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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088714/children-s-and-adults-use-of-verbal-information-to-visually-anticipate-others-actions-a-study-on-explicit-and-implicit-social-cognitive-processing
#1
Markus Paulus, Tobias Schuwerk, Beate Sodian, Kerstin Ganglmayer
According to recent theories, social cognition is based on two different types of information-processing; an implicit or action-based one and an explicit or verbal one. The present study examined whether implicit and explicit social-cognitive information processing interact with each other by investigating young children's and adults' use of verbal (i.e., explicit) information to predict others' actions. Employing eye-tracking to measure anticipatory eye-movements as a measure of implicit processing, Experiment 1 presented 1...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088660/processes-of-anticipatory-postural-adjustment-and-step-movement-of-gait-initiation
#2
Hiroki Mizusawa, Yasutomo Jono, Yasuyuki Iwata, Atsushi Kinoshita, Koichi Hiraoka
The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) and focal step movement of gait initiation are produced as a single process or different processes and whether the APA receives an inhibitory drive from the ongoing stop process of gait initiation. Healthy humans initiated gait in response to a first visual cue that instructed the initial swing leg. In some trials, a switch or stop cue was also provided after the first cue. When the stop cue was provided, participants withheld gait initiation...
January 12, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088347/disparity-configuration-influences-depth-discrimination-in-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-but-not-in-children
#3
Laurie M Wilcox, Brittney Hartle, Aliya Solski, Kevin J Mackenzie, Deborah Giaschi
We report a series of experiments in which we assess depth discrimination performance in adults and children using a disparity-balanced target configuration to avoid the effects of anticipatory vergence eye movements. In our first study we found that children outperformed adults by a substantial margin, and the adults were consistently near chance. This was surprising given that we initially tested naïve adults to provide a benchmark for the children's data, and all observers met the criterion for stereoacuity...
January 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087088/discharge-teaching-readiness-for-discharge-and-post-discharge-outcomes-in-parents-of-hospitalized-children
#4
Marianne E Weiss, Kathleen J Sawin, Karen Gralton, Norah Johnson, Carol Klingbeil, Stacee Lerret, Shelly Malin, Olga Yakusheva, Rachel Schiffman
PURPOSE: This study explored the sequential relationships of parent perceptions of the quality of their discharge teaching and nurse and parent perceptions of discharge readiness to post-discharge outcomes (parental post-discharge coping difficulty, readmission and emergency department visits). DESIGN/METHODS: In this secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal pilot study of family self-management discharge preparation, the correlational design used regression modeling with data from a convenience sample of 194 parents from two clinical units at a Midwest pediatric hospital...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074325/anticipatory-positive-urine-tests-for-bladder-cancer
#5
Ajay Gopalakrishna, Joseph J Fantony, Thomas A Longo, Richmond Owusu, Wen-Chi Foo, Rajesh Dash, Brian T Denton, Brant A Inman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish the criteria defining an anticipatory positive test for bladder cancer. METHODS: We reviewed all patients at our institution who underwent urine cytology or UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and cystoscopy from 2003 to 2012. Test performance and cancer anticipation was assessed using generalized linear mixed models, mixed-effects proportional hazards models, and cumulative incidence curves using tests performed within 30 days of each other as well as within a lag time of 1 year...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070973/dissociation-between-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-during-threat-anticipation-in-female-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients
#6
Leonie Brinkmann, Christine Buff, Paula Neumeister, Sara V Tupak, Michael P I Becker, Martin J Herrmann, Thomas Straube
Feelings of uncontrollability and anxiety regarding possibly harmful events are key features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. Due to a lack of studies, the neural correlates of anticipatory anxiety in PTSD are still poorly understood. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, female PTSD patients with interpersonal violence trauma and healthy controls (HC) anticipated the temporally unpredictable presentation of aversive (human scream) or neutral sounds. Based on separate analysis models, we investigated phasic and sustained brain activations...
January 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066706/initial-and-sustained-brain-responses-to-threat-anticipation-in-blood-injection-injury-phobia
#7
Leonie Brinkmann, Hendrik Poller, Martin J Herrmann, Wolfgang Miltner, Thomas Straube
Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia differs from other subtypes of specific phobia in that it is associated with elevated disgust-sensitivity as well as specific autonomic and brain responses during processing of phobia-relevant stimuli. To what extent these features play a role already during threat anticipation is unclear. In the current fMRI experiment, 16 female BII phobics and 16 female healthy controls anticipated the presentation of phobia-specific and neutral pictures. On the behavioral level, anxiety dominated the anticipatory period in BII phobics relative to controls, while both anxiety and disgust were elevated during picture presentation...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065178/investigating-the-role-of-anticipatory-reward-and-habit-strength-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#8
Gabriela M Ferreira, Murat Yücel, Andrew Dawson, Valentina Lorenzetti, Leonardo F Fontenelle
: Aims To determine the rates and associated illness characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who describe their symptoms as either rewarding or habitual. METHODS: Seventy-three treatment-seeking OCD patients had their dominant compulsive behavior assessed with a structured interview (the Temporal Impulsive-Compulsive Scale-Revised) to track the progression of rewarding (ie, gain in positive affect), aversive (ie, decrease in negative affect), and neutral (or non-affective) states and a self-report scale (the Self-Report Habit Index) to evaluate their habitual features...
January 9, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062251/opioid-suppression-of-conditioned-anticipatory-brain-responses-to-breathlessness
#9
Anja Hayen, Vishvarani Wanigasekera, Olivia K Faull, Stewart F Campbell, Payashi S Garry, Simon J M Raby, Josephine Robertson, Ruth Webster, Richard G Wise, Mari Herigstad, Kyle T S Pattinson
Opioid painkillers are a promising treatment for chronic breathlessness, but are associated with potentially fatal side effects. In the treatment of breathlessness, their mechanisms of action are unclear. A better understanding might help to identify safer alternatives. Learned associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g. stairs) and repeated breathlessness induce an anticipatory threat response that may worsen breathlessness, contributing to the downward spiral of decline seen in clinical populations...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062062/whole-genome-sequencing-in-healthy-people
#10
REVIEW
Noralane M Lindor, Stephen N Thibodeau, Wylie Burke
Recent technological advances have radically changed genetic testing from an expensive and burdensome undertaking to a rapid and less costly option for many purposes. The utility of "next-generation" sequencing has been found to establish the diagnosis for hundreds of genetic disorders, to assess pharmacogenomic variants, and to identify treatable targets within malignant neoplasms. The ready availability of genomic information has led to the question of whether there would be clinical benefit of sequencing the genome of individuals who are not seeking a diagnosis, that is, genomic screening in generally healthy people, to provide anticipatory insights for their health care...
January 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061530/anticipatory-nausea-current-landscape-and-future-directions
#11
EDITORIAL
Soha Ahrari, Ronald Chow, Shannon Goodall, Carlo DeAngelis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056340/great-expectations-anticipatory-control-of-magnocellular-vasopressin-neurons
#12
Alan G Watts
Real-time activity measurements of genetically identified neuroendocrine vasopressin neurons show they can anticipate osmotic challenges. In this issue of Neuron, Mandelblat-Cerf et al. (2017) show that correlating these results with ongoing behavior and plasma osmolality points to the existence of brain networks that integrate exterosensory cues with interosensory signals to drive neuroendocrine output.
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052080/societal-risk-evaluation-scheme-sres-scenario-based-multi-criteria-evaluation-of-synthetic-biology-applications
#13
Christopher L Cummings, Jennifer Kuzma
Synthetic biology (SB) applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty. Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES) in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. The SRES is based upon societal risk factors that were identified as important through a policy Delphi study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049103/depressive-symptom-composites-associated-with-cortisol-stress-reactivity-in-adolescents
#14
Matthew C Morris, Chrystyna D Kouros, Alyssa S Mielock, Uma Rao
BACKGROUND: Altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function is common in youth with major depressive disorder (MDD) but variability in the strength and direction of HPA alterations has prompted a search for symptom-based subtypes with unique neuroendocrine signatures. This study investigated the extent to which depressive symptom composites were differentially associated with cortisol responses to psychosocial stress. METHODS: This study examined salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 145 adolescents who varied in their risk for MDD: 38 had current MDD; 35 were healthy but at high risk for MDD based on having one or both parents with unipolar MDD; and 72 were healthy youth with no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043681/long-term-outcome-of-interdisciplinary-management-of-patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-receiving-daily-glucocorticoid-treatment
#15
Brenda L Wong, Irina Rybalsky, Karen C Shellenbarger, Cuixia Tian, Mary A McMahon, Meilan M Rutter, Hemant Sawnani, John L Jefferies
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical outcomes and steroid side effects in a cohort of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) treated with long-term daily glucocorticoid therapy. Although daily glucocorticoid therapy has been shown to extend ambulatory function in DMD, less frequent dosing is often used because of side effect concerns. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of 97 patients with DMD aged 10 to <16 years treated with daily glucocorticoid (89% on deflazacort) for a mean of 8...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042871/acute-d3-antagonist-gsk598809-selectively-enhances-neural-response-during-monetary-reward-anticipation-in-drug-and-alcohol-dependence
#16
Anna Murphy, Liam J Nestor, John McGonigle, Louise Paterson, Venkataramana Boyapati, Karen D Ersche, Remy Flechais, Shankar Kuchibatla, Antonio Metastasio, Csaba Orban, Filippo Passetti, Laurence Reed, Dana Smith, John Suckling, Eleanor Taylor, Trevor W Robbins, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David J Nutt, John Fw Deakin, Rebecca Elliott
: Evidence suggests that disturbances in neurobiological mechanisms of reward and inhibitory control maintain addiction and provoke relapse during abstinence. Abnormalities within the dopamine system may contribute to these disturbances and pharmacologically targeting the D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3) is therefore of significant clinical interest. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the acute effects of the DRD3 antagonist GSK598809 on anticipatory reward processing, using the monetary incentive delay task (MIDT), and response inhibition using the go/no-go task (GNGT)...
January 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038342/atypical-anticipatory-postural-adjustments-during-gait-initiation-among-individuals-with-sub-acute-stroke
#17
Roshanth Rajachandrakumar, Julia E Fraser, Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Elizabeth L Inness, Lou Biasin, Karen Brunton, William E McIlroy, Avril Mansfield
Anticipatory postural adjustments, executed prior to gait initiation, help preserve lateral stability when stepping. Atypical patterns of anticipatory activity prior to gait initiation may occur in individuals with unilateral impairment (e.g., stroke). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of atypical anticipatory postural adjustment patterns prior to gait initiation in a sub-acute stroke population. Forty independently-ambulatory individuals with sub-acute stroke stood on two force plates and initiated gait at a self-selected speed...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029344/anticipatory-guidance-on-the-risks-for-unfavorable-outcomes-among-children-with-medical-complexity
#18
Jeffrey D Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026189/infants-prospectively-control-reaching-based-on-the-difficulty-of-future-actions-to-what-extent-can-infants-multiple-step-actions-be-explained-by-fitts-law
#19
Janna M Gottwald, Aurora De Bortoli Vizioli, Marcus Lindskog, Pär Nyström, Therese L Ekberg, Claes von Hofsten, Gustaf Gredebäck
Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place task, with difficulty of the placing action varied by goal size and goal distance. To target prospective motor control, we determined the kinematics of the prior reaching movements using a motion-tracking system...
January 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025360/patterns-of-cerebral-blood-flow-modulation-during-painful-stimulation-in-fibromyalgia-a-transcranial-doppler-sonography-study
#20
Casandra I Montoro, Stefan Duschek, Cristina Muñóz Ladrón de Guevara, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the temporal dynamics of cerebral blood flow (CBF) modulations, during painful stimulation in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), using functional transcranial Doppler sonography. METHOD: Blood flow velocities were recorded bilaterally in the anterior (ACA) and middle (MCA) cerebral arteries of 24 FMS patients and 20 healthy individuals during exposure to painful pressure stimulation. Participants were presented with two stimulation blocks: a) fixed pressure (2...
December 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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