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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156803/tet1-inhibits-cell-proliferation-by-inducing-rassf5-expression
#1
Bo-Tai Li, Chao Yu, Ying Xu, Sheng-Bing Liu, Heng-Yu Fan, Wei-Wei Pan
Tet methylcytosine dioxygenases (TETs) catalyze the oxidative reactions of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). However, TET1 roles in ovarian cancer cell growth are unknown. Here, we show that ectopic expression of TET1 increased 5hmC levels, and inhibited proliferation and colony formation in ovarian cancer cell lines. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo functional studies demonstrated that TET1 overexpression is necessary for the suppression of ovarian cancer growth, whereas depletion of TET1 expression had the opposite effect...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155757/dissection-of-human-retina-and-rpe-choroid-for-proteomic-analysis
#2
Thiago Cabral, Marcus A Toral, Gabriel Velez, James E DiCarlo, Anuradha M Gore, MaryAnn Mahajan, Stephen H Tsang, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan
The human retina is composed of the sensory neuroretina and the underlying retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), which is firmly complexed to the vascular choroid layer. Different regions of the retina are anatomically and molecularly distinct, facilitating unique functions and demonstrating differential susceptibility to disease. Proteomic analysis of each of these regions and layers can provide vital insights into the molecular process of many diseases, including Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), diabetes mellitus, and glaucoma...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155742/isolation-of-intact-whole-mouse-mammary-glands-for-analysis-of-extracellular-matrix-expression-and-gland-morphology
#3
Christopher Thompson, Katherine Keck, Abigail Hielscher
The goal of this procedure was to harvest the #4 abdominal mammary glands from female nulliparous mice in order to assess ECM expression and ductal architecture. Here, a small pocket below the skin was created using Mayo scissors, allowing separation of the glands within the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying peritoneum. Visualization of the glands was aided by the use of 3.5x-R surgical micro loupes. The pelt was inverted and pinned back allowing identification of the intact mammary fat pads. Each of the #4 abdominal glands was bluntly dissected by sliding the scalpel blade laterally between the subcutaneous layer and the glands...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154817/cancer-stem-cell-like-population-is-preferentially-suppressed-by-egfr-tkis-in-egfr-mutated-pc-9-tumor-models
#4
Fan Yang, Yang Li, Bin Liu, Jiacong You, Qinghua Zhou
AIMS: Although the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling systems synergistically regulate many essential developmental and regenerative processes in lung cancer, the mechanisms of their crosstalk remain poorly defined. Our study aimed to investigate an interaction between EGFR and the β-catenin signal. RESULTS: In this study, we described a potent activation of β-catenin by EGFR, which is dependent of the PtdIns3K/AKT pathway. We found EGF activated β-catenin signaling via phosphorylation of EGFR and AKT in EGFR-mutated PC-9 lung cancer cells...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154784/tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-regulates-mouse-hepatic-stellate-cell-differentiation-via-the-jagged1-notch-pathway
#5
Yasen Aimaiti, Xin Jin, Wei Wang, Zixin Chen, Dewei Li
AIMS: We tested whether transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) signaling plays an important role in hepatic stellate cell differentiation fate and investigated the role of Jagged1/Notch in this process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TGF-β1 was overexpressed and transforming growth factor receptor 1 (TGF-β-R1) was knocked down by a lentiviral vector in mouse hepatic stellate cells (mHSCs). Transfection efficiency was assessed with immunofluorescence, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting...
November 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154209/external-signals-regulate-germinal-center-fate-determining-transcription-factors-in-the-a20-lymphoma-cell-line
#6
Juan Feng, Xin Liu, Xingya Ni, Hai Qi
Due to the apoptosis-prone nature of primary germinal center B (GCB) cells, it remains a huge challenge to dissect signals that guide their differentiation towards memory B cells and plasma cells in vitro. Here we show that the murine lymphoma cell line A20 resembles primary GCB cells in expression of GC-specific surface markers and the master transcription factor BCL6 and may serve as a useful system to model certain GCB cell behaviors in vitro. Using these cells, we found that both CD40 and B cell receptor (BCR) signaling are able to drive BCL6 downregulation, which is a prerequisite of post-GC B-cell differentiation...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153836/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-de-novo-lipogenesis-by-mtorc1-s6k1-srpk2-signaling
#7
Gina Lee, Yuxiang Zheng, Sungyun Cho, Cholsoon Jang, Christina England, Jamie M Dempsey, Yonghao Yu, Xiaolei Liu, Long He, Paola M Cavaliere, Andre Chavez, Erik Zhang, Meltem Isik, Anthony Couvillon, Noah E Dephoure, T Keith Blackwell, Jane J Yu, Joshua D Rabinowitz, Lewis C Cantley, John Blenis
mTORC1 is a signal integrator and master regulator of cellular anabolic processes linked to cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 promotes lipid biogenesis via SRPK2, a key regulator of RNA-binding SR proteins. mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates SRPK2 at Ser494, which primes Ser497 phosphorylation by CK1. These phosphorylation events promote SRPK2 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of SR proteins. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that lipid biosynthetic enzymes are among the downstream targets of mTORC1-SRPK2 signaling...
November 14, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153394/vcp-p97-mediated-unfolding-as-a-principle-in-protein-homeostasis-and-signaling
#8
REVIEW
Johannes van den Boom, Hemmo Meyer
The AAA+-type ATPase p97 governs an ever-expanding number of cellular processes reaching from degradation of damaged proteins and organelles to key signaling events and chromatin regulation with thousands of client proteins. With its relevance for cellular homeostasis and genome stability, it is linked to muscular and neuronal degeneration and, conversely, constitutes an attractive anti-cancer drug target. Its molecular function is ATP-driven protein unfolding, which is directed by ubiquitin and assisted by a host of cofactor proteins...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152644/hmga1-participates-in-mhcc97h-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-through-the-ilk-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#9
Li Liu, Shuang Zhang, Lei Hu, Linhua Liu, Wuhua Guo, Jixiang Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of cancer‑related mortality, and the prognosis of HCC patients is unsatisfactory. It is known that the occurrence and development of HCC involves numerous genes, as well as various steps and stages in the pathological process. High mobility group AT‑hook 1 (HMGA1) and integrin‑linked kinase (ILK) may be overexpressed in HCC and may serve important roles in the development of cancer; however, the relationship between HMGA1 and ILK in HCC has not been examined...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151886/optogenetic-regulation-of-artificial-microrna-improves-h2-production-in-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#10
Yuting Wang, Xinqin Jiang, Changxing Hu, Ting Sun, Zhiyong Zeng, Xiaoqi Cai, Hui Li, Zhangli Hu
Background: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism not only for the study of basic metabolic processes in both plants and animals but also the production of biofuels including hydrogen. Transgenic analysis of C. reinhardtii is now well established and very convenient, but inducible exogenous gene expression systems remain under-studied. The most commonly used heat shock-inducible system has serious effects on algal cell growth and is difficult and costly to control in large-scale culture...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151158/guidelines-to-reach-high-quality-purified-recombinant-proteins
#11
REVIEW
Carla Oliveira, Lucília Domingues
The final goal in recombinant protein production is to obtain high-quality pure protein samples. Indeed, the successful downstream application of a recombinant protein depends on its quality. Besides production, which is conditioned by the host, the quality of a recombinant protein product relies mainly on the purification procedure. Thus, the purification strategy must be carefully designed from the molecular level. On the other hand, the quality control of a protein sample must be performed to ensure its purity, homogeneity and structural conformity, in order to validate the recombinant production and purification process...
November 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150527/transcriptional-regulators-of-redox-balance-and-other-homeostatic-processes-with-the-potential-to-alter-neurodegenerative-disease-trajectory
#12
REVIEW
Scott W Burnside, Giles E Hardingham
Diverse neurodegenerative diseases share some common aspects to their pathology, with many showing evidence of disruption to the brain's numerous homeostatic processes. As such, imbalanced inflammatory status, glutamate dyshomeostasis, hypometabolism and oxidative stress are implicated in many disorders. That these pathological processes can influence each other both up- and downstream makes for a complicated picture, but means that successfully targeting one area may have an effect on others. This targeting requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which homeostasis is maintained during health, in order to uncover strategies to boost homeostasis in disease...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150432/the-ikk-related-kinase-tbk1-activates-mtorc1-directly-in-response-to-growth-factors-and-innate-immune-agonists
#13
Cagri Bodur, Dubek Kazyken, Kezhen Huang, Bilgen Ekim Ustunel, Kate A Siroky, Aaron Seth Tooley, Ian E Gonzalez, Daniel H Foley, Hugo A Acosta-Jaquez, Tammy M Barnes, Gabrielle K Steinl, Kae-Won Cho, Carey N Lumeng, Steven M Riddle, Martin G Myers, Diane C Fingar
The innate immune kinase TBK1 initiates inflammatory responses to combat infectious pathogens by driving production of type I interferons. TBK1 also controls metabolic processes and promotes oncogene-induced cell proliferation and survival. Here, we demonstrate that TBK1 activates mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) directly. In cultured cells, TBK1 associates with and activates mTORC1 through site-specific mTOR phosphorylation (on S2159) in response to certain growth factor receptors (i.e., EGF-receptor but not insulin receptor) and pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) (i...
November 17, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149798/reconstructing-biosynthetic-pathway-of-the-plant-derived-cancer-chemopreventive-precursor-glucoraphanin-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Han Yang, Feixia Liu, Yin Li, Bo Yu
Epidemiological data confirmed a strong correlation between regular consumption of cruciferous vegetables and lower cancer risk. This cancer preventive property is mainly attributed to the glucosinolate products, such as glucoraphanin found in broccoli that is derived from methionine. Here we report the first successful reconstruction of the complete biosynthetic pathway of glucoraphanin from methionine in Escherichia coli via gene selection, pathway design, and protein engineering. We used branched-chain amino transferase 3 to catalyze two transamination steps to ensure the purity of precursor molecules and used cysteine as a sulfur donor to simplify the synthesis pathway...
November 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149481/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-on-amphetamine-induced-dopaminergic-fiber-degeneration-in-the-hippocampus-of-postnatal-rats
#15
Tanawan Leeboonngam, Ratchadaporn Pramong, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Piyarat Govitrapong, Pansiri Phansuwan-Pujito
Chronic amphetamine (AMPH) abuse leads to damage of the hippocampus, the brain area associated with learning and memory process. Previous results have shown that AMPH-induced dopamine neurotransmitter release, reactive oxygen species formation and degenerative protein aggregation lead to neuronal death. Melatonin, a powerful antioxidant, plays a role as a neuroprotective agent. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of melatonin on AMPH-induced hippocampal damage in the postnatal rat acts through the dopaminergic pathway...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149079/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-signaling-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Shailaja Mahajan-Thakur, Sandra Bien-Möller, Sascha Marx, Henry Schroeder, Bernhard H Rauch
The multifunctional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid signaling molecule and central regulator in the development of several cancer types. In recent years, intriguing information has become available regarding the role of S1P in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and common brain tumor in adults. S1P modulates numerous cellular processes in GBM, such as oncogenesis, proliferation and survival, invasion, migration, metastasis and stem cell behavior. These processes are regulated via a family of five G-protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PR1-5) and may involve mainly unknown intracellular targets...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148733/fluorescence-and-quenching-assessment-eem-parafac-of-de-facto-potable-reuse-in-the-neuse-river-north-carolina-united-states
#17
Martha J M Wells, Gene A Mullins, Katherine Y Bell, Allegra K Da Silva, Eileen M Navarrete
The Neuse River, North Carolina, U.S., exemplifies a typical de facto potable reuse scenario, where drinking water sources are located downstream of treated wastewater effluent discharges. The study results imply that planned potable water reuse, whether in an indirect or direct potable reuse scenario, might provide better control over water quality than the status quo conditions. Using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) measurements, anthropogenic influence of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge was observed in samples near the location of drinking water treatment plant (WTP) intakes, eight or more miles downstream of the WWTP, implying that anthropogenic compounds were not fully removed or degraded by natural processes in this reach of the river...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148723/dna-microviscosity-characterization-with-particle-diffusometry-for-downstream-dna-detection-applications
#18
Katherine Noel Clayton, Gregory D Berglund, Jacqueline C Linnes, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem, Steven T Wereley
Analytical characterization of DNA microviscosity provides critical biophysical insights into nuclear crowding, nucleic acid-based pharmaceutical development, and nucleic acid-based biosensor device design. However, most viscosity characterization methods require large sample volumes and destructive testing. In contrast, particle diffusometry, permits in situ analysis of DNA microviscosity with short measurement times (8 seconds) using small volumes (< 3L) which are compatible with DNA preparatory procedures...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147906/regulation-of-signal-transduction-by-dj-1
#19
Stephanie E Oh, M Maral Mouradian
The ability of DJ-1 to modulate signal transduction has significant effects on how the cell regulates normal processes such as growth, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy to adapt to changing environmental stimuli and stresses. Perturbations of DJ-1 levels or function can disrupt the equilibrium of homeostatic signaling networks and set off cascades that play a role in the pathogenesis of conditions such as cancer and Parkinson's disease.DJ-1 plays a major role in various pathways. It mediates cell survival and proliferation by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147025/sphingolipid-metabolism-in-cancer-signalling-and-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Besim Ogretmen
Sphingolipids, including the two central bioactive lipids ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have opposing roles in regulating cancer cell death and survival, respectively, and there have been exciting developments in understanding how sphingolipid metabolism and signalling regulate these processes in response to anticancer therapy. Recent studies have provided mechanistic details of the roles of sphingolipids and their downstream targets in the regulation of tumour growth and response to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy using innovative molecular, genetic and pharmacological tools to target sphingolipid signalling nodes in cancer cells...
November 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
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