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Sympathetic skin response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405788/electroneuromyographic-findings-in-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome
#1
Deniz Turgut Coban, Tuncay Cakir, Muhammet Kazim Erol, Gulsum Dogan, Berna Dogan, Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz, Naciye Fusun Toraman
PURPOSE: To examine peripheral electroneuromyographic findings in patients with ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and to compare them controls without PEX. METHODS: A case-control study design was used to examine 31 patients with PEX and compare the findings with those of 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination that included peripheral electroneuromyography examination. Motor and sensorial nerve conduction of the median, ulnar, tibial, peroneal, and sural nerve and the sympathetic skin response were measured...
April 12, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404850/stress-hormones-epinephrine-and-corticosterone-selectively-modulate-hsv-1-and-hsv-2-productive-infection-in-adult-sympathetic-but-not-sensory-neurons
#2
Angela M Ives, Andrea S Bertke
Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect and establish latency in peripheral neurons, from which they can reactivate to cause recurrent disease throughout the life of the host. Stress is associated with exacerbation of clinical symptoms and induction of recurrences in humans and animal models. The viruses preferentially replicate and establish latency in different subtypes of sensory neurons, as well as in neurons of the autonomic nervous system that are highly responsive to stress hormones. To determine if stress-related hormones modulate productive HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection within sensory and autonomic neurons, we analyzed viral DNA and production of viral progeny after treatment of primary adult murine neuronal cultures with the stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377150/developmental-changes-in-autonomic-responses-are-associated-with-future-reward-punishment-expectations-a-study-of-sympathetic-skin-responses-in-the-markov-decision-task
#3
Hiromi Hosaka, Kakuro Aoyagi, Yoshimi Kaga, Hideaki Kanemura, Kanji Sugita, Masao Aihara
OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system activity is recognized as a major component of emotional responses. Future reward/punishment expectations depend upon the process of decision making in the frontal lobe, which is considered to play an important role in executive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between autonomic responses and decision making during reinforcement tasks using sympathetic skin responses (SSR). METHODS: Nine adult and 9 juvenile (mean age, 10...
April 1, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369282/recessive-dystrophic-epidermolysis-bullosa-results-in-painful-small-fibre-neuropathy
#4
Sofia von Bischhoffshausen, Dinka Ivulic, Paola Alvarez, Victor C Schuffeneger, Juan Idiaquez, Constanza Fuentes, Pilar Morande, Ignacia Fuentes, Francis Palisson, David L H Bennett, Margarita Calvo
Small fibres in the skin are vulnerable to damage in metabolic or toxic conditions such as diabetes mellitus or chemotherapy resulting in small fibre neuropathy and associated neuropathic pain. Whether injury to the most distal portion of sensory small fibres due to a primary dermatological disorder can cause neuropathic pain is still unclear. Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a rare condition in which mutations of proteins of the dermo-epidermal junction lead to cycles of blistering followed by regeneration of the skin...
March 28, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368199/he-said-what-physiological-and-cognitive-responses-to-imagining-and-witnessing-outgroup-racism
#5
Francine Karmali, Kerry Kawakami, Elizabeth Page-Gould
Responses to outgroup racism can have serious implications for the perpetuation of bias, yet research examining this process is rare. The present research investigated self-reported, physiological, and cognitive responses among "experiencers" who witnessed and "forecasters" who imagined a racist comment targeting an outgroup member. Although previous research indicates that experiencers self-reported less distress and chose a racist partner more often than forecasters, the present results explored the possibility that experiencers may actually be distressed in such situation but regulate their initial affective reactions...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347833/skin-sympathetic-nerve-activity-precedes-the-onset-and-termination-of-paroxysmal-atrial-tachycardia-and-fibrillation
#6
Andrea Uradu, Juyi Wan, Anisiia Doytchinova, Keith C Wright, Andrew Y T Lin, Lan S Chen, Changyu Shen, Shien-Fong Lin, Thomas Everett, Peng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Skin sympathetic nerve activity (SKNA) is useful in estimating sympathetic tone in humans OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that (1) increased SKNA is associated with the onset and termination of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (AT) and AF and (2) The sinoatrial node (SAN) response to SKNA is reduced in patients with more frequent of AT or AF. METHODS: SKNA and electrocardiogram were recorded in 11 patients (4 males and 7 females, average age 66±10 years), including 3 patients with AT (11±18 episodes/patient) and 8 patients with AF (24±26 episodes/patient)...
March 24, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342768/role-of-the-lateral-preoptic-area-in-cardiovascular-and-neuroendocrine-responses-to-acute-restraint-stress-in-rats
#7
Josiane O Duarte, Karina S Gomes, Ricardo L Nunes-de-Souza, Carlos C Crestani
The lateral preoptic area (LPO) is connected with limbic structures involved in physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Accordingly, exposure to stressors stimuli activates neurons within the LPO. In spite of these evidence, an involvement of the LPO on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine adjustments during aversive threats has not yet been investigated. Therefore, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that the LPO is involved in the control of cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress in rats...
March 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330967/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-response-to-heat-stress-is-attenuated-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#8
Jian Cui, John Boehmer, Cheryl A Blaha, Lawrence I Sinoway
Heat stress evokes significant increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in healthy individuals. The MSNA response to heat stress in chronic heart failure (CHF) is unknown. We hypothesized that the MSNA response to heat stress is attenuated in CHF. Passive whole body heating was applied with water-perfused suits on 13 patients (61 ± 2 years) with stable class II-III CHF, 12 age-matched (62 ± 2 years) healthy subjects, and 14 young (24 ± 1 years) healthy subjects. Mild heating (i.e. increases in skin temperature ΔTsk ~2-4 °C, internal temperature ΔTcore <0...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330964/thermoregulatory-inversion-a-novel-thermoregulatory-paradigm
#9
Domenico Tupone, Georgina Cano, Shaun F Morrison
To maintain core body temperature in mammals, the normal CNS thermoregulatory reflex networks produce an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in response to skin cooling, and an inhibition of the sympathetic outflow to BAT during skin rewarming. In contrast, these normal thermoregulatory reflexes appear to be inverted in hibernation/torpor: thermogenesis is inhibited during exposure to a cold environment, allowing dramatic reductions in core temperature and metabolism, and thermogenesis is activated during skin rewarming, contributing to a return of normal body temperature...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295755/evidence-for-a-functional-vasoconstrictor-role-for-atp-in-the-human-cutaneous-microvasculature
#10
James A Lang, Alex C Krajek, Kevin A Smaller
Noradrenaline is responsible for eliciting ∼60% of the reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) response in young adults, whereas the remainder is due to one or more unidentified coreleased sympathetic adrenergic neurotransmitter(s). Inconsistent evidence has placed neuropeptide Y in this role; however, other putative cotransmitters have yet to be tested. We hypothesize that ATP contributes to the reflex cutaneous VC response. Two protocols were conducted in young adults (n = 10); both involved the placement of three microdialysis (MD) probes in forearm skin and whole-body cooling (Tsk  = 30...
March 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289649/hypothermia-presenting-in-wernicke-encephalopathy-a-case-report
#11
Seok Hyun Hong, Ju Sun Oh, Chang Hyun Lee, Jae Ho Oh
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a neurologic disorder characterized by clinical symptoms, such as nystagmus, ataxia, and mental confusion. Hypothermia in patients with WE is a rare complication, and its pathogenic mechanism and therapy are yet to be ascertained. Herein, we presented a case of a 61-year-old man who was diagnosed with WE 3 months earlier. We investigated the cause of hypothermia (35.0℃) that occurred after an enema (bowel emptying). Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed mammillary body and hypothalamus atrophy...
February 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260105/depletion-of-tfap2e-attenuates-adriamycin-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#12
Reina Hoshi, Yosuke Watanabe, Yoshiaki Ishizuka, Takayuki Hirano, Eri Nagasaki-Maeoka, Shinsuke Yoshizawa, Shota Uekusa, Hiroyuki Kawashima, Kensuke Ohashi, Kiminobu Sugito, Noboru Fukuda, Hiroki Nagase, Masayoshi Soma, Toshinori Ozaki, Tsugumichi Koshinaga, Kyoko Fujiwara
Neuroblastoma is a childhood malignancy originating from the sympathetic nervous system and accounts for approximately 15% of all pediatric cancer-related deaths. To newly identify gene(s) implicated in the progression of neuroblastoma, we investigated aberrantly methylated genomic regions in mouse skin tumors. Previously, we reported that TFAP2E, a member of activator protein-2 transcription factor family, is highly methylated within its intron and its expression is strongly suppressed in mouse skin tumors compared with the normal skin...
April 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231274/early-skin-to-skin-contact-after-cesarean-section-a-randomized-clinical-pilot-study
#13
Martina Kollmann, Lisa Aldrian, Anna Scheuchenegger, Eva Mautner, Sereina A Herzog, Berndt Urlesberger, Reinhard B Raggam, Uwe Lang, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Philipp Klaritsch
OBJECTIVE: Early bonding by skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has been demonstrated to be beneficial for mothers and newborns following vaginal delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intraoperative bonding (early SSC) after cesarean section on neonatal adaptation, maternal pain and stress response. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, randomized-controlled pilot study was performed at a single academic tertiary hospital (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Graz, Austria) between September 2013 and January 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228418/folic-acid-supplementation-increases-cutaneous-vasodilator-sensitivity-to-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-older-adults
#14
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218794/escaping-aversive-exposure
#15
Christopher T Sege, Margaret M Bradley, Peter J Lang
This research examined human defensive reactivity when exposure to an aversive event could be escaped but not entirely avoided. Prolonged visual cues indicated whether exposure to an upcoming aversive (i.e., disgusting) picture could be terminated after onset (escaped) or not, or that a neutral go signal would appear. Acoustically elicited startle reflexes were measured during each cue interval, as were cardiac and skin conductance activity. Early in the cuing interval, startle reflexes were potentiated during both escape and inescapable exposure trials, compared to the simple motor context...
February 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198211/both-n-methyl-d-aspartate-and-non-n-methyl-d-aspartate-glutamate-receptors-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-modulate-the-cardiovascular-responses-to-acute-restraint-stress-in-rats
#16
Mariane B Adami, Lucas Barretto-de-Souza, Josiane O Duarte, Jeferson Almeida, Carlos C Crestani
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a forebrain structure that has been implicated on cardiovascular responses evoked by emotional stress. However, the local neurochemical mechanisms mediating the BNST control of stress responses are not fully described. In our study we investigated the involvement of glutamatergic neurotransmission within the BNST in cardiovascular changes evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. For this study, we investigated the effects of bilateral microinjections of selective antagonists of either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA glutamate receptors into the BNST on the arterial pressure and heart rate increase and the decrease in tail skin temperature induced by acute restraint stress...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188383/attenuating-physiological-arousal-through-the-manipulation-of-simple-hand-movements
#17
Shaun S Stearns, Raymond Fleming, Lindsay J Fero
The current study tests whether manipulating simple motor movements can regulate one's physiological reactivity to negative images. Healthy college age participants were randomly assigned to no tapping, steady tapping, or slow tapping conditions and viewed two sets of 15 negative images from the international affective picture system. Participants viewed the first image set without manipulation. During the second image set, they were instructed to tap at a steady pace, a slow pace or not at all. Steady tapping suppressed the vagal component of the cardiovascular defense response, and produced a significant increase in respiration rate and skin conductance level (SCL)...
February 10, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181926/autonomic-nervous-system-function-after-a-skin-to-skin-contact-intervention-in-infants-with-congenital-heart-disease
#18
Tondi M Harrison, Roger Brown
BACKGROUND: Infants with complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) demonstrate impaired autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation, which may contribute to commonly observed impairments in feeding, growth, and development. Close mother-infant physical contact improves ANS function in other high-risk infant populations. OBJECTIVE: Our purposes were to examine feasibility of a 2-week daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) intervention and to describe change in ANS function in response to the intervention...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167189/neurophysiological-and-clinical-effects-of-dry-needling-in-patients-with-upper-trapezius-myofascial-trigger-points
#19
Maryam Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Gholamreza Olyaei, Mohammad Reza Nourbakhsh
INTRODUCTION: Dry needling (DN) is a widely used in treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The purpose of this pretest-posttest clinical trial was to investigate the neurophysiological and clinical effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. METHODS: A sample of 20 patients (3 man, 17 women; mean age 31.7 ± 10.8) with upper trapezius MTrPs received one session of deep DN. The outcomes of neuromuscular junction response (NMJR), sympathetic skin response (SSR), pain intensity (PI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured at baseline and immediately after DN...
January 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126832/effect-of-%C3%AE-agonist-on-the-dexamethasone-induced-expression-of-aromatase-by-the-human-monocyte-cells
#20
Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, Hiroshi Wachi
Emerging evidence suggests that sex steroids are important for human skin health. In particular, estrogen improves skin thickness, elasticity, and moisture of older women. The major source of circulating estrogen is the ovary; however, local estrogen synthesis and secretion have important roles in, for example, bone metabolism and breast cancer development. We hypothesized that infiltrated peripheral monocytes are one of the sources of estrogen in skin tissues. We also hypothesized that, during atopic dermatitis under stress, a decline in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and facilitation of the (hypothalamus)-sympathetic-adrenomedullary system (SAM) attenuates estrogen secretion from monocytes...
January 26, 2017: Endocrine Connections
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