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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329909/testing-the-boundaries-of-boundary-extension-anticipatory-scene-representation-across-development-and-disorder
#1
G Spanò, H Intraub, J O Edgin
Recent studies have suggested that Boundary Extension (BE), a scene construction error, may be linked to the function of the hippocampus. In this study, we tested BE in two groups with variations in hippocampal development and disorder: a typically developing sample ranging from preschool to adolescence and individuals with Down syndrome. We assessed BE across three different test modalities: drawing, visual recognition, and a 3D scene boundary reconstruction task. Despite confirmed fluctuations in memory function measured through a neuropsychological assessment, the results showed consistent BE in all groups across test modalities, confirming the near universal nature of BE...
March 22, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328148/long-term-follow-up-study-of-community-based-patients-receiving-xr-ntx-for-opioid-use-disorders
#2
Arthur Robin Williams, Vincent Barbieri, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Frances R Levin, Edward V Nunes, John J Mariani, Adam Bisaga
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is FDA-approved to prevent relapse in patients with Opioid Use Disorder. However little is known about long-term use among community-based outpatients. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and long-term follow-up survey among individuals (N = 168) who entered an outpatient XR-NTX trial between 2011 and 2015, during which participants were offered three monthly injections of XR-NTX at no cost. The survey consisted of 35 questions covering a total of four domains: (1) substance use; (2) treatment continuation; (3) barriers; and (4) attitudes...
March 22, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322236/the-role-of-mesolimbic-reward-neurocircuitry-in-prevention-and-rescue-of-the-activity-based-anorexia-aba-phenotype-in-rats
#3
Claire J Foldi, Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic; unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) model recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, including anhedonia, and allows investigation of the underlying neurobiology of AN. The potential for increased neuronal activity in reward/hedonic circuits to prevent and rescue weight loss is investigated in this model. The mesolimbic pathway extending from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) was activated using a dual viral strategy, involving retrograde transport of Cre (CAV2-Cre) to the VTA and coincident injection of DREADD receptors (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM3D(Gq)-mCherry)...
March 21, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321551/top-down-cortical-interactions-in-visuospatial-attention
#4
Timothy P Meehan, Steven L Bressler, Wei Tang, Serguei V Astafiev, Chad M Sylvester, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The voluntary allocation of visuospatial attention depends upon top-down influences from the frontal eye field (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS)-the core regions of the dorsal attention network (DAN)-to visual occipital cortex (VOC), and has been further associated with within-DAN influences, particularly from the FEF to IPS. However, the degree to which these influences manifest at rest and are then modulated during anticipatory visuospatial attention tasks remains poorly understood. Here, we measured both undirected and directed functional connectivity (UFC, DFC) between the FEF, IPS, and VOC at rest and during an anticipatory visuospatial attention task, using a slow event-related design...
March 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#5
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318209/end-of-life-care-managing-common-symptoms
#6
REVIEW
Ross H Albert
Physicians should be proficient at managing symptoms as patients progress through the dying process. When possible, proactive regimens that prevent symptoms should be used, because it is generally easier to prevent than to treat an acute symptom. As swallowing function diminishes, medications are typically administered sublingually, transdermally, or via rectal suppository. Opiates are the medication of choice for the control of pain and dyspnea, which are common symptoms in the dying process. Delirium and agitation may be caused by reversible etiologies, which should be identified and treated when feasible...
March 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314952/stress-related-salivary-alpha-amylase-saa-activity-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-and-without-a-history-of-childhood-maltreatment
#7
Markus Muehlhan, Anja Höcker, Michael Höfler, Klaus Wiedemann, Sven Barnow, Ingo Schäfer
RATIONALE: Alcohol-dependent (AD) patients with a history of childhood maltreatment (CM) have shown a more severe clinical profile and a higher risk of relapse than those without CM. It was hypothesized that stress responsivity plays an important role in moderating the relationship between CM and AD. Surprisingly, systematic investigations about the stress responsivity in AD patients with CM are rare. OBJECTIVE: This study compared physiological and subjective stress responses in AD patients with and without CM as well as in healthy controls with and without CM...
March 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304373/anticipatory-action-planning-in-blind-and-sighted-individuals
#8
Andrea Cavallo, Caterina Ansuini, Monica Gori, Carla Tinti, Alessia Tonelli, Cristina Becchio
Several studies on visually guided reach-to-grasp movements have documented that how objects are grasped differs depending on the actions one intends to perform subsequently. However, no previous study has examined whether this differential grasping may also occur without visual input. In this study, we used motion capture technology to investigate the influence of visual feedback and prior visual experience on the modulation of kinematics by intention in sighted (in both full-vision and no-vision conditions), early-blind and late-blind participants...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301599/exploring-the-role-of-locomotor-sensitization-in-the-circadian-food-entrainment-pathway
#9
Hanna Opiol, Nuria de Zavalia, Tara Delorme, Pavel Solis, Spencer Rutherford, Uri Shalev, Shimon Amir
Food entrainment is the internal mechanism whereby the phase and period of circadian clock genes comes under the control of daily scheduled food availability. Food entrainment allows the body to efficiently realign the internal timing of behavioral and physiological functions such that they anticipate food intake. Food entrainment can occur with or without caloric restriction, as seen with daily schedules of restricted feeding (RF) or restricted treat (RT) that restrict food or treat intake to a single feeding time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300707/psychiatric-and-psychological-impact-of-surgery-while-awake-in-children-for-resection-of-brain-tumors
#10
Elise Riquin, Mickael Dinomais, Jean Malka, Thierry Lehousse, Philippe Duverger, Philippe Menei, Matthieu Delion
Intraoperative direct stimulation during surgery while awake is considered to be the gold standard for identifying eloquent cortical sites. Only a few studies have referenced the psychological impact of this event in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical study is to present the psychological aspects of surgery while awake in children. We question the psychiatric contraindications and age limits, and the impact on children, with particular attention to the psychological conditioning and experience of these patients...
March 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300582/electrophysiological-correlates-of-semantic-anticipation-during-speech-comprehension
#11
Patricia León Cabrera, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Joaquín Morís
Words that are more predictable given a previous context show facilitated processing over low predictable ones. Such facilitation has been traditionally viewed as associated with reduced amplitudes in the N400 component. However, this effect is observed during the presentation of the target word, and it does not provide direct information about the prediction processes engaged before. To overcome this, we investigated neural correlates of anticipation prior to target words using an auditory paradigm. The semantic context of the sentences varied in the degree of contextual constraint, with sentences of high, low or no constraint...
March 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299789/menstrual-management-in-developmentally-delayed-adolescent-females
#12
Irene Chuah, Alexandra McRae, Kim Matthews, Ann M Maguire, Katharine Steinbeck
BACKGROUND: Requests for assistance in menstrual management and menstrual suppression are a common, emotive and sometimes controversial aspect of adolescent disability care. AIMS: To review the uptake and outcomes of menstrual suppression among adolescent patients with developmental delay. METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records of adolescent females with intellectual disability referred for menstrual management to the Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, for the three-year period between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013...
March 15, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296164/brief-clinical-report-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pain-memory-reframing-interventions-for-children-s-needle-procedures
#13
REVIEW
Melanie Noel, C Meghan McMurtry, Maria Pavlova, Anna Taddio
OBJECTIVE: Children's pain memories play a powerful role in shaping future pain experiences. Interventions aiming to reframe children's memories of painful medical procedures hold promise for altering pain memories and improving subsequent pain experience; however, this evidence has not been synthesized. This brief clinical report includes a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing memory-reframing interventions for needle procedures in children and adolescents in order to stimulate future research...
March 14, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294152/melanocortin-3-receptors-expressed-in-nkx2-1-ve-neurons-are-sufficient-for-controlling-appetitive-responses-to-hypocaloric-conditioning
#14
Clémence Girardet, Maria M Mavrikaki, Joseph R Stevens, Courtney A Miller, Daniel L Marks, Andrew A Butler
Melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R) have a contextual role in appetite control that is amplified with hypocaloric conditioning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice subjected to hypocaloric feeding schedules (HFS) exhibit compulsive behavioral responses involving food anticipatory activity (FAA) and caloric loading following food access. These homeostatic responses to calorie-poor environs are attenuated in B6 mice in which Mc3r transcription is suppressed by a lox-stop-lox sequence in the 5'UTR (Mc3r(TB/TB)). Here, we report that optimization of caloric loading in B6 mice subject to HFS, characterized by increased meal size and duration, is not observed in Mc3r(TB/TB) mice...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292457/sexuality-and-disability-in-adolescents
#15
REVIEW
Cynthia Holland-Hall, Elisabeth H Quint
Healthy sexual development is important for adolescents with and without disabilities, yet the topic of sexuality is often ignored in the disabled population. Adolescents with mild or moderate degrees of disability have rates of sexual activity and reproductive health needs comparable to their typically developing peers. Their need for support, risk reduction, and education in sexual health may exceed that of their peers. The medical provider may support healthy sexual development through education, anticipatory guidance, menstrual and contraceptive management, and by expanding the notion of sexuality to include a broader conceptualization of sexual behavior and expression...
April 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292456/prevention-of-and-interventions-for-dating-and-sexual-violence-in-adolescence
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth Miller
Dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse) and sexual violence are prevalent from the middle school years throughout adolescence, peak in young adulthood, and are associated with multiple poor physical and mental health consequences. By offering universal education and brief anticipatory guidance with all adolescent patients about healthy and unhealthy relationships and sexual consent, health care providers can help promote healthy adolescent sexual relationships, ensure youth know about available resources and supports for relationship abuse and sexual violence (including how to help a friend), and facilitate connections to victim service advocates, both for prevention and intervention...
April 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292451/long-acting-reversible-contraception-an-essential-guide-for-pediatric-primary-care-providers
#17
REVIEW
Suzanne Allen, Erin Barlow
Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods are 20% more effective than traditional contraceptives and are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology as first-line contraception for adolescent girls. Large studies show that LARC use reduces unintended pregnancies, increases user satisfaction, and prolongs duration of use. This article prepares the primary care provider (PCP) with knowledge on safety, efficacy, eligibility, confidentiality, anticipatory guidance, how to find a LARC provider, and guidance on common side effects so the PCP can confidently counsel adolescent patients on LARC methods...
April 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290945/frequency-of-improvised-explosive-devices-and-suicide-attempts-in-the-u-s-army
#18
Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, James A Naifeh, Holly Herberman Mash, Carol S Fullerton, Paul D Bliese, Gary H Wynn, Pablo A Aliaga, Christina Wryter, Nancy A Sampson, Tzu-Cheg Kao, Lisa J Colpe, Michael Schoenbaum, Kenneth L Cox, Steven G Heeringa, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) were a prominent and initially new threat in the Iraq and Afghanistan war which raised concerns and anticipatory fear in and out of theater. This study examined the association of monthly IED rates with risk of soldier suicide attempt among those deployed and nondeployed. METHODS: Person-month records for all active duty Regular Army suicide attempters from 2004 through 2009 (n = 9,791) and an equal-probability sample of control person-months (n = 183,826) were identified...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289612/the-effect-of-massage-on-anticipatory-anxiety-and-procedural-pain-in-patients-with-burn-injury
#19
Tahereh Najafi Ghezeljeh, Fatimah Mohades Ardebili, Forough Rafii, Farzad Manafi
BACKGROUND: Pain related to burn injuries is one of the most troublesome pain intensity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of massage on anticipatory anxiety, procedural pain intensity, vital signs and relaxation level of patients with burn injury. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, through convenience sampling, 60 hospitalized adult burn patients were selected from a specialized burn and reconstructive hospital. Subjects were assigned to massage and control groups through simple randomization...
January 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288299/comparison-between-positive-dental-images-and-neutral-images-in-managing-anticipatory-anxiety-of-children
#20
Dalia O Kamel, Nadia A Wahba, Dalia M Talaat
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of positive images versus neutral images on child behavior during dental treatment and their dental anxiety after dental treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty, 4 to 6 year old healthy pediatric dental patients, indicated for pulpotomy and stainless steel crown restorations, were divided randomly into two equal groups. Group I (experimental group viewed positive dental images and group II (control group) viewed neutral cartoon images prior to treatment...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
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