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Michael Baer, Bradley Klemetson, Diana Scott, Andrew S Murtishaw, James W Navalta, Jefferson W Kinney, Merrill R Landers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Because falls can have deleterious consequences, it is important to understand the influence of fatigue and medications on balance in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fatigue on balance in individuals with PD. Because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to be related to motor performance, we also explored its role. METHODS: A total of 27 individuals (age = 65...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
John W Wax, Amy W An, Nicole Kosier, Timothy E Quill
Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is a deliberate, self-initiated attempt to hasten death in the setting of suffering refractory to optimal palliative interventions or prolonged dying that a person finds intolerable. Individuals who consider VSED tend to be older, have a serious but not always imminently terminal illness, place a high value on independence, and have significant illness burden. VSED can theoretically be performed independent of clinician assistance and therefore avoids many of the ethical and legal concerns associated with physician-assisted dying or other palliative measures of last resort, However, VSED is an intense process fraught with new sources of somatic and emotional suffering for individuals and their caregivers, so VSED is best supervised by an experienced, well-informed clinician who can provide appropriate pre-intervention assessment, anticipatory guidance, medical treatment of symptoms, and emotional support...
March 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Cristian Cuadra, Angelo Bartsch, Paula Tiemann, Sasha Reschechtko, Mark L Latash
We explored whether the synergic control of the hand during multi-finger force production tasks depends on the hand muscles involved. Healthy subjects performed accurate force production tasks and targeted force pulses while pressing against loops positioned at the level of fingertips, middle phalanges, and proximal phalanges. This varied the involvement of the extrinsic and intrinsic finger flexors. The framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis was used to analyze the structure of inter-trial variance, motor equivalence, and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the force pulse in the spaces of finger forces and finger modes (hypothetical finger-specific control signals)...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Katherine A J Daniels, J F Burn
It is generally accepted that animals move in a way that minimises energy use during regular gait and there is evidence that the principle might extend more generally to locomotor behaviour and manoeuvres. Jumping during locomotion is a useful manoeuvre that contributes to the versatility of legged locomotion and is within the repertoire of many terrestrial animals. We describe a simple ballistic model that can be used to identify a single unique trajectory of the body's centre of mass that minimises the mechanical work to initiate a jump, regardless of the approach velocity or take-off position...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
(no author information available yet)
Dr Naomi Harvey , a zoologist, describes how she has learnt to deal with her anticipatory grief.
March 10, 2018: Veterinary Record
Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Tommaso Accinni, Luca Carlone, Marianna Frascarelli, Guido Maria Lattanzi, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta
The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), or DiGeorge syndrome (DG), is one of the most common genetic deletion syndromes. DG also carries a high risk for psychiatric disorders, with learning disabilities frequently being reported. Impairments in specific cognitive domains, such as executive functioning and attention, have also been described. The aim of this study was to investigate attentional functioning in a group of subjects with DG using ERPs, and in particular the P300 and CNV components. We studied ten patients with DG and ten healthy subjects that performed a P300 Novelty task and a CNV motor task...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Kemal Sasaki, Tomoko Nakagawa, Shiro Sugiura, Motohiro Ebisawa, Komei Ito
BACKGROUND: The unintentional usage of adrenaline auto-injectors may cause injury to caregivers or patients. To prevent such incidents, we assessed the causative factors of these incidents. METHODS: The Anaphylaxis Working Group of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology requested that society members register cases in which adrenaline auto-injectors were unintentionally used. One hundred cases were reported from June 2015 to March 2016...
March 5, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Kylie B Rogalla
All mental health professionals will inevitably serve clients who face the expected death of a loved one. Prominent theories on the grieving process tend to begin after a death or other loss has occurred. Many individuals experience anticipatory grief prior to the physical death. Participants in this study consisted of 120 adults who were anticipating the death of a loved one due to terminal illness. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the relationship between the positive disposition of proactive coping and two forms of growth...
January 1, 2018: Omega
Barbara Kimbell, Scott A Murray, Heidi Byrne, Andrea Baird, Peter C Hayes, Alastair MacGilchrist, Anne Finucane, Patricia Brookes Young, Ronan E O'Carroll, Christopher J Weir, Marilyn Kendall, Kirsty Boyd
BACKGROUND: Liver disease is an increasing cause of death worldwide but palliative care is largely absent for these patients. AIM: We conducted a feasibility trial of a complex intervention delivered by a supportive care liver nurse specialist to improve care coordination, anticipatory care planning and quality of life for people with advanced liver disease and their carers. DESIGN: Patients received a 6-month intervention (alongside usual care) from a specially trained liver nurse specialist...
March 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Anna E Tschiffely, Ashraful Haque, Francis J Haran, Craig A Cunningham, Melissa L Mehalick, Todd May, Keith Stuessi, Peter B Walker, Jacob N Norris
Objective: The purpose of this study is to utilize a natural history approach to describe and understand symptom recovery in personnel diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) resulting from an improvised explosive device blast. Participants and Design: The population included military personnel who experienced a blast mTBI while mounted (vehicle; n = 176) or dismounted (on foot; n = 37) (N = 213). Patients had no co-morbid psychiatric or muscle-skeletal issues and were treated within 72 h of injury...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
R Mezzina
AIM: Italy pioneered deinstitutionalisation over the past 60 years and enforced a famous mental health (MH) reform law in 1978. Deinstitutionalisation has been completed with the very closure of all psychiatric hospitals over two decades. METHODS: After 40 years of implementation, this article presents the main achievements and challenges of the Italian MH reform law, including its long-term effect and impact in Italy and abroad. RESULTS: The Legislation of 1978 was based on the discovery of rights as a key tool in mental healthcare...
March 6, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Adi Volpert, Shiri Graff van Creveld, Shilo Rosenwasser, Assaf Vardi
Diatoms are one of the key phytoplankton groups in the ocean, forming vast oceanic blooms and playing a significant part in global primary production. To shed light on the role of redox metabolism in diatom's acclimation to light-dark transition and its interplay with cell fate regulation, we generated transgenic lines of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana that express the redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) targeted to various subcellular organelles. We detected organelle specific redox patterns in response to oxidative stress, indicating compartmentalized antioxidant capacities...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Anna C Nobre, John T Serences
A brain-imaging paper by Kastner and colleagues in 1999 was the first to demonstrate that merely focusing attention at a spatial location changed the baseline activity level in various regions of human visual cortex even before any stimuli appeared. The study provided a touchstone for investigating cognitive-sensory interactions and understanding the proactive endogenous signals that shape perception.
March 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Christian Schlenstedt, Martina Mancini, Jay Nutt, Amie P Hiller, Walter Maetzler, Günther Deuschl, Fay Horak
Introduction: This study aims at investigating whether impaired anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) during gait initiation contribute to the occurrence of freezing of gait (FOG) or whether altered APAs compensate for FOG in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Gait initiation after 30 s quiet stance was analyzed without and with a cognitive dual task (DT) in 33 PD subjects with FOG (PD+FOG), 30 PD subjects without FOG (PD-FOG), and 32 healthy controls (HC). APAs were characterized with inertial sensors and muscle activity of the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was captured with electromyography recordings...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Graham R Serjeant, Nicki Chin, Monika R Asnani, Beryl E Serjeant, Karlene P Mason, Ian R Hambleton, Jennifer M Knight-Madden
Globally, the majority of persons born with sickle cell disease do not have access to hydroxyurea or more expensive interventions. The objectives were to estimate the survival in homozygous sickle cell disease, unbiased by symptomatic selection and to ascertain the causes of death in a pre-hydroxyurea population. The utility of early life biomarkers and genetically determined phenotypes to predict survival was assessed. A cohort study based on neonatal diagnosis was undertaken at the Sickle Cell Unit, a specialist clinic delivering care to persons with sickle cell disease in Jamaica...
2018: PloS One
Eva Hansen, Britta Grimme, Hendrik Reimann, Gregor Schöner
In a sequence of arm movements, any given segment could be influenced by its predecessors (carry-over coarticulation) and by its successor (anticipatory coarticulation). To study the interdependence of movement segments, we asked participants to move an object from an initial position to a first and then on to a second target location. The task involved ten joint angles controlling the three-dimensional spatial path of the object and hand. We applied the principle of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) to analyze the difference between joint trajectories that either affect (non-motor equivalent) or do not affect (motor equivalent) the hand's trajectory in space...
February 28, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Derek W Barchenger, Zong-Ming Sheu, Sanjeet Kumar, Shih-Wen Lin, Rishi R Burlakoti, Paul W Bosland
Peppers (Capsicum sp.) are an increasingly important crop because of their use as a vegetable, spice, and food colorant. The oomycete Phytophthora capsici is one of the most devastating pathogens to pepper production worldwide, causing more than $100 million in losses annually. Developing cultivars resistant to P. capsici is challenging because of the many physiological races that exist and new races that are continuously evolving. This problem is confounded by the lack of a universal system of race characterization...
February 27, 2018: Phytopathology
B M C Gorissen, C F Wolschrijn, B van Rietbergen, L Rieppo, S Saarakkala, P R van Weeren
Horses are precocial animals and able to stand and walk within hours after birth. To cope with associated loading, intrauterine bone development has shown to be anticipative. This study provides further insight into the post-natal development of structurally important features of trabecular and subchondral bone of the talus and sagittal ridge of the tibia of warm-blooded horses. In all areas studied, the average bone volume fraction showed a gradual increase over time, which was the result of a significant increase in trabecular thickness, without significant changes in the degree of anisotropy...
February 27, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Chunping Yan, Na Lin, Lixia Cui, Qin Zhang
Introduction: Numerous studies have explored the effect of cognitive reappraisal before or after emotion-inducing events. However, only a few studies have examined the influence of regulatory timing on the effectiveness of reappraisal. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of regulatory timing and goals in reappraisal regulation, which would help promote the specific application of cognitive reappraisal in emotion regulation. We hypothesized that decrease reappraisal would be more effective when initiated early rather than late, but increase reappraisal would be more effective when initiated in the emotional high-activation phase...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn, Marion Rivalan, Aurélie Fitoussi, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
Several impulse control disorders such as ADHD, mania, personality disorders or substance abuse share common behavioural traits, like impulsiveness, risk-taking or inflexible behaviour. These disorders are treated with drugs targeting dopamine (DA) and/or serotonin (5-HT). However, the patient's monoamine imbalance that these neurotransmitters compensate is unclear. This study aims to investigate the patterns of DA and 5-HT metabolisms at rest within selected brain regions related to inter-individual variability in six main components of impulsivity/compulsivity (anticipatory hyperactivity, premature responses, delay discounting, risk-taking, perseveration, flexibility)...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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