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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807718/autonomic-regulation-of-systemic-inflammation-in-humans-a-multi-center-blinded-observational-cohort-study
#1
Gareth L Ackland, Gary Minto, Martin Clark, John Whittle, Robert Cm Stephens, Thomas Owen, Pradeep Prabhu, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo
OBJECTIVE: Experimental animal models demonstrate that autonomic activity regulates systemic inflammation. By contrast, human studies are limited in number and exclusively use heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of cardiac autonomic regulation. HRV measures are primarily dependent on, and need to be corrected for, heart rate. Thus, independent autonomic measures are required to confirm HRV-based findings. Here, the authors sought to replicate the findings of preceding HRV-based studies by using HRV-independent, exercise-evoked sympathetic and parasympathetic measures of cardiac autonomic regulation to examine the relationship between autonomic function and systemic inflammation...
August 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807332/synthetic-biology-regulation-and-governance-lessons-from-tapic-for-the-united-states-european-union-and-singapore
#2
Benjamin D Trump
Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise...
August 2, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806494/body-piercing-motivations-and-implications-for-health
#3
REVIEW
Cheri Van Hoover, Carol-Ann Rademayer, Cindy L Farley
Body piercing has evolved from a behavior once considered extreme to an accepted choice among the general population. Earlobe piercing is so common that it is now considered a normative behavior. The motivations for choosing body piercing have changed and are associated with piercing site and number of piercings chosen by the individual. Meanings ascribed to body piercing were traditionally related to enhanced sexual desirability and experience, but now range from the innocuous, such as a fashion statement, to the risk laden, such as nonsuicidal self-injury...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806417/phonetic-complexity-affects-children-s-mandarin-tone-production-accuracy-in-disyllabic-words-a-perceptual-study
#4
Puisan Wong, Winifred Strange
This is the first study to examine the effect of phonetic contexts on children's lexical tone production. Mandarin tones in disyllabic words produced by forty-four 2- to 6-year-old children and twelve mothers were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Native Mandarin-speaking adults categorized the tones based on the pitch information in the filtered stimuli. All mothers' tones were categorized with ceiling accuracy. Counter to the findings in most previous studies on children's tone acquisition and the prevailing assumption in models of speech development that children acquire suprasegmental features much earlier than segmental features, this study found that children as old as six years of age have not mastered the production of Mandarin tones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805944/suppression-of-acute-and-anticipatory-nausea-by-peripherally-restricted-faah-inhibitor-in-animal-models-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-cb1-receptors
#5
Erin M Rock, Guillermo Moreno-Sanz, Cheryl L Limebeer, Gavin N Petrie, Roberto Angelini, Daniele Piomelli, Linda A Parker
To evaluate the ability of the peripherally restricted fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB937 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoyl-6-hydroxybiphenyl-3-yl ester) to suppress acute and anticipatory nausea in rats, and to examine the pharmacological mechanism of such an effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We investigated the potential of URB937 to reduce the establishment of lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced conditioned gaping (a model of acute nausea) and to reduce the expression of contextually elicited conditioned gaping (a model of anticipatory nausea) in rats...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804473/confirmatory-factor-analysis-of-the-french-version-of-the-anticipatory-and-consummatory-interpersonal-pleasure-scale
#6
Joséphine Chaix, Philippe Golay, Caroline Fankhauser, Alexandra Nguyen, Diane C Gooding, Jérôme Favrod
The Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS), a measure specifically designed to assess hedonic capacity for social and interpersonal pleasure, was used to evaluate the presence of social anhedonia in patients as well as the general population. The first goal of this study was to validate the structure of the French version of the ACIPS. The second objective was to verify whether a one, two or three factor solution is most appropriate for the ACIPS scale. The French version of the ACIPS was tested on 263 French-speaking pre-graduate students or professional volunteers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799904/circadian-coordination-of-antimicrobial-responses
#7
REVIEW
Paola Tognini, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
Microbial infection poses a threat to organismal homeostasis and therefore must be efficiently counteracted by host defense mechanisms. It has been recently demonstrated that the immune system may anticipate an emerging pathogenic exposure through a heightened inflammatory state. Such anticipatory responses to fluctuating environmental conditions are typically orchestrated by the circadian clock, an intrinsic time-keeping system that adapts tissue physiology to diurnal variations in external influences. Here, we review current knowledge about the interplay between the circadian clock and antimicrobial responses...
August 9, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797209/working-memory-and-auditory-imagery-predict-sensorimotor-synchronization-with-expressively-timed-music
#8
Ian D Colley, Peter E Keller, Andrea R Halpern
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is prevalent and readily studied in musical settings, as most people are able to perceive and synchronize with a beat (e.g. by finger tapping). We took an individual differences approach to understanding SMS to real music characterized by expressive timing (i.e. fluctuating beat regularity). Given the dynamic nature of SMS, we hypothesized that individual differences in working memory and auditory imagery-both fluid cognitive processes-would predict SMS at two levels: 1) mean absolute asynchrony (a measure of synchronization error), and 2) anticipatory timing (i...
August 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791625/language-driven-anticipatory-eye-movements-in-virtual-reality
#9
Nicole Eichert, David Peeters, Peter Hagoort
Predictive language processing is often studied by measuring eye movements as participants look at objects on a computer screen while they listen to spoken sentences. This variant of the visual-world paradigm has revealed that information encountered by a listener at a spoken verb can give rise to anticipatory eye movements to a target object, which is taken to indicate that people predict upcoming words. The ecological validity of such findings remains questionable, however, because these computer experiments used two-dimensional stimuli that were mere abstractions of real-world objects...
August 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790972/investigation-of-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-one-leg-stance-using-inertial-sensors-evidence-from-subjects-with-parkinsonism
#10
Gianluca Bonora, Martina Mancini, Ilaria Carpinella, Lorenzo Chiari, Maurizio Ferrarin, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
The One-Leg Stance (OLS) test is a widely adopted tool for the clinical assessment of balance in the elderly and in subjects with neurological disorders. It was previously showed that the ability to control anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) prior to lifting one leg is significantly impaired by idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). However, it is not known how APAs are affected by other types of parkinsonism, such as frontal gait disorders (FGD). In this study, an instrumented OLS test based on wearable inertial sensors is proposed to investigate both the initial anticipatory phase and the subsequent unipedal balance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782642/great-expectations-is-there-evidence-for-predictive-coding-in-auditory-cortex
#11
REVIEW
Micha Heilbron, Maria Chait
Predictive coding is possibly one of the most influential, comprehensive, and controversial theories of neural function. Whilst proponents praise its explanatory potential, critics object that key tenets of the theory are untested or even untestable. The present article critically examines existing evidence for predictive coding in the auditory modality. Specifically, we identify five key assumptions of the theory and evaluate each in the light of animal, human and modelling studies of auditory pattern processing...
August 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777234/provider-opinions-and-experiences-regarding-development-of-a-social-support-assessment-to-inform-hospital-discharge-the-going-home-toolkit
#12
Andrea Wallace, Todd Papke, Erica Davisson, Kara Spooner, Laura Gassman
PURPOSE OF STUDY: Despite over three decades of research linking social support and optimal health outcomes, social support is not systematically assessed or addressed during clinical care. This study sought input from health care providers to inform the design of an intervention intended to facilitate assessment of social support in a way that could aid in anticipatory planning during the process of hospital discharge. PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTING(S): Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were collected from providers in two acute care settings serving rural patients, one academic and one community based...
September 2017: Professional Case Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776113/the-impact-of-copayments-on-mental-healthcare-utilization-a-natural-experiment
#13
Timo R Lambregts, René C J A van Vliet
Empirical evidence suggests that people are fairly sensitive to cost sharing arrangements in ambulatory mental healthcare. However, pure cost sharing effects are typically hard to measure due to the presence of adverse selection effects. In this paper, we examine the impact of cost sharing on mental healthcare utilization in the context of mandatory health insurance where adverse selection is absent. Using a large proprietary dataset of a Dutch private health insurer, we examine to what extent a new copayment scheme for adult mental healthcare changed healthcare utilization...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772125/discovering-event-structure-in-continuous-narrative-perception-and-memory
#14
Christopher Baldassano, Janice Chen, Asieh Zadbood, Jonathan W Pillow, Uri Hasson, Kenneth A Norman
During realistic, continuous perception, humans automatically segment experiences into discrete events. Using a novel model of cortical event dynamics, we investigate how cortical structures generate event representations during narrative perception and how these events are stored to and retrieved from memory. Our data-driven approach allows us to detect event boundaries as shifts between stable patterns of brain activity without relying on stimulus annotations and reveals a nested hierarchy from short events in sensory regions to long events in high-order areas (including angular gyrus and posterior medial cortex), which represent abstract, multimodal situation models...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766090/what-do-pediatricians-tell-parents-about-bed-sharing
#15
Paula Schaeffer, Andrea G Asnes
Background and objectives Despite the risks of bed-sharing, little is known about what pediatricians tell parents about bed-sharing with infants and whether pediatricians provide specific recommendations outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). This study aimed to understand pediatricians' opinions about bed-sharing and the advice pediatricians provide to parents about bed sharing. Methods The study employed a qualitative study design and the conceptual framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior...
August 1, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764825/living-with-tricuspid-atresia-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#16
Brittany Watson Frock, Amy J Jnah, Desi M Newberry
Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a rare congenital heart defect in which the right atrioventricular connection, the tricuspid valve, is absent. As a result, there is no direct communication between the right atrium and right ventricle. Surgical treatment, including the Fontan procedure, is indicated yet palliative, leaving patients with various lifelong complications. A comprehensive literature review revealed a paucity of evidence-based education on the identification, evaluation, management, treatment, and life span implications of TA...
July 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760555/rhythmicity-and-plasticity-of-digestive-physiology-in-a-euryhaline-teleost-fish-permit-trachinotus-falcatus
#17
Carlo C Lazado, Per Bovbjerg Pedersen, Huy Quang Nguyen, Ivar Lund
Digestive physiology is considered to be under circadian control, but there is little evidence in teleost fish. The present study explored the rhythmicity and plasticity to feeding schedules of enzymatic digestion in a candidate aquaculture fish, the permit (Trachinotus falcatus). The first experiment identified the rhythms of digestive factors throughout the light-dark (LD) cycle. Gastric luminal pH and pepsin activity showed significant daily variation albeit not rhythmic. These dynamic changes were likewise observed in several digestive enzymes, in which the activities of intestinal protease, chymotrypsin and lipase exhibited significant daily rhythms...
July 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755139/within-session-reversal-learning-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#18
Rebecca M Rayburn-Reeves, Brielle T James, Michael J Beran
In a midsession reversal (MSR) task, animals are typically presented with a simple, simultaneous discrimination (S1+, S2-) where contingencies are reversed (S1-, S2+) half-way through each session. This paradigm creates multiple, relevant cues that can aid in maximizing overall reinforcement. Recent research has shown that pigeons show systematic anticipatory and perseverative errors across the session, which increase as a function of proximity to the reversal trial. This behavior has been theorized to indicate primary control by temporal cues across the session, instead of the cues provided by recent reinforcement history that appear to control behavior shown by humans...
July 28, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753688/the-role-of-neck-muscle-activities-on-the-risk-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-american-football
#19
Xin Jin, Zhaoying Feng, Valerie H Mika, Haiyan Li, David Viano, King H Yang
Concussion, or mild TBI (mTBI), is frequently associated with sports activities. It has generally been accepted that neck strengthening exercises are effective as a preventive strategy for reducing sports-related concussion risks. However, the interpretation of the link between neck strength and concussion risks remains unclear. In this study, a typical helmeted head-to-head impact in American football was simulated using the head and neck complex finite element model. The impact scenario selected was previously reported in lab-controlled incident reconstructions from high-speed NFL video footages using two head-neck complexes taken from Hybrid III dummies...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752967/-expression-of-hsp70-in-kunming-mouse-embryos-stimulated-by-chronic-mild-anticipatory-stress
#20
Xiao-Hong Li, Shan Luo, Wei Fan, Xun Zeng, Yu Bai, Lang Qin, Shang-Wei Li
OBJECTIVE: To measure the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in mice embryos with the stimulation of chronic mild anticipatory stress (CUMS) to female Kunming mice. METHODS: Three hundreds female Kunming mice were stressed by 9 chronic mild unpredictable stress factors for 28 days and then divided into three groups of mild, moderate and severe stress. PMSG/hCG was measured to assess the induction of superovulation, and ovarian response and embryo development potential were observed...
July 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
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