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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572258/immunotherapy-for-breast-cancer-what-are-we-missing
#1
EDITORIAL
Robert H Vonderheide, Susan M Domchek, Amy S Clark
The recent demonstration of modest single-agent activity of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies in patients with breast cancer has generated hope that breast cancer can be made amenable to immunotherapy. Depending on the subtype of breast cancer, it is now clear in both primary and metastatic disease that the extent of tumor-infiltrating T cells is not only prognostic for survival but predictive of response to nonimmune, standard therapies. Despite these findings, immune cytolytic activity in spontaneous breast tumors, the burden of nonsynonymous tumor mutations, and the predicted load of neoepitopes-factors linked to response to checkpoint blockade in other malignancies-are all relatively modest in breast cancer compared with melanoma or lung cancer...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397821/t-cell-invigoration-to-tumour-burden-ratio-associated-with-anti-pd-1-response
#2
Alexander C Huang, Michael A Postow, Robert J Orlowski, Rosemarie Mick, Bertram Bengsch, Sasikanth Manne, Wei Xu, Shannon Harmon, Josephine R Giles, Brandon Wenz, Matthew Adamow, Deborah Kuk, Katherine S Panageas, Cristina Carrera, Phillip Wong, Felix Quagliarello, Bradley Wubbenhorst, Kurt D'Andrea, Kristen E Pauken, Ramin S Herati, Ryan P Staupe, Jason M Schenkel, Suzanne McGettigan, Shawn Kothari, Sangeeth M George, Robert H Vonderheide, Ravi K Amaravadi, Giorgos C Karakousis, Lynn M Schuchter, Xiaowei Xu, Katherine L Nathanson, Jedd D Wolchok, Tara C Gangadhar, E John Wherry
Despite the success of monotherapies based on blockade of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in human melanoma, most patients do not experience durable clinical benefit. Pre-existing T-cell infiltration and/or the presence of PD-L1 in tumours may be used as indicators of clinical response; however, blood-based profiling to understand the mechanisms of PD-1 blockade has not been widely explored. Here we use immune profiling of peripheral blood from patients with stage IV melanoma before and after treatment with the PD-1-targeting antibody pembrolizumab and identify pharmacodynamic changes in circulating exhausted-phenotype CD8 T cells (Tex cells)...
May 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137880/class-i-restricted-t-cell-responses-to-a-polymorphic-peptide-in-a-gene-therapy-clinical-trial-for-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#3
Roberto Calcedo, Suryanarayan Somanathan, Qiuyue Qin, Michael R Betts, Andrew J Rech, Robert H Vonderheide, Christian Mueller, Terence R Flotte, James M Wilson
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is currently being pursued as a treatment for the monogenic disorder α-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Results from phase I and II studies have shown relatively stable and dose-dependent increases in transgene-derived wild-type AAT after local intramuscular vector administration. In this report we describe the appearance of transgene-specific T-cell responses in two subjects that were part of the phase II trial. The patient with the more robust T-cell response, which was associated with a reduction in transgene expression, was characterized more thoroughly in this study...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057639/clinical-and-immunologic-impact-of-ccr5-blockade-in-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis
#4
Ryan H Moy, Austin P Huffman, Lee P Richman, Lisa Crisalli, Ximi K Wang, James A Hoxie, Rosemarie Mick, Stephen G Emerson, Yi Zhang, Robert H Vonderheide, David L Porter, Ran Reshef
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Lymphocyte trafficking via chemokine receptors such as CCR5 plays a critical role in alloreactive responses, and previous data suggest that CCR5 blockade with maraviroc results in a low incidence of visceral GVHD. However, the full scope of clinical and immunologic effects of CCR5 blockade in HSCT has not been described. We compared a cohort of patients enrolled on a trial of reduced-intensity allo-HSCT with standard GVHD prophylaxis plus maraviroc to a contemporary control cohort receiving standard GVHD prophylaxis alone...
February 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007776/immune-cytolytic-activity-stratifies-molecular-subsets-of-human-pancreatic-cancer
#5
David Balli, Andrew J Rech, Ben Z Stanger, Robert H Vonderheide
Purpose: Immunotherapy has the potential to improve the dismal prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), but clinical trials, including those with single-agent PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibition, have been disappointing. Our aim was to examine the immune landscape of PDA as it relates to aspects of tumor biology, including neoepitope burden.Experimental Design: We used publicly available expression data from 134 primary resection PDA samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas to stratify patients according to a cytolytic T-cell activity expression index...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912061/tumor-interferon-signaling-regulates-a-multigenic-resistance-program-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#6
Joseph L Benci, Bihui Xu, Yu Qiu, Tony J Wu, Hannah Dada, Christina Twyman-Saint Victor, Lisa Cucolo, David S M Lee, Kristen E Pauken, Alexander C Huang, Tara C Gangadhar, Ravi K Amaravadi, Lynn M Schuchter, Michael D Feldman, Hemant Ishwaran, Robert H Vonderheide, Amit Maity, E John Wherry, Andy J Minn
Therapeutic blocking of the PD1 pathway results in significant tumor responses, but resistance is common. We demonstrate that prolonged interferon signaling orchestrates PDL1-dependent and PDL1-independent resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and to combinations such as radiation plus anti-CTLA4. Persistent type II interferon signaling allows tumors to acquire STAT1-related epigenomic changes and augments expression of interferon-stimulated genes and ligands for multiple T cell inhibitory receptors...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737879/cxcr2-dependent-accumulation-of-tumor-associated-neutrophils-regulates-t-cell-immunity-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#7
Timothy Chao, Emma E Furth, Robert H Vonderheide
Tumor-associated neutrophils are increasingly recognized for their ability to promote tumor progression, mediate resistance to therapy, and regulate immunosuppression. Evidence from various murine models has shown that the chemokine receptor CXCR2 attracts neutrophil into tumors and, therefore, represents a tractable therapeutic target. Here, we report prominent expression of a neutrophil gene signature in a subset of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA). CXCL5 was the most prominently expressed CXCR2 ligand in human PDA, and its expression was higher in PDA than in any other common tumor represented in The Cancer Genome Atlas...
November 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642636/lack-of-immunoediting-in-murine-pancreatic-cancer-reversed-with-neoantigen
#8
Rebecca A Evans, Mark S Diamond, Andrew J Rech, Timothy Chao, Max W Richardson, Jeffrey H Lin, David L Bajor, Katelyn T Byrne, Ben Z Stanger, James L Riley, Nune Markosyan, Rafael Winograd, Robert H Vonderheide
In carcinogen-driven cancers, a high mutational burden results in neoepitopes that can be recognized immunologically. Such carcinogen-induced tumors may evade this immune response through "immunoediting," whereby tumors adapt to immune pressure and escape T cell-mediated killing. Many tumors lack a high neoepitope burden, and it remains unclear whether immunoediting occurs in such cases. Here, we evaluated T cell immunity in an autochthonous mouse model of pancreatic cancer and found a low mutational burden, absence of predicted neoepitopes derived from tumor mutations, and resistance to checkpoint immunotherapy...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628423/metastatic-progression-is-associated-with-dynamic-changes-in-the-local-microenvironment
#9
Nicole M Aiello, David L Bajor, Robert J Norgard, Amine Sahmoud, Neha Bhagwat, Minh N Pham, Toby C Cornish, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Robert H Vonderheide, Ben Z Stanger
Most cancer-associated deaths result from metastasis. However, it remains unknown whether the size, microenvironment or other features of a metastatic lesion dictate its behaviour or determine the efficacy of chemotherapy in the adjuvant (micrometastatic) setting. Here we delineate the natural history of metastasis in an autochthonous model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), using lineage tracing to examine the evolution of disseminated cancer cells and their associated microenvironment. With increasing size, lesions shift from mesenchymal to epithelial histology, become hypovascular and accumulate a desmoplastic stroma, ultimately recapitulating the primary tumours from which they arose...
September 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381735/recommendations-for-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-nomenclature-and-characterization-standards
#10
REVIEW
Vincenzo Bronte, Sven Brandau, Shu-Hsia Chen, Mario P Colombo, Alan B Frey, Tim F Greten, Susanna Mandruzzato, Peter J Murray, Augusto Ochoa, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg, Paulo C Rodriguez, Antonio Sica, Viktor Umansky, Robert H Vonderheide, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have emerged as major regulators of immune responses in cancer and other pathological conditions. In recent years, ample evidence supports key contributions of MDSC to tumour progression through both immune-mediated mechanisms and those not directly associated with immune suppression. MDSC are the subject of intensive research with >500 papers published in 2015 alone. However, the phenotypic, morphological and functional heterogeneity of these cells generates confusion in investigation and analysis of their roles in inflammatory responses...
July 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292635/cd40-stimulation-obviates-innate-sensors-and-drives-t-cell-immunity-in-cancer
#11
Katelyn T Byrne, Robert H Vonderheide
Cancer immunotherapies are more effective in tumors with robust T cell infiltrates, but mechanisms to convert T cell-devoid tumors with active immunosuppression to those capable of recruiting T cells remain incompletely understood. Here, using genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), we demonstrate that a single dose of agonistic CD40 antibody with chemotherapy rendered PDA susceptible to T cell-dependent destruction and potentiated durable remissions. CD40 stimulation caused a clonal expansion of T cells in the tumor, but the addition of chemotherapy optimized myeloid activation and T cell function...
June 21, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217585/csf-1r-dependent-lethal-hepatotoxicity-when-agonistic-cd40-antibody-is-given-before-but-not-after-chemotherapy
#12
Katelyn T Byrne, Nathan H Leisenring, David L Bajor, Robert H Vonderheide
Cancer immunotherapies are increasingly effective in the clinic, especially immune checkpoint blockade delivered to patients who have T cell-infiltrated tumors. Agonistic CD40 mAb promotes stromal degradation and, in combination with chemotherapy, drives T cell infiltration and de novo responses against tumors, rendering resistant tumors susceptible to current immunotherapies. Partnering anti-CD40 with different treatments is an attractive approach for the next phase of cancer immunotherapies, with a number of clinical trials using anti-CD40 combinations ongoing, but the optimal therapeutic regimens with anti-CD40 are not well understood...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27036972/de-risking-immunotherapy-report-of-a-consensus-workshop-of-the-cancer-immunotherapy-consortium-of-the-cancer-research-institute
#13
REVIEW
Ira Mellman, Vanessa M Hubbard-Lucey, Matthew J Tontonoz, Michael D Kalos, Daniel S Chen, James P Allison, Charles G Drake, Hy Levitsky, Nils Lonberg, Sjoerd H van der Burg, Douglas T Fearon, E John Wherry, Israel Lowy, Robert H Vonderheide, Patrick Hwu
With the recent FDA approvals of pembrolizumab and nivolumab, and a host of additional immunomodulatory agents entering clinical development each year, the field of cancer immunotherapy is changing rapidly. Strategies that can assist researchers in choosing the most promising drugs and drug combinations to move forward through clinical development are badly needed in order to reduce the likelihood of late-stage clinical trial failures. On October 5, 2014, the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute, a collaborative think tank composed of stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory agencies, and patient interest groups, met to discuss strategies for de-risking immunotherapy development, with a focus on integrating preclinical and clinical studies, and conducting smarter early-phase trials, particularly for combination therapies...
April 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858124/infusion-of-cd3-cd28-costimulated-umbilical-cord-blood-t-cells-at-the-time-of-single-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-may-enhance-engraftment
#14
Elizabeth O Hexner, Selina M Luger, Ran Reshef, Grace R Jeschke, James K Mangan, Noelle V Frey, Dale M Frank, Lee P Richman, Robert H Vonderheide, Nicole A Aqui, Misha Rosenbach, Yi Zhang, Anne Chew, Alison W Loren, Edward A Stadtmauer, Bruce L Levine, Carl H June, Stephen G Emerson, David L Porter
Limited cell numbers in umbilical cord blood (UCB) grafts present a major impediment to favorable outcomes in adult transplantation, largely related to delayed or failed engraftment. The advent of UCB transplantation (UCBT) using two grafts successfully circumvents this obstacle, despite the engraftment of only one unit. Preclinical models suggested that the addition of UCB T cells at the time of transplant can enhance engraftment. We tested whether ex vivo activation by CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion of T cells from a single UCB graft would be safe and feasible in adults with advanced hematologic malignancies, with an overall objective of optimizing engraftment in single unit UCBT...
May 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715642/hif1a-deletion-reveals-pro-neoplastic-function-of-b-cells-in-pancreatic-neoplasia
#15
Kyoung Eun Lee, Michelle Spata, Lauren J Bayne, Elizabeth L Buza, Amy C Durham, David Allman, Robert H Vonderheide, M Celeste Simon
UNLABELLED: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with an exceedingly low 5-year survival rate. PDAC tumors are characterized by an extensive desmoplastic stromal response and hypovascularity, suggesting that tumor hypoxia could regulate PDAC initiation and/or progression. Using a well-defined, autochthonous Kras(G12D)-driven murine model, as well as human tumors, we demonstrate that hypoxia and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), a principal mediator of hypoxic adaptation, emerge early during preinvasive stages of PDAC...
March 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26444633/cd47-blockade-as-another-immune-checkpoint-therapy-for-cancer
#16
COMMENT
Robert H Vonderheide
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26192916/genomic-landscape-of-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#17
Jaehyuk Choi, Gerald Goh, Trent Walradt, Bok S Hong, Christopher G Bunick, Kan Chen, Robert D Bjornson, Yaakov Maman, Tiffany Wang, Jesse Tordoff, Kacie Carlson, John D Overton, Kristina J Liu, Julia M Lewis, Lesley Devine, Lisa Barbarotta, Francine M Foss, Antonio Subtil, Eric C Vonderheid, Richard L Edelson, David G Schatz, Titus J Boggon, Michael Girardi, Richard P Lifton
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skin-homing T lymphocytes. We performed exome and whole-genome DNA sequencing and RNA sequencing on purified CTCL and matched normal cells. The results implicate mutations in 17 genes in CTCL pathogenesis, including genes involved in T cell activation and apoptosis, NF-κB signaling, chromatin remodeling and DNA damage response. CTCL is distinctive in that somatic copy number variants (SCNVs) comprise 92% of all driver mutations (mean of 11.8 pathogenic SCNVs versus 1...
September 2015: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056179/high-graft-cd8-cell-dose-predicts-improved-survival-and-enables-better-donor-selection-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-reduced-intensity-conditioning
#18
Ran Reshef, Austin P Huffman, Amy Gao, Marlise R Luskin, Noelle V Frey, Saar I Gill, Elizabeth O Hexner, Taku Kambayashi, Alison W Loren, Selina M Luger, James K Mangan, Sunita D Nasta, Lee P Richman, Mary Sell, Edward A Stadtmauer, Robert H Vonderheide, Rosemarie Mick, David L Porter
PURPOSE: To characterize the impact of graft T-cell composition on outcomes of reduced-intensity conditioned (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in adults with hematologic malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated associations between graft T-cell doses and outcomes in 200 patients who underwent RIC alloHSCT with a peripheral blood stem-cell graft. We then studied 21 alloHSCT donors to identify predictors of optimal graft T-cell content...
July 20, 2015: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25979873/tumor-promoting-desmoplasia-is-disrupted-by-depleting-fap-expressing-stromal-cells
#19
Albert Lo, Liang-Chuan S Wang, John Scholler, James Monslow, Diana Avery, Kheng Newick, Shaun O'Brien, Rebecca A Evans, David J Bajor, Cynthia Clendenin, Amy C Durham, Elizabeth L Buza, Robert H Vonderheide, Carl H June, Steven M Albelda, Ellen Puré
Malignant cells drive the generation of a desmoplastic and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Cancer-associated stromal cells (CASC) are a heterogeneous population that provides both negative and positive signals for tumor cell growth and metastasis. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a marker of a major subset of CASCs in virtually all carcinomas. Clinically, FAP expression serves as an independent negative prognostic factor for multiple types of human malignancies. Prior studies established that depletion of FAP(+) cells inhibits tumor growth by augmenting antitumor immunity...
July 15, 2015: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25968457/special-conference-on-tumor-immunology-and-immunotherapy-a-new-chapter
#20
Katelyn T Byrne, Robert H Vonderheide, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Todd D Armstrong
The overall objective of the fifth American Association for Cancer Research Special Conference, "Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy: A New Chapter," organized by the Cancer Immunology Working Group, was to highlight multidisciplinary approaches of immunotherapy and mechanisms related to the ability of immunotherapy to fight established tumors. With the FDA approval of sipuleucel-T, ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4; Bristol-Myers Squibb), and the two anti-PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab (formerly MK-3475 or lambrolizumab; Merck) and nivolumab (Bristol-Myers Squibb), immunotherapy has become a mainstream treatment option for some cancers...
May 12, 2015: Cancer Immunology Research
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