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Isaac Karimi, Shima Motamedi, Lora A Becker
The crucial role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) gene and its active isoform, xanthine oxidase (XO), in purine metabolism and cellular oxidative status led us to investigative their fluctuations in food deprivation induced food hoarding in mice. After, 10 h food deprivation, mice that hoarded lesser than 5 g were considered as 'low-hoarders' while mice that hoarded higher than 20 g were considered as 'high-hoarders'. Mice who hoarded between 5 to 20 g of food were excluded from study. An increase (1.133-fold) in encephalic XOR expression has been found in high-hoarders compared with low-hoarders without sex consideration...
February 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
David M R Orr, Michael Preston-Shoot, Suzy Braye
Hoarding has become increasingly prominent in clinical practice and popular culture in recent years, giving rise to extensive research and commentary. Critical responses in the social sciences have criticised the cultural assumptions built in to the construct of 'hoarding disorder' and expressed fears that it may generate stigma outweighing its benefits; however, few of these studies have engaged directly with 'hoarders' themselves. This paper reports on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 individuals living in England, who received assessment and intervention for hoarding from Social Services...
December 12, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
Arvind Mohan, Justin Conrad Rosen Wormald, Chang Park, Gill Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
Mikel M Delgado, Lucia F Jacobs
Scatter-hoarding animals face the task of maximizing retrieval of their scattered food caches while minimizing loss to pilferers. This demand should select for mnemonics, such as chunking, i.e. a hierarchical cognitive representation that is known to improve recall. Spatial chunking, where caches with the same type of content are related to each other in physical location and memory, would be one such mechanism. Here we tested the hypothesis that scatter-hoarding eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are organizing their caches in spatial patterns consistent with a chunking strategy...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Elisa Arrienti Ferreira, Luis Henrique Paloski, Dalton Breno Costa, Vânia Saretta Fiametti, Camila Rosa De Oliveira, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Valéria Gonzatti, Tatiana Quarti Irigaray
This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic profile of animal hoarders in a southern city of Brazil. In addition, it aimed to propose Animal Hoarding Disorder as a new nosological category, distinct from Hoarding Disorder. Thirty-three individuals with Animal Hoarding Disorder, 73% female and 60% elderly, composed the sample. The average age of the sample was 61.39 years (SD = 12.69) and the average period that individuals hoarded or lived with a large number of animals was 23.09 years (SD = 15.98...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
Haifeng Gu, Qingjian Zhao, Zhibin Zhang
The scatter-hoarding behavior of granivorous rodents plays an important role in seed dispersal and seedling regeneration of trees, as well as the evolution of several well-known mutualisms between trees and rodents in forest ecosystems. Because it is difficult to identify seed hoarders and pilferers under field conditions by traditional methods, the full costs incurred and benefits accrued by scatter-hoarding have not been fully evaluated in most systems. By using infrared radiation camera tracking and seed tagging, we investigated the benefits and losses of scatter-hoarded seeds (Camellia oleifera) for 3 sympatric rodent species (Apodemus draco, Niviventer confucianus and Leopoldamys edwardsi) in a subtropical forest of Southwest China during 2013 to 2015...
November 2017: Integrative Zoology
Graziela Ribeiro da Cunha, Camila Marinelli Martins, Marília de Fátima Ceccon-Valente, Liana Ludielli da Silva, Flavia Dias Martins, Dirciane Floeter, Jyothi Vinnakota Robertson, Fernando Ferreira, Alexander Welker Biondo
This study aimed to establish the frequency and spatial distribution of animal and object hoarding in Curitiba (Paraná State), the eighth most populous city in Brazil. All hoarding complaints received by the City Secretaries of Health, Environment and Social Assistance between September 2013 and April 2015 were collected (n = 226) and suspicious cases were individually investigated. A total of 113/226 (50%) of complaints were confirmed as hoarding cases, representing an overall ratio of 6.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Curitiba, of which 48/113 (42...
March 30, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
A Utku Urhan, Ellen Emilsson, Anders Brodin
ABSTRACT: Many species in the family Paridae, such as marsh tits Poecile palustris, are large-scale scatter hoarders of food that make cryptic caches and disperse these in large year-round territories. The perhaps most well-known species in the family, the great tit Parus major, does not store food itself but is skilled in stealing caches from the other species. We have previously demonstrated that great tits are able to memorise positions of caches they have observed marsh tits make and later return and steal the food...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Caterina Novara, Gioia Bottesi, Stella Dorz, Ezio Sanavio
Hoarding disorder (HD) was originally conceptualized as a subcategory of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and numerous studies have in fact focused exclusively on investigating the comorbidity between OCD and HD. Hoarding behavior can nevertheless also be found in other clinical populations and in particular in patients with eating disorders (ED), anxiety disorders (AD), major depression (MD), and psychotic disorders (PD). The current study was carried out with the aim of investigating, using a validated instrument such as the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R), the presence of HD symptoms in patients diagnosed with ED, AD, MD, and PD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Richard Cramer, Michel Vols
Hoarding is an internationally recognised disability. Those who suffer from hoarding behaviour can be comfortably brought within the definition of disability found in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and should be provided with "reasonable accommodation" where doing so does not place an unjustified burden on others. However, hoarding also poses a threat to public health, and hoarders' behaviour may infringe on the rights of their neighbours and landlords. Thus, through their behaviour, hoarders may ultimately come into conflict with various areas of law, including neighbour law, housing law as well as administrative law...
September 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Marie-Eve St-Pierre-Delorme, Kieron O'Connor
The present study evaluated the efficacy of adding a virtual reality (VR) component to the treatment of compulsive hoarding (CH), following inference-based therapy (IBT). Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control condition. Seven participants received the experimental and seven received the control condition. Five sessions of 1 h were administered weekly. A significant difference indicated that the level of clutter in the bedroom tended to diminish more in the experimental group as compared to the control group F(2,24) = 2...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Brian D Vickers, Stephanie D Preston, Richard Gonzalez, Andrea M Angott
Individuals with hoarding disorder (HD) excessively acquire and retain goods while also exhibiting characteristics of impulsivity and addiction. However, HD individuals do not always perform impulsively in experiments, they do not appear interested in money, and they exhibit many features of risk-aversion and future-planning. To examine impulsivity in HD, we compared validated community participants high and low in hoarding tendencies on questionnaire measures of hoarding and impulsivity as well as a standard experimental measure of impulsivity (intertemporal discounting) that was modified to compare decisions about money, pens, and snacks...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mario B Pesendorfer, T Scott Sillett, Scott A Morrison, Alan C Kamil
Corvids (crows, jays, magpies and nutcrackers) are important dispersers of large-seeded plants. Studies on captive or supplemented birds suggest that they flexibly adjust their scatter-hoarding behaviour to the context of social dynamics and relative seed availability. Because many corvid-dispersed trees show high annual variation in seed production, context-dependent foraging can have strong effects on natural corvid scatter-hoarding behaviour. We investigated how seed availability and social dynamics affected scatter-hoarding in the island scrub jays (Aphelocoma insularis)...
May 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Mario B Pesendorfer, Walter D Koenig
Spatial and temporal variation in resource distribution affect the movement and foraging behavior of many animals. In the case of animal-dispersed trees, numerous studies have addressed masting-the synchronized variation in seed production between years-but the fitness consequences of spatial variation in seed production within a year are unclear. We investigated the effects of variable acorn production in a population of valley oaks (Quercus lobata) on the composition and behavior of the avian-disperser community...
May 2016: Oecologia
T Lenders, J Kuster, R Bispinck
OBJECTIVE: To develop an intervention concept for the management of uninhabitable homes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 186 cases of the community mental health service in Dortmund (Germany) presenting with a destitute situation of the domestic environment as core problem. RESULTS: All patients suffered from psychiatric illnesses, mainly from addiction (F1: 41 %), psychosis (F2: 17 %), depression (F3: 17 %), and hoarding disorder (F63...
December 2015: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Fernanda Brito Melo-Felippe, Juliana Braga de Salles Andrade, Isabele Gomes Giori, Tamiris Vieira-Fonseca, Leonardo Franklin Fontenelle, Fabiana Barzotti Kohlrausch
Pharmacological data and animal models support the hypothesis that the dopaminergic (DA) system is implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, this case-control study assessed whether genetics variations in catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) could influence susceptibility to OCD and OCD features in a Brazilian sample. A sample of 199 patients with OCD and 200 healthy individuals was genotyped for -287A > G (rs2075507) and Val158Met (rs4680) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by TaqMan(®) or restriction mapping...
January 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Kenneth J Weiss, Aneela Khan
Hoarding of objects, trash, or animals has the potential to harm hoarders and others. Law enforcement and civil concerns arise, leading to situations ranging from health code violations to child abuse and potential eviction proceedings. DSM-5 included hoarding disorder among the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. This change has created an opportunity for individuals who engage in severe hoarding to request reasonable accommodation from landlords, because their condition represents a disability under the Fair Housing and Americans with Disabilities Acts...
December 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Nathanael I Lichti, Michael A Steele, Robert K Swihart
A mechanistic understanding of seed movement and survival is important both for the development of theoretical models of plant population dynamics, spatial spread, and community assembly, and for the conservation and management of plant communities under global change. While models of wind-borne seed dispersal have advanced rapidly over the past two decades, models for animal-mediated dispersal have failed to make similar progress due to their dependence on interspecific interactions and complex, context-dependent behaviours...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Xinran Ma, Lingyan Xu, Elisabetta Mueller
Obesity and diabetes are major health concerns worldwide. Western diets, often calorically rich, paired with sedentary habits are driving the current worldwide epidemic of pediatric and adult obesity. In addition, age related energy imbalances lead to increased adiposity and metabolic disorders later in life, making the middle aged population particularly susceptible. Here we discuss how Forkhead box A3 (Foxa3), a family member of the forkhead box binding proteins, can potentially contribute to pathology by playing a double role in metabolism...
October 2015: Adipocyte
Adrian Furnham, Sophie von Stumm, Mark Fenton-O'Creevy
This study examined sex differences in money beliefs and behaviours. Over 100,000 British participants completed two measures online, one of which assessed "money pathology" (Forman in Mind over money, Doubleday, Toronto, 1987), and the other four "money types", based on the emotional associations of money (Furnham et al. in Personal Individ Differ, 52:707-711, 2012). Nearly all measures showed significant sex differences with medium to large effect sizes, and with females exhibiting more "money pathology" than males...
2015: Social Indicators Research
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