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A Utku Urhan, Ellen Emilsson, Anders Brodin
ABSTRACT: Many species in the family Paridae, such as marsh tits Poecile palustris, are large-scale scatter hoarders of food that make cryptic caches and disperse these in large year-round territories. The perhaps most well-known species in the family, the great tit Parus major, does not store food itself but is skilled in stealing caches from the other species. We have previously demonstrated that great tits are able to memorise positions of caches they have observed marsh tits make and later return and steal the food...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Caterina Novara, Gioia Bottesi, Stella Dorz, Ezio Sanavio
Hoarding disorder (HD) was originally conceptualized as a subcategory of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and numerous studies have in fact focused exclusively on investigating the comorbidity between OCD and HD. Hoarding behavior can nevertheless also be found in other clinical populations and in particular in patients with eating disorders (ED), anxiety disorders (AD), major depression (MD), and psychotic disorders (PD). The current study was carried out with the aim of investigating, using a validated instrument such as the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), the presence of HD symptoms in patients diagnosed with ED, AD, MD, and PD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Richard Cramer, Michel Vols
Hoarding is an internationally recognised disability. Those who suffer from hoarding behaviour can be comfortably brought within the definition of disability found in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and should be provided with "reasonable accommodation" where doing so does not place an unjustified burden on others. However, hoarding also poses a threat to public health, and hoarders' behaviour may infringe on the rights of their neighbours and landlords. Thus, through their behaviour, hoarders may ultimately come into conflict with various areas of law, including neighbour law, housing law as well as administrative law...
September 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Marie-Eve St-Pierre-Delorme, Kieron O'Connor
The present study evaluated the efficacy of adding a virtual reality (VR) component to the treatment of compulsive hoarding (CH), following inference-based therapy (IBT). Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control condition. Seven participants received the experimental and seven received the control condition. Five sessions of 1 h were administered weekly. A significant difference indicated that the level of clutter in the bedroom tended to diminish more in the experimental group as compared to the control group F(2,24) = 2...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Brian D Vickers, Stephanie D Preston, Richard Gonzalez, Andrea M Angott
Individuals with hoarding disorder (HD) excessively acquire and retain goods while also exhibiting characteristics of impulsivity and addiction. However, HD individuals do not always perform impulsively in experiments, they do not appear interested in money, and they exhibit many features of risk-aversion and future-planning. To examine impulsivity in HD, we compared validated community participants high and low in hoarding tendencies on questionnaire measures of hoarding and impulsivity as well as a standard experimental measure of impulsivity (intertemporal discounting) that was modified to compare decisions about money, pens, and snacks...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mario B Pesendorfer, T Scott Sillett, Scott A Morrison, Alan C Kamil
Corvids (crows, jays, magpies and nutcrackers) are important dispersers of large-seeded plants. Studies on captive or supplemented birds suggest that they flexibly adjust their scatter-hoarding behaviour to the context of social dynamics and relative seed availability. Because many corvid-dispersed trees show high annual variation in seed production, context-dependent foraging can have strong effects on natural corvid scatter-hoarding behaviour. We investigated how seed availability and social dynamics affected scatter-hoarding in the island scrub jays (Aphelocoma insularis)...
May 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Mario B Pesendorfer, Walter D Koenig
Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community...
May 2016: Oecologia
T Lenders, J Kuster, R Bispinck
OBJECTIVE: To develop an intervention concept for the management of uninhabitable homes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 186 cases of the community mental health service in Dortmund (Germany) presenting with a destitute situation of the domestic environment as core problem. RESULTS: All patients suffered from psychiatric illnesses, mainly from addiction (F1: 41 %), psychosis (F2: 17 %), depression (F3: 17 %), and hoarding disorder (F63...
December 2015: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Fernanda Brito Melo-Felippe, Juliana Braga de Salles Andrade, Isabele Gomes Giori, Tamiris Vieira-Fonseca, Leonardo Franklin Fontenelle, Fabiana Barzotti Kohlrausch
Pharmacological data and animal models support the hypothesis that the dopaminergic (DA) system is implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, this case-control study assessed whether genetics variations in catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) could influence susceptibility to OCD and OCD features in a Brazilian sample. A sample of 199 patients with OCD and 200 healthy individuals was genotyped for -287A > G (rs2075507) and Val158Met (rs4680) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by TaqMan(®) or restriction mapping...
January 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Kenneth J Weiss, Aneela Khan
Hoarding of objects, trash, or animals has the potential to harm hoarders and others. Law enforcement and civil concerns arise, leading to situations ranging from health code violations to child abuse and potential eviction proceedings. DSM-5 included hoarding disorder among the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. This change has created an opportunity for individuals who engage in severe hoarding to request reasonable accommodation from landlords, because their condition represents a disability under the Fair Housing and Americans with Disabilities Acts...
December 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Nathanael I Lichti, Michael A Steele, Robert K Swihart
A mechanistic understanding of seed movement and survival is important both for the development of theoretical models of plant population dynamics, spatial spread, and community assembly, and for the conservation and management of plant communities under global change. While models of wind-borne seed dispersal have advanced rapidly over the past two decades, models for animal-mediated dispersal have failed to make similar progress due to their dependence on interspecific interactions and complex, context-dependent behaviours...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Xinran Ma, Lingyan Xu, Elisabetta Mueller
Obesity and diabetes are major health concerns worldwide. Western diets, often calorically rich, paired with sedentary habits are driving the current worldwide epidemic of pediatric and adult obesity. In addition, age related energy imbalances lead to increased adiposity and metabolic disorders later in life, making the middle aged population particularly susceptible. Here we discuss how Forkhead box A3 (Foxa3), a family member of the forkhead box binding proteins, can potentially contribute to pathology by playing a double role in metabolism...
October 2015: Adipocyte
Adrian Furnham, Sophie von Stumm, Mark Fenton-O'Creevy
This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males...
2015: Social Indicators Research
T Lenders, J Kuster, R Bispinck
OBJECTIVE: To develop an intervention concept for the management of uninhabitable homes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 186 cases of the community mental health service in Dortmund (Germany) presenting with a destitute situation of the domestic environment as core problem. RESULTS: All patients suffered from psychiatric illnesses, mainly from addiction (F1: 41%), psychosis (F2: 17%), depression (F3: 17%), and hoarding disorder (F63.8: 12%)...
July 2015: Das Gesundheitswesen
Daniel Fischer, Asta Laiho, Attila Gyenesei, Anu Sironen
Recent developments in high-throughput sequencing techniques have enabled large-scale analysis of genetic variations and gene expression in different tissues and species, but gene expression patterns and genetic variations in livestock are not well-characterized. In this study, we have used high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing of the Finnish Large White to identify gene expression patterns and coding polymorphisms within the breed in the testis and oviduct. The main objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms within genes that are highly and specifically expressed in male and/or female reproductive organs...
July 2015: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Amanda M Raines, Amberly K Portero, Amanda S Unruh, Nicole A Short, Norman B Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia has been shown to have profound negative consequences on multiple aspects of daily functioning. Despite increased interest in the association between insomnia and psychopathology, no research has examined the relationships between insomnia and hoarding. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the associations between insomnia and hoarding severity. METHODS: Participants consisted of patients with hoarding disorder (n = 24). RESULTS: Results revealed that insomnia was a significant predictor of increased hoarding severity...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Mythily Subramaniam, Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Louisa Picco, Siow Ann Chong
INTRODUCTION: Hoarding is defined as the acquisition of, and inability to discard items even though they appear to others to have no value. The objectives of the study were to establish the prevalence of hoarding behaviour among the general population and among individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a cross-sectional study conducted in Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Singapore Mental Health Study was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a nationally representative sample of residents aged 18 years or older, living in households...
November 2014: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
M Joffe, D O'Shannessy, N K Dhand, M Westman, A Fawcett
OBJECTIVE: To highlight the characteristics of persons convicted for offences related to animal hoarding in New South Wales, Australia, document the outcomes of cases and compare them with overseas studies. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Records of finalised prosecutions for offences relating to animal hoarding between 2005 and 2011 were examined. Data recorded included: the age of each subject at the first offence, sex, postcode, occupation, living conditions, number of charges, number of prosecutions, title of each charge, number and species of live animals, whether animals needed veterinary attention, the medical conditions that the animals suffered, whether dead animals were on the property, how animals were obtained, veterinary and legal costs accrued and case outcomes...
October 2014: Australian Veterinary Journal
Maike Möllenkamp, Martina de Zwaan, Astrid Müller
BACKGROUND: Previous research demonstrated a close relationship between hoarding disorder (compulsive hoarding, CH) and compulsive buying (CB). Hoarding disorder was included in the 5th version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA, 2013) with excessive acquisition as a specifier. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether individuals with both hoarding and buying symptoms (CBCH group) will present with the highest severity levels of hoarding as well as buying psychopathology compared to the respective group exhibiting only one syndrome (CH group: only hoarding, CB group: only buying)...
2015: Psychopathology
Nathanael I Lichti, Michael A Steele, Hao Zhang, Robert K Swihart
Interactions between plants and scatter-hoarding animals may shift from mutualism to predation as a function of the resources available to those animals. Because seed species differ in their nutrient content and defenses to predation, resource selection and cache management by scatter-hoarders, and thus seed fate, may also depend on the relative availability of different seed types. We tracked the fates of tagged Castanea dentata, Quercus alba, and Q. rubra seeds presented to rodents in pairwise combinations and found that C...
July 2014: Ecology
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