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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550687/tanshinone-suppresses-arecoline-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-oral-submucous-fibrosis-by-epigenetically-reactivating-the-p53-pathway
#1
Lian Zheng, Zhen-Jie Guan, Wen-Ting Pan, Tian-Fang Du, Yu-Jia Zhai, Jia Guo
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) induced by the chewing of areca nut has been considered as a precancerous lesion with a higher probability of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma. Tanshinone (TSN) is the main component extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese medicine, which was found to have diverse pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. In current study, we aim to identify inhibitory effects and the underlying mechanism of Tanshinone on OSF progress. We found that treatment of TSN inhibited arecoline-mediated proliferation of primary human oral mucosal fibroblasts, and reversed the promotive effects of arecoline on EMT process...
May 21, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550171/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-stimulation-inhibits-proarrhythmic-alternans-in-post-infarction-border-zone-cardiomyocytes-a-computational-analysis
#2
Jakub Tomek, Blanca Rodriguez, Gil Bub, Jordi Heijman
The border zone (BZ) of viable myocardium adjacent to an infarct undergoes extensive autonomic and electrical remodelling and is prone to repolarisation alternans-induced cardiac arrhythmias. BZ remodelling processes may promote or inhibit calcium and/or repolarisation alternans and may differentially affect ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Here, we employed a detailed computational model of the canine ventricular cardiomyocyte to study the determinants of alternans in the BZ and their regulation by β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550085/knockdown-of-sodium-calcium-exchanger-1-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-kidney-epithelial-cells
#3
Sona Lakshme Balasubramaniam, Anilkumar Gopalakrishnapillai, Nicholas J Petrelli, Sonali P Barwe
Mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are important processes in kidney development. Failure to undergo MET during development leads to the initiation of Wilms tumor (WT) whereas EMT contributes to the development of renal cell carcinomas (RCC). The role of calcium regulators in governing these processes is becoming evident. We demonstrated earlier that Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1), a major calcium exporter in renal epithelial cells, regulates epithelial cell motility...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549965/microrna-101-in-the-ventrolateral-orbital-cortex-vlo-modulates-depressive-like-behaviors-in-rats-and-targets-dual-specificity-phosphatase-1-dusp1
#4
Yan Zhao, Shuang Wang, Zheng Chu, Yonghui Dang, Juanxia Zhu, Xingli Su
Long-term exposure to stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of major depression. Recently, the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) has received considerable attention for its role in the antidepressant response. However, the mechanisms underlying stress response in the VLO remain largely elusive. MiR-101 has been implicated in regulating multiple neurological processes. The present study used the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model to investigate the expression of miR-101 in the VLOs of rat brains and the possible relevance of miR-101 to depression...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549353/crowding-visual-awareness-and-their-respective-neural-loci
#5
Kilho Shin, Susana T L Chung, Bosco S Tjan
In peripheral vision, object identification can be impeded when a target object is flanked by other objects. This phenomenon of crowding has been attributed to basic processes associated with image encoding by the visual system, but the neural origin of crowding is not known. Determining whether crowding depends on subjective awareness of the flankers can provide information on the neural origin of crowding. However, recent studies that manipulated flanker awareness have yielded conflicting results. In the current study, we suppressed flanker awareness with two methods: interocular suppression (IOS) and adaptation-induced blindness (AIB)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549066/alternative-exon-definition-events-control-the-choice-between-nuclear-retention-and-cytoplasmic-export-of-u11-u12-65k-mrna
#6
Jens Verbeeren, Bhupendra Verma, Elina H Niemelä, Karen Yap, Eugene V Makeyev, Mikko J Frilander
Cellular homeostasis of the minor spliceosome is regulated by a negative feed-back loop that targets U11-48K and U11/U12-65K mRNAs encoding essential components of the U12-type intron-specific U11/U12 di-snRNP. This involves interaction of the U11 snRNP with an evolutionarily conserved splicing enhancer giving rise to unproductive mRNA isoforms. In the case of U11/U12-65K, this mechanism controls the length of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). We show that this process is dynamically regulated in developing neurons and some other cell types, and involves a binary switch between translation-competent mRNAs with a short 3'UTR to non-productive isoforms with a long 3'UTR that are retained in the nucleus or/and spliced to the downstream amylase locus...
May 26, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548639/rai1%C3%A2-frees-mice-from-the-repression-of-active-wake-behaviors-by-light
#7
Shanaz Diessler, Corinne Kostic, Yvan Arsenijevic, Aki Kawasaki, Paul Franken
Besides its role in vision, light impacts physiology and behavior through circadian and direct (aka 'masking') mechanisms. In Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS), the dysregulation of both sleep-wake behavior and melatonin production strongly suggest impaired non-visual light perception. We discovered that mice haploinsufficient for the SMS causal gene, Retinoic acid induced-1 (Rai1), were hypersensitive to light such that light eliminated alert and active-wake behaviors, while leaving time-spent-awake unaffected...
May 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546992/identification-of-transcription-factors-potentially-involved-in-human-adipogenesis-in%C3%A2-vitro
#8
Melvin Anyasi Ambele, Michael Sean Pepper
BACKGROUND: Increased adiposity in humans leads to obesity, which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. We previously conducted an extensive unbiased in vitro transcriptomic analysis of adipogenesis, using human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). Here, we have applied computational methods to these data to identify transcription factors (TFs) that constitute the upstream gene regulatory networks potentially, driving adipocyte formation in human ASCs...
May 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546550/human-igg2-and-igg4-expressing-memory-b-cells-display-enhanced-molecular-and-phenotypic-signs-of-maturity-and-accumulate-with-age
#9
Britt G de Jong, Hanna IJspeert, Lemelinda Marques, Mirjam van der Burg, Jacques J M van Dongen, Bruno G Loos, Menno C van Zelm
The mechanisms involved in sequential immunoglobulin (IG)G class switching are still largely unknown. Sequential IG class switching is linked to higher levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) in vivo, but it remains unclear if these are generated temporally during an immune response or upon activation in a secondary response. We here aimed to uncouple these processes and to distinguish memory B cells from primary and secondary immune responses. SHM levels and IgG subclasses were studied with 454 pyrosequencing on PBMC from young children and adults as models for primary and secondary immunological memory...
May 26, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546426/guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-epac2-dependent-activation-of-the-gtp-binding-protein-rap2a-mediates-camp-dependent-growth-arrest-in-neuroendocrine-cells
#10
Andrew C Emery, Wenqin Xu, Maribeth V Eiden, Lee E Eiden
First messenger-dependent activation of MAPKs in neuronal and endocrine cells is critical for cell differentiation and function and requires guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)- mediated activation of downstream Ras-family small GTPases, which ultimately lead to ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. Because there are numerous GEFs and also a host of Ras-family small GTPases, it is important to know which specific GEF-small GTPase dyad functions in a given cellular process. Here, we investigated the upstream activators and downstream effectors of signaling via the GEF Epac2 in the neuroendocrine NS-1 cell line...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544332/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-protects-against-renal-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-by-attenuating-mitochondrial-damage-and-proinflammatory-signalling
#11
Xiao-Hua Tan, Xiao-Meng Zheng, Li-Xia Yu, Jian He, Hong-Mei Zhu, Xiu-Ping Ge, Xiao-Li Ren, Fa-Qing Ye, Saverio Bellusci, Jian Xiao, Xiao-Kun Li, Jin-San Zhang
Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/RI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The molecular basis underlying I/RI-induced renal pathogenesis and measures to prevent or reverse this pathologic process remains to be resolved. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is reported to have protective roles of myocardial infarction as well as in several other I/R related disorders. Herein we present evidence that FGF2 exhibits robust protective effect against renal histological and functional damages in a rat I/RI model...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541661/a-complementary-isothermal-amplification-method-to-the-us-epa-qpcr-approach-for-the-detection-of-enterococci-in-environmental-waters
#12
Claudia Kolm, Roland Martzy, Kurt Brunner, Robert L Mach, Rudolf Krska, Georg Heinze, Regina Sommer, Georg H Reischer, Andreas H Farnleitner
We report a novel molecular assay, based on helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), for the detection of enterococci as markers for fecal pollution in water. This isothermal assay targets the same Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene region as the existing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the US Environmental Protection Agency Methods 1611 and 1609 but can be entirely performed on a simple heating block. The developed Enterococcus HDA assay successfully discriminated 15 enterococcal from 15 non-enterococcal reference strains and reliably detected 48 environmental isolates of enterococci...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540412/a-distal-auxiliary-element-facilitates-cleavage-and-polyadenylation-of-dux4-mrna-in-the-pathogenic-haplotype-of-fshd
#13
Natoya Peart, Eric J Wagner
The degenerative muscle disorder facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is thought to be caused by the inappropriate expression of the Double Homeobox 4 (Dux4) protein in muscle cells leading to apoptosis. Expression of Dux4 in the major form of FSHD is a function of two contributing molecular changes: contractions in the D4Z4 microsatellite repeat region where Dux4 is located and an SNP present within a region downstream of the D4Z4. This SNP provides a functional, yet non-consensus polyadenylation signal (PAS) is used for the Dux4 mRNA 3' end processing...
May 24, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539706/multiple-immunosuppressive-effects-of-cpg-c41-on-intracellular-tlr-mediated-inflammation
#14
Wancheng Liu, Xuejiao Yang, Ning Wang, Shijun Fan, Yuanfeng Zhu, Xinchuan Zheng, Yan Li
A growing body of literature suggests that most chronic autoimmune diseases are associated with inappropriate inflammation mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, TLR7/8, or TLR9. Therefore, research into blocking TLR activation to treat these disorders has become a hot topic. Here, we report the immunomodulatory properties of a nonstimulatory CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN), CpG-c41, which had previously only been known as a TLR9 antagonist. In this study, we found that both in vitro and in vivo CpG-c41 decreased levels of various proinflammatory factors that were induced by single activation or coactivation of intracellular TLRs, but not membrane-bound TLRs, no matter what downstream signal pathways the TLRs depend on...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538979/stanniocalcin-1-is-an-ocular-hypotensive-agent-and-a-downstream-effector-molecule-that-is-necessary-for-the-intraocular-pressure-lowering-effects-of-latanoprost
#15
Gavin W Roddy, Kimberly B Viker, Nelson S Winkler, Cindy K Bahler, Bradley H Holman, David Sheikh-Hamad, Uttio Roy Chowdhury, W Daniel Stamer, Michael P Fautsch
Purpose: To identify downstream signaling molecules through which intraocular pressure (IOP) is lowered following treatment with the prostaglandin analog latanoprost. Methods: Total RNA and protein isolated from primary human Schlemm's canal cells (n = 3) treated with latanoprost (free acid; 100 nM) were processed for quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. IOP was evaluated in stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1-/-) and wild-type mice following treatment with latanoprost or Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538188/identification-and-characterization-of-a-class-of-malat1-like-genomic-loci
#16
Bin Zhang, Yuntao S Mao, Sarah D Diermeier, Irina V Novikova, Eric P Nawrocki, Tom A Jones, Zsolt Lazar, Chang-Shung Tung, Weijun Luo, Sean R Eddy, Karissa Y Sanbonmatsu, David L Spector
The MALAT1 (Metastasis-Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript 1) gene encodes a noncoding RNA that is processed into a long nuclear retained transcript (MALAT1) and a small cytoplasmic tRNA-like transcript (mascRNA). Using an RNA sequence- and structure-based covariance model, we identified more than 130 genomic loci in vertebrate genomes containing the MALAT1 3' end triple-helix structure and its immediate downstream tRNA-like structure, including 44 in the green lizard Anolis carolinensis. Structural and computational analyses revealed a co-occurrence of components of the 3' end module...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537678/lncrna-bcar4-promotes-proliferation-invasion-and-metastasis-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-by-affecting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#17
N Li, W-J Gao, N-S Liu
OBJECTIVE: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in various cellular biological processes. It is also involved in the occurrence and development of the tumor. BCAR4 is reported to be highly expressed in breast cancer and promotes cell proliferation. However, the biological effects of BCAR4 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was performed for detecting BCAR4 expression in 76 pairs of NSCLC tissues and corresponding cancer-adjacent tissues and 6 NSCLC cell lines...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537416/glutathione-degradation
#18
Anand K Bachhawat, Amandeep Kaur
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutathione degradation has for long been thought to occur only on non-cytosolic pools. This is because there has been only one enzyme known to degrade glutathione (γ-glutamyltranspeptidase), and this localizes to either the plasma membrane (mammals, bacteria) or the vacuolar membrane (yeast, plants) and acts on extracellular or vacuolar pools. The last few years has seen the discovery of several new enzymes of glutathione degradation that function in the cytosol, throwing new light on glutathione degradation...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535048/control-of-maillard-reactions-in-foods-strategies-and-chemical-mechanisms
#19
Marianne N Lund, Colin Ray
Maillard reactions lead to changes in food color, organoleptic properties, protein functionality, and protein digestibility. Numerous different strategies for controlling Maillard reactions in foods have been attempted during the last decades. In this paper, recent advances in strategies for controlling the Maillard reaction and subsequent downstream reaction products in food systems are critically reviewed. The underlying mechanisms at play are presented, strengths and weaknesses of each strategy are discussed, and reasonable reaction mechanisms are proposed to reinforce the evaluations...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534968/functional-significance-of-the-long-non-coding-rna-rp11-169d4-1-as-a-metastasis-suppressor-in-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-regulating-cdh1
#20
Jing Zhao, Kexing Lv, Zeng-Hong Li, Jianhui Wu, Wei Gao, Thian-Sze Wong, Jie Luo, Hao Qin, Bin Wang, Qingling Fu, Wen-Bin Lei
The present study investigated the expression profile and the function of RP11-169D4.1 and explored its potential mechanisms in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The biological function of RP11-169D4.1 was examined using the MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis, wound healing and transwell assays. The relationship between RP11-169D4.1 and miR-205-5p was discovered by Argonaute 2 protein immunoprecipitation. The target gene of RP11-169D4.1 was CDH1 which was assessed by Pearson's correlation analysis, RT-PCR and western blot assay...
May 16, 2017: Oncology Reports
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