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Silvana Aparecida de Lucca, Eucia Beatriz Lopes Petean
This study's aim was to understand the experience of being the father of a boy diagnosed with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Eight fathers of 10-year-old or older boys diagnosed with DMD, living in RibeirãoPreto and surrounding cities participated in the study. Interviews included a semi-structured script and data were analyzed according to thematic content analysis. The results show that the confirmation of a DMD diagnosis shocked fathers and was mixed with sorrow, helplessness and hopelessness. Most fathers considered the illness of their child to be a mission sent by God, which helps to alleviate the pain and anguish caused by the disease...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Heather L Kirkorian, Daniel R Anderson
Eye movements were recorded as 12-month-olds (n = 15), 4-year-olds (n = 17), and adults (n = 19) watched a 15-min video with sequences of shots conveying continuous motion. The central question was whether, and at what age, viewers anticipate the reappearance of objects following cuts to new shots. Adults were more likely than younger viewers to make anticipatory eye movements. Four-year-olds responded to transitions more slowly and tended to fixate the center of the screen. Infants' eye movement patterns reflected a tendency to react rather than anticipate...
October 26, 2016: Child Development
Staci Sue Reynolds, Laura L Murray, Susan M McLennon, Patricia R Ebright, Tamilyn Bakas
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a bundle of implementation strategies (local opinion leaders, printed educational materials, and educational outreach) to increase neurocritical care nurses' knowledge of and adherence to spinal cord injury guidelines. DESIGN: A preprogram, postprogram, and follow-up design was used to evaluate outcomes. METHODS: Adherence was measured via self-reported anticipatory adherence; knowledge was measured by an author-developed assessment...
October 26, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Elizabeth Croson, Jessica Keim-Malpass
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To gain a unique perspective of young women with cancer aged 20-39 years who are experiencing challenges with fertility and parenting through analysis of cancer blogs.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: A secondary analysis of online narratives using a focused thematic analysis approach, comparing women who were mothers prior to diagnosis with women who are exploring the possibility of motherhood after diagnosis.
. SETTING: Blogs found through websites and social media venues for young adults with cancer...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Robert Horowitz, Bernard Sussman, Timothy Quill
In this article three palliative care physicians review narratives about the complicated experience of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking (VSED). Despite consensus about its legality, the decision to end life by VSED is emotionally and ethically challenging for patients, family members and clinicians. Each VSED story is unique, and the individual perspectives within a single story may diverge, conflict, and evolve over time. The narratives differ substantially in the range of suffering described, from acute, graphic, physical symptoms to primarily anticipatory and psychological distress...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Hille Haker
This essay explores the two main objectives of Bishop's book, which he analyzes in the context of the care for the dying: (1) the medical metaphysics underlying medical science and (2) biopolitics as governance of the human body. This essay discusses Bishop's claims in view of newer developments in medicine, especially the turn to the construction of life, and confronts the concept of the patient's sovereignty with an alternative model of vulnerable agency. In order to overcome the impasses of contemporary bioethics, the essay argues that practical reason requires a two-fold ethics: first, it must develop a new hermeneutics of illness and disease, and second, in order to protect the individuals in the process of dying, moral claims concerning death must be based on the concept of human rights...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Brett McCarty
In The Anticipatory Corpse, Jeffrey Bishop claims that modern medicine has lost formal and final causality as the dead body has become epistemologically normative, and that a singular focus on efficient and material causality has thoroughly distorted modern medical practice. Bishop implies that the renewal of medicine will require its housing in alternate social spaces. This essay critiques both Bishop's diagnosis and therapy by arguing, first, that alternate social imaginaries, though perhaps marginalized, are already present within the practice of medicine...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Paco Calvo, František Baluška, Andrew Sims
In this article we consider the possibility that plants exhibit anticipatory behavior, a mark of intelligence. If plants are able to anticipate and respond accordingly to varying states of their surroundings, as opposed to merely responding online to environmental contingencies, then such capacity may be in principle testable, and subject to empirical scrutiny. Our main thesis is that adaptive behavior can only take place by way of a mechanism that predicts the environmental sources of sensory stimulation. We propose to test for anticipation in plants experimentally by contrasting two empirical hypotheses: "feature detection" and "predictive coding...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Terri L Ares
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to ascertain if clinical nurse specialist students differed on measures of professional socialization based on employment in a Magnet-oriented hospital. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of data from a previous national study of the socialization of clinical nurse specialist students was used. Anticipatory socialization variables (nursing leadership, workplace exposure to the role, and preconceived impression of the role), mentorship by a clinical nurse specialist, and socialization outcomes (self-concept, perceived preparedness for practice, and nursing specialty certification) were explored...
November 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Audrey M B Wong-Kee-You, Scott A Adler
Advances in our understanding of long-term memory in early infancy have been made possible by studies that have used the Rovee-Collier's mobile conjugate reinforcement paradigm and its variants. One function that has been attributed to long-term memory is the formation of expectations (Rovee-Collier & Hayne, 1987); consequently, a long-term memory representation should be established during expectation formation. To examine this prediction and potentially open the door on a new paradigm for exploring infants' long-term memory, using the Visual Expectation Paradigm (Haith, Hazan, & Goodman, 1988), 3-month-old infants were trained to form an expectation for predictable color and spatial information of picture events and emit anticipatory eye movements to those events...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
David C Sheridan, Robert G Hendrickson, Gillian Beauchamp, Amber Laurie, Rongwei Fu, B Zane Horowitz
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent intentional ingestions remain a significant public health problem in the United States with little research to date on the over-the-counter or prescription medicines that adolescents abuse. These data are important for anticipatory guidance by primary care providers, preventive health, and poison center outreach. METHODS: This was an observational study using the American Association of Poison Control Centers National Poison Data System. The study population consisted of all cases of patients aged 13 to 19 years from 2004 to 2013 with a coding of "intentional abuse...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Gwenolé Loas, Elodie Dalleau, Héloïse Lecointe, Valérie Yon
Several studies have explored the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP), serum lipid levels, risk of suicide and alexithymia or impulsivity in mood or anxiety disorders. However, to date, no study has evaluated the effects of anhedonia on these parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between anhedonia, alexithymia, impulsivity, suicidal ideation, recent suicide attempt, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid levels in patients with mood or anxiety disorders. One hundred and twenty-two inpatients with mood or anxiety disorders were recruited...
October 6, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Nathalie P Boulet, Caylen J Cloutier, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp, Martin Kavaliers
Disgust has been proposed to have evolved as a means to rid the body and mouth of noxious substances and toxins, as well as to motivate and facilitate avoidance of contact with disease-causing organisms and infectious materials. Nonemetic species, such as the rat, show distinctive facial expressions, including the gaping reaction, indicative of nausea-based disgust. These conditioned disgust responses can be used to model anticipatory nausea in humans, which is a learned response observed following chemotherapy treatment...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
Mounting evidence indicates that adolescents exhibit heightened sensitivity to rewards and reward-related cues compared to adults, and that adolescents are often unable to exert behavioral control in the face of such cues. Moreover, differences in reward processing during adolescence have been linked to heightened risk taking and impulsivity. However, little is known about the processes by which adolescents learn about the appetitive properties of environmental stimuli that signal reward. To address this, Pavlovian conditioning procedures were used to test for differences in excitatory conditioning between adult and adolescent rats using various schedules of reinforcement...
October 11, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Sarah D Corathers, Jessica C Kichler, Nora F Fino, Wei Lang, Jean M Lawrence, Jennifer K Raymond, Joyce P Yi-Frazier, Dana Dabelea, Angela D Liese, Sharon H Saydah, Michael Seid, Lawrence M Dolan
Objective: This study was conducted to identify factors contributing to health satisfaction outcomes among emerging adults (ages 18-25) with diabetes. Method: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study participants whose diabetes was prevalent in 2001 and were ≥18 years of age when they completed a 2008-2009 follow-up survey (n = 340) were included. We developed a health resilience model (HRM) to identify potentially modifiable factors (anticipatory guidance, social support, physical activity, quality of life) associated with health outcomes (satisfaction with health care, overall personal health, self-report of hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c])...
October 13, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Andrew Dillon, Ladislav Timulak, Leslie S Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of change in emotional states over a course of emotion-focused therapy using the model of sequential emotional processing as an initial framework for analysis. METHOD: This was a single case study observational design examining 15 sessions of therapy with one client. A qualitative analysis of moment-to-moment shifts in client emotional events was conducted. This conceptualised the interplay between experienced emotions using the sequential emotional processing model as an interpretative framework...
October 11, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Anuenue Kukona, David Braze, Clinton L Johns, W Einar Mencl, Julie A Van Dyke, James S Magnuson, Kenneth R Pugh, Donald P Shankweiler, Whitney Tabor
Recent studies have found considerable individual variation in language comprehenders' predictive behaviors, as revealed by their anticipatory eye movements during language comprehension. The current study investigated the relationship between these predictive behaviors and the language and literacy skills of a diverse, community-based sample of young adults. We found that rapid automatized naming (RAN) was a key determinant of comprehenders' prediction ability (e.g., as reflected in predictive eye movements to a white cake on hearing "The boy will eat the white…")...
October 7, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Michal Elboim-Gabyzon, Osnat Atun-Einy, Insaf Khoury-Assaf
PURPOSE: To review the literature on the existent evidence considering the use of power wheel chair (PWC) for children with DMD who can still walk independently. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted through nine databases by the three authors independently. Both quantitative and qualitative research designs were considered for inclusion. Studies were included only if the study population consisted of ambulatory children diagnosed with DMD. Data extraction was on participant characteristics, level of walking and on outcomes in term of impairment, function and participation domains (ICF, World Health Organization, 2001) in accordance to a structured diagram by the three authors independently...
October 9, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Hang Jin Jo, Daniela Mattos, Elisabeth B Lucassen, Xuemei Huang, Mark L Latash
The authors explored the changes in multidigit synergies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) within the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. The specific hypotheses were that both synergy indices and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the initiation of a self-paced quick action would be diminished in the patients compared to age-matched controls. The MS patients and age-matched controls (n = 13 in both groups) performed one-finger and multifinger force production tasks involving both accurate steady-state force production and quick force pulses...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Michael H Bernstein, Mark D Wood
BACKGROUND: Only one laboratory study has examined the relation between stress and alcohol use in an ecologically valid drinking context. In that prior study, drinking was measured after the stressful situation. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of an anticipatory stressor, and trait social anxiety on "alcohol" consumption in a bar laboratory. METHODS: College students aged 18 and older (N = 127) in same-sex groups of two or three participants took part in a study that ostensibly examined alcohol's effect on language fluency...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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