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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332755/investigating-the-anticipatory-postural-adjustment-phase-of-gait-initiation-in-different-directions-in-chronic-ankle-instability-patients
#1
Zahra Ebrahimabadi, Sedigheh Sadat Naimi, Abbas Rahimi, Heydar Sadeghi, Seyed Majid Hosseini, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Syed Asadullah Arslan
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the present study was to analyze how supra spinal motor control mechanisms are altered in different directions during anticipatory postural phase of gait initiation in chronic ankle instability patients. It seems that supra spinal pathways modulate anticipatory postural adjustment phase of gait initiation. Yet, there is a dearth of research on the effect of chronic ankle instability on the anticipatory postural adjustment phase of gait initiation in different directions...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332033/effect-of-dual-tasking-on-anticipatory-and-compensatory-postural-adjustments-in-response-to-external-perturbations-in-individuals-with-nonspecific-chronic-low-back-pain-electromyographic-analysis
#2
Ladan Hemmati, Soraya Piroozi, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi
BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), postural control is a demanding task in terms of attention. Although the attentional demands of postural control have been investigated in these patients, the attentional demands of postural recovery during dual task performance have not been evaluated in patients with nonspecific CLBP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of dual tasking on anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments in response to an external perturbation in patients with nonspecific CLBP...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330480/anti-correlated-cortical-networks-arise-from-spontaneous-neuronal-dynamics-at-slow-timescales
#3
Nathan X Kodama, Tianyi Feng, James J Ullett, Hillel J Chiel, Siddharth S Sivakumar, Roberto F Galán
In the highly interconnected architectures of the cerebral cortex, recurrent intracortical loops disproportionately outnumber thalamo-cortical inputs. These networks are also capable of generating neuronal activity without feedforward sensory drive. It is unknown, however, what spatiotemporal patterns may be solely attributed to intrinsic connections of the local cortical network. Using high-density microelectrode arrays, here we show that in the isolated, primary somatosensory cortex of mice, neuronal firing fluctuates on timescales from milliseconds to tens of seconds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328985/standing-on-a-sliding-board-affects-generation-of-anticipatory-and-compensatory-postural-adjustments
#4
Bing Chen, Yun-Ju Lee, Alexander S Aruin
Postural control is compromised in the presence of body instability. We studied anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments people use to maintain balance while standing on an unstable surface and performing voluntary arm movements. Nine healthy participants stood on a sliding board (that was either locked and as such motionless or unlocked and as such free to move in the anterior-posterior direction) and performed fast bilateral arms flexion. Arm acceleration, bilateral electromyographic activity (EMG) of the trunk and lower extremity muscles and center of pressure (COP) displacements were recorded and analyzed within the intervals typical for the anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327087/use-of-portable-digital-devices-to-analyze-autonomic-stress-response-in-psychology-objective-structured-clinical-examination
#5
Ana Isabel Beltrán-Velasco, Alberto Bellido-Esteban, Pablo Ruisoto-Palomera, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326521/surgical-management-of-large-radicular-cyst-associated-with-mandibular-deciduous-molar-using-platelet-rich-fibrin-augmentation-a-rare-case-report
#6
Vijaya S Dhote, Nilima R Thosar, Sudhindra M Baliga, Priyanti Dharnadhikari, Poonam Bhatiya, Punit Fulzele
Radicular cysts arising from deciduous teeth are rare and usually cause a large bony defect. Autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is an easily available healing biomaterial in oral surgical defect with the new perspective of accelerated healing of a large bony defect. The present case is of unusually large radicular associated with neglected carious mandibular deciduous second molar in 10-year-old girl and its surgical management with PRF augmentation as a healing biomaterial in the bony defect. One-year follow-up showed uneventful healing and eruption of succedaneous tooth...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305746/verbal-and-nonverbal-anticipatory-mechanisms-in-bilinguals
#7
Lorenzo Desideri, Paola Bonifacci
Empirical evidence collected so far has revealed that the bilingual advantage cannot be reduced to a single component of the executive functioning, and point to the need to understand the effects of bilingual experience on cognition as influencing a wider family of mental processes, including, but not limited to, cognitive control. The present study aims to explore a relatively underinvestigated domain of bilingual cognitive processes, namely anticipation, through a series of different paradigms tapping proactive and reactive mechanisms at different levels of cognitive complexity and linguistic components...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305660/psychophysiological-body-composition-biomechanical-and-autonomic-modulation-analysis-procedures-in-an-ultraendurance-mountain-race
#8
Pedro Belinchon-deMiguel, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
The current research aimed to analyze psychophysiological, body composition, biomechanical and autonomic modifications in an ultraendurance mountain race. We analyzed 11 finisher voluntary athletes that participated in a 51.2 km ultraendurance mountain race. We measured before and after the mountain ultraendurance event the following parameters: Rate of perceived exertion, body composition, cortical arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, forced vital capacity, blood oxygen saturation, isometric hand strength and heart rate variability parameters...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305618/control-of-vertical-posture-while-standing-on-a-sliding-board-and-pushing-an-object
#9
Yun-Ju Lee, Bing Chen, Jing-Nong Liang, Alexander S Aruin
Voluntary pushing or translation perturbation of the support surface each induces a body perturbation that affects postural control. The objective of the study was to investigate anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments when pushing an object (that induces self-initiated perturbation) and standing on a sliding board (that induces translational perturbation). Thirteen healthy young participants were instructed to push a handle with both hands while standing on a sliding board that was either free to move in the anterior-posterior direction or stationary...
January 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305535/an-insula-central-amygdala-circuit-for-guiding-tastant-reinforced-choice-behavior
#10
Hillary Schiff, Anna Lien Bouhuis, Kai Yu, Mario A Penzo, Haohong Li, Miao He, Bo Li
Predicting which substances are suitable for consumption during foraging is critical for animals to survive. Despite extensive study, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying such adaptive behavior remain poorly understood. Here we examined the anatomical and functional connectivity of the insular cortex (IC) to central amygdala (CeA) circuit and the role of this circuit in the establishment of appropriate behavioral responses in a tastant (sucrose/quinine)-reinforced "go/no-go" task in male and female mice...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305043/the-parakeet-protectors-understanding-opposition-to-introduced-species-management
#11
Sarah L Crowley, Steve Hinchliffe, Robbie A McDonald
The surveillance and control of introduced and invasive species has become an increasingly important component of environmental management. However, initiatives targeting 'charismatic' wildlife can be controversial. Opposition to management, and the subsequent emergence of social conflict, present significant challenges for would-be managers. Understanding the substance and development of these disputes is therefore vital for improving the legitimacy and effectiveness of wildlife management. It also provides important insights into human-wildlife relations and the 'social dimensions' of wildlife management...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288824/inhaled-lavandula-angustifolia-essential-oil-inhibits-consolidation-of-contextual-but-not-tone-fear-conditioning-in-rats
#12
Laura Segismundo Coelho, Nelson Francisco Correa-Netto, Marcia Yuriko Masukawa, Ariadiny Caetano Lima, Samia Maluf, Alessandra Linardi, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior
Although the current treatment for anxiety is effective, it promotes a number of adverse reactions and medical interactions. Inhaled essential oils have a prominent action on the central nervous system, with minimal systemic effects, primarily because of reduced systemic bioavailability. The effects of drugs on the consolidation of fear conditioning reflects its clinical efficacy in preventing a vicious cycle of anticipatory anxiety leading to fearful cognition and anxiety symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled Lavandula angustifolia essential oil on the consolidation of aversive memories and its influence on c-Fos expression...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284942/knowledge-and-attitude-about-early-childhood-caries-among-pregnant-mothers-from-low-socioeconomic-status-a-questionnaire-study
#13
Pooja Rajan, Ramesh Krishnan, Suresh Kumar, Suraj Nair
Background: For health and well-being, oral health is an integral component. Unfortunately, many children are afflicted with dental caries at an early age, even those as young as 12 months. By imparting knowledge, awareness among parents about this disease can bring about reduction of early childhood caries (ECC) at an early stage. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and attitude of expectant mothers about ECC and to reassess the level of knowledge after giving anticipatory guidance...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280401/spectral-coefficient-analyses-of-word-initial-stop-consonant-productions-suggest-similar-anticipatory-coarticulation-for-stuttering-and-nonstuttering-adults
#14
Santosh Maruthy, Yongqiang Feng, Ludo Max
A longstanding hypothesis about the sensorimotor mechanisms underlying stuttering suggests that stuttered speech dysfluencies result from a lack of coarticulation. Formant-based measures of either the stuttered or fluent speech of children and adults who stutter have generally failed to obtain compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that these individuals differ in the timing or degree of coarticulation. Here, we used a sensitive acoustic technique-spectral coefficient analyses-that allowed us to compare stuttering and nonstuttering speakers with regard to vowel-dependent anticipatory influences as early as the onset burst of a preceding voiceless stop consonant...
March 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278959/the-influence-of-maternal-life-stressors-on-breastfeeding-outcomes-a-us-population-based-study
#15
Panagiota Kitsantas, Kathleen F Gaffney, Lavanya Nirmalraj, Mehmet Sari
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of maternal financial, emotional, traumatic and partner-associated stressors on breastfeeding initiation and duration. METHODS: Data (216 756 records) from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System surveys were used in the analysis. Logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the magnitude and direction of associations between maternal stressors occurring in the 12 months prior to infant birth and both breastfeeding initiation and duration up to 4 weeks infant age...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277651/predictive-coding-of-visual-object-position-ahead-of-moving-objects-revealed-by-time-resolved-eeg-decoding
#16
Hinze Hogendoorn, Anthony N Burkitt
Due to the delays inherent in neuronal transmission, our awareness of sensory events necessarily lags behind the occurrence of those events in the world. If the visual system did not compensate for these delays, we would consistently mislocalize moving objects behind their actual position. Anticipatory mechanisms that might compensate for these delays have been reported in animals, and such mechanisms have also been hypothesized to underlie perceptual effects in humans such as the Flash-Lag Effect. However, to date no direct physiological evidence for anticipatory mechanisms has been found in humans...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276716/lived-experiences-of-adolescent-athletes-following-sport-related-concussion
#17
Tamara C Valovich McLeod, Alyssa J Wagner, Cailee E Welch Bacon
Background: Previous studies have identified the effect of sport-related concussion on health-related quality of life through the use of patient-reported outcome measures. However, there has been little research exploring the underlying mechanisms that influence these perceptions of health-related quality of life among adolescent athletes who have sustained a sport-related concussion. Purpose: To explore the psychosocial aspects of concussion among adolescent athletes...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276390/trial-level-regressor-modulation-for-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-designs-requiring-strict-periodicity-of-stimulus-presentations-illustrated-using-a-go-no-go-task
#18
Michael A Motes, Neena K Rao, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
Computer-based assessment of many cognitive processes (eg, anticipatory and response readiness processes) requires the use of invariant stimulus display times (SDT) and intertrial intervals (ITI). Although designs with invariant SDTs and ITIs have been used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research, such designs are problematic for fMRI studies because of collinearity issues. This study examined regressor modulation with trial-level reaction times (RT) as a method for improving signal detection in a go/no-go task with invariant SDTs and ITIs...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276350/pleasure-experience-and-emotion-expression-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Min-Yi Chu, Xu Li, Qin-Yu Lv, Zheng-Hui Yl, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Background: Impairments in emotional experience and expression have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have been limited to either emotional experience (especially anhedonia) or expression. Few studies have examined both the experience and expression of emotion in schizophrenia patients at the same time. Aims: The present study aimed to examine pleasure experience and emotion expression in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, we specifically examined the relationship between emotion impairments (both pleasure experience and expression) and negative symptoms...
October 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275439/mouse-tracking-evidence-for-parallel-anticipatory-option-evaluation
#20
Edward A Cranford, Jarrod Moss
In fast-paced, dynamic tasks, the ability to anticipate the future outcome of a sequence of events is crucial to quickly selecting an appropriate course of action among multiple alternative options. There are two classes of theories that describe how anticipation occurs. Serial theories assume options are generated and evaluated one at a time, in order of quality, whereas parallel theories assume simultaneous generation and evaluation. The present research examined the option evaluation process during a task designed to be analogous to prior anticipation tasks, but within the domain of narrative text comprehension...
December 23, 2017: Cognitive Processing
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