown whether this preparatory activity is localized to ALM or widely distributed within motor cortex. Here we imaged activity across motor cortex while mice performed a whisker-based object localization task with a delayed, directional licking response. During tactile sensation and the delay epoch, object location was represented in motor cortex areas that are medial and posterior relative to ALM, including vibrissal motor cortex...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520552/prestimulus-inhibition-of-saccades-in-adults-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-an-index-of-temporal-expectations
#17
Yarden Dankner, Lilach Shalev, Marisa Carrasco, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
Knowing when to expect important events to occur is critical for preparing context-appropriate behavior. However, anticipation is inherently complicated to assess because conventional measurements of behavior, such as accuracy and reaction time, are available only after the predicted event has occurred. Anticipatory processes, which occur prior to target onset, are typically measured only retrospectively by these methods. In this study, we utilized a novel approach for assessing temporal expectations through the dynamics of prestimulus saccades...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514534/anticipatory-vigilance-a-grounded-theory-study-of-minimising-risk-within-the-perioperative-setting
#18
Brid O' Brien, Tom Andrews, Eileen Savage
AIM: To explore and explain how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. BACKGROUND: Perioperative nurses care for patients who are having surgery or other invasive explorative procedures. Perioperative care is increasingly focused on how to improve patient safety. Safety and risk management is a global priority for health services in reducing risk. Many studies have explored safety within the health care settings. However little is known about how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511980/reward-loss-and-the-basolateral-amygdala-a-function-in-reward-comparisons
#19
Katsuyoshi Kawasaki, Iván Annicchiarico, Amanda C Glueck, Ignacio Morón, Mauricio R Papini
The neural circuitry underlying behavior in reward loss situations is poorly understood. We considered two such situations: reward devaluation (from large to small rewards) and reward omission (from large rewards to no rewards). There is evidence that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays a role in the negative emotion accompanying reward loss. However, little is known about the function of the basolateral nucleus (BLA) in reward loss. Two hypotheses of BLA function in reward loss, negative emotion and reward comparisons, were tested in an experiment involving pretraining excitotoxic BLA lesions followed by training in four tasks: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), autoshaping (AS) acquisition and extinction, anticipatory negative contrast (ANC), and open field testing (OF)...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503144/rigid-ankle-foot-orthosis-deteriorates-mediolateral-balance-control-and-vertical-braking-during-gait-initiation
#20
Arnaud Delafontaine, Olivier Gagey, Silvia Colnaghi, Manh-Cuong Do, Jean-Louis Honeine
Rigid ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) are commonly used for impeding foot drop during the swing phase of gait. They also reduce pain and improve gait kinematics in patients with weakness or loss of integrity of ankle-foot complex structures due to various pathological conditions. However, this comes at the price of constraining ankle joint mobility, which might affect propulsive force generation and balance control. The present study examined the effects of wearing an AFO on biomechanical variables and electromyographic activity of tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during gait initiation (GI)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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