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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944992/ginsenoside-rb1-enhances-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-by-skewing-macrophages-to-the-m2-phenotype
#1
Xue Zhang, Ming-Hao Liu, Lei Qiao, Xin-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Ling Liu, Mei Dong, Hong-Yan Dai, Mei Ni, Xiao-Rong Luan, Jun Guan, Hui-Xia Lu
Atherosclerosis (AS) is characterized as progressive arterial plaque, which is easy to rupture under low stability. Macrophage polarization and inflammation response plays an important role in regulating plaque stability. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), one of the main active principles of Panax Ginseng, has been found powerful potential in alleviating inflammatory response. However, whether Rb1 could exert protective effects on AS plaque stability remains unclear. This study investigated the role of Rb1 on macrophage polarization and atherosclerotic plaque stability using primary peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice and AS model in ApoE(-/-) mice...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944674/analysis-of-o-glycopeptides-by-acetone-enrichment-and-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#2
Montserrat Mancera-Arteu, Estela Giménez, Fernando Benavente, Jose Barbosa, Victoria Sanz-Nebot
Acetone precipitation was evaluated as a rapid, simple, low-cost and efficient method for the selective purification of O-glycopeptides from enzymatic digests of glycoproteins. Ovalbumin (OVA), human and bovin alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (hAGP and bAGP), human apolipoprotein C-III (APO-C3) and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) were used to obtain enzymatic digests with a broad and varied set of peptides, N-glycopeptides and O-glycopeptides. After digestion and before capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) analysis, the amount of ice-cold acetone added to the digests was optimized to maximize recoveries of O-glycopeptides...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944295/towards-precision-medicine-in-alzheimer-s-disease-deciphering-genetic-data-to-establish-informative-biomarkers
#3
Ornit Chiba-Falek, Michael W Lutz
INTRODUCTION: Developing biomarker tools for identification of individuals at high-risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is important for prognosis and early treatment. This review focuses on genetic factors and their potential role for precision medicine in LOAD. AREAS COVERED: APOEe4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for non-Mendelian LOAD, and the APOE-linkage disequilibrium (LD) region has produced the most significant association signal in multi-center genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS)...
2017: Expert Review of Precision Medicine and Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944167/regulation-of-cytotoxic-t-cell-responses-by-p53-in-cancer
#4
Mitchell W Braun, Tomoo Iwakuma
An intriguing aspect of the tumor suppressor p53 is its ability to communicate to the adaptive immune system and control the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to cancer cells. Wild-type p53 (wtp53) communicates with CTLs through proteins involved in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway [e.g., transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) and endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase 1 (ERAP1)], the apoptosis signal receptor Fas/APO-1, and the inhibitory immune-checkpoint programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)...
December 2016: Translational Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943337/near-atomic-resolution-structure-determination-in-over-focus-with-volta-phase-plate-by-cs-corrected-cryo-em
#5
Xiao Fan, Lingyun Zhao, Chuan Liu, Jin-Can Zhang, Kelong Fan, Xiyun Yan, Hai-Lin Peng, Jianlin Lei, Hong-Wei Wang
Volta phase plate (VPP) is a recently developed transmission electron microscope (TEM) apparatus that can significantly enhance the image contrast of biological samples in cryoelectron microscopy, and therefore provide the possibility to solve structures of relatively small macromolecules at high-resolution. In this work, we performed theoretical analysis and found that using phase plate on objective lens spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected TEM may gain some interesting optical properties, including the over-focus imaging of macromolecules...
September 8, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940762/crystal-structure-of-the-legionella-pneumophila-lpg2936-in-complex-with-the-cofactor-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-reveals-novel-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-rsme-family-methyltransferases
#6
Nikos Pinotsis, Gabriel Waksman
The methylationlation of U1498 located in the 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli is an important modification affecting ribosomal activity. RsmE methyltransferases methylate specifically this position in a mechanism that requires an S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) molecule as cofactor. Here we report the structure of Apo and AdoMet-bound Lpg2936 from Legionella pneumophila at 1.5 Å and 2.3 Å, respectively. The protein comprises an N-terminal PUA domain and a C-terminal SPOUT domain. The latter is responsible for protein dimerization and cofactor binding...
September 22, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940650/polygenic-hazard-scores-in-preclinical-alzheimer-disease
#7
Chin Hong Tan, Bradley T Hyman, Jacinth J X Tan, Christopher P Hess, William P Dillon, Gerard D Schellenberg, Lilah M Besser, Walter A Kukull, Karolina Kauppi, Linda K McEvoy, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Chun Chieh Fan, Rahul S Desikan
Identifying asymptomatic older individuals at elevated risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) is of clinical importance. Among 1,081 asymptomatic older adults, a recently validated polygenic hazard score (PHS) significantly predicted time to AD dementia and steeper longitudinal cognitive decline, even after controlling for APOE ɛ4 carrier status. Older individuals in the highest PHS percentiles showed the highest AD incidence rates. PHS predicted longitudinal clinical decline among older individuals with moderate to high Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (amyloid) and Braak (tau) scores at autopsy, even among APOE ɛ4 noncarriers...
September 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940184/cognitive-trajectory-changes-over-20%C3%A2-years-before-dementia-diagnosis-a-large-cohort-study
#8
Ge Li, Eric B Larson, Jane B Shofer, Paul K Crane, Laura E Gibbons, Wayne McCormick, James D Bowen, Mary Lou Thompson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal studies have shown an increase in cognitive decline many years before clinical diagnosis of dementia. We sought to estimate changes, relative to "normal" aging, in the trajectory of scores on a global cognitive function test-the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Community-dwelling members of a U.S. health maintenance organization. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older who had no dementia diagnosis at baseline and had at least two visits with valid CASI test score (N = 4,315)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940111/hyperuricemia-is-associated-with-increased-apo-ai-fractional-catabolic-rates-and-dysfunctional-hdl-in-new-zealand-rabbits
#9
Miriam Martínez-Ramírez, Cristóbal Flores-Castillo, L Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, Rocío Bautista-Pérez, Elizabeth Carreón-Torres, José Manuel Fragoso, José Manuel Rodriguez-Pérez, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Victoria López-Olmos, María Luna-Luna, Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, Martha Franco, Oscar Pérez-Méndez
The potential cause-effect relationship between uric acid plasma concentrations and HDL functionality remains elusive. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effect of oxonic acid (OA)-induced hyperuricemia on the HDL size distribution, lipid content of HDL subclasses, and apo AI turnover, as well as HDL functionality in New Zealand white rabbits. Experimental animals received OA 750 mg/kg/day by oral gavage during 21 days. The HDL-apo AI fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was determined by exogenous labeling with (125)I, and HDL subclasses were determined by sequential ultracentrifugation and PAGE...
September 22, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939905/expression-and-differential-responsiveness-of-central-nervous-system-glial-cell-populations-to-the-acute-phase-protein-serum-amyloid-a
#10
Massimo Barbierato, Mila Borri, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Stephen D Skaper, Pietro Giusti
Acute-phase response is a systemic reaction to environmental/inflammatory insults and involves hepatic production of acute-phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). Extrahepatically, SAA immunoreactivity is found in axonal myelin sheaths of cortex in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS), although its cellular origin is unclear. We examined the responses of cultured rat cortical astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to master pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and lipopolysaccaride (LPS)...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939709/topography-and-determinants-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-visible-perivascular-spaces-in-a-large-memory-clinic-cohort
#11
Sara Shams, Juha Martola, Andreas Charidimou, Mykol Larvie, Tobias Granberg, Mana Shams, Maria Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Lars-Olof Wahlund
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-visible perivascular spaces (PVS) are related to interstitial fluid clearance pathways (including amyloid-β) in the brain and are suggested to be a marker of cerebral small vessel disease. We investigated the role, topography, and possible implications of PVS in cognitive impairment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1504 patients undergoing memory clinic investigation and an associated brain magnetic resonance imaging scan were included in this cross-sectional study...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937827/effect-of-saffron-on-metabolic-profile-and-retina-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#12
Evangelos K Doumouchtsis, Aspasia Tzani, Ilias P Doulamis, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Korou Laskarina-Maria, Georgios Agrogiannis, Emmanouil Agapitos, Marilita M Moschos, Alkiviadis Kostakis, Despina N Perrea
Saffron is a spice that has been traditionally used as a regimen for a variety of diseases due to its potent antioxidant attributes. It is well documented that impaired systemic oxidative status is firmly associated with diverse adverse effects including retinal damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of saffron administration against the retinal damage in apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet, since they constitute a designated experimental model susceptible to oxidative stress. Twenty-one mice were allocated into three groups: Group A (control, n = 7 c57bl/6 mice) received standard chow diet; Group B (high-fat, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet; and Group C (high-fat and saffron, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet and saffron (25 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937055/association-between-apolipoprotein-e-polymorphism-and-nephropathy-in-iranian-diabetic-patients
#13
Mostafa Karimoei, Parvin Pasalar, Mohsen Mehrabzadeh, Maryam Daneshpour, Maryam Shojaee, Katayoun Forouzanfar, Farideh Razi
Approximately one-third of diabetic patients develop evidence of nephropathy. Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear; however, some genetic and metabolic risk factors have been determined for the development and progression of DN. In the recent genetic studies, polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene has been reported as a risk factor for the development of DN; however, the results are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between ApoE polymorphism and nephropathy in Iranian patient with type 2 diabetes...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935967/mircrorna-19a-promotes-vascular-inflammation-and-foam-cell-formation-by-targeting-hbp-1-in-atherogenesis
#14
Heming Chen, Xiaoyi Li, Shuiyi Liu, Lu Gu, Xinmin Zhou
Atherosclerosis, a serious threat to human cardiovascular health, involves inflammation throughout its various stages of development. MicroRNAs play an important regulatory role in macrophages that respond to inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this work, we study the impact of miR-19a in macrophage-derived foam cell formation during atherogenesis. A microarray-based analysis of serums from patients with coronary heart disease in comparison with healthy controls reveals a significant enrichment of miR-19a in the serums of atherosclerosis patients...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935895/absolute-quantitation-of-disease-protein-biomarkers-in-a-single-lc-ms-acquisition-using-apolipoprotein-f-as-an-example
#15
Abhinav Kumar, Bevin Gangadharan, Jeremy Cobbold, Mark Thursz, Nicole Zitzmann
LC-MS and immunoassay can detect protein biomarkers. Immunoassays are more commonly used but can potentially be outperformed by LC-MS. These techniques have limitations including the necessity to generate separate calibration curves for each biomarker. We present a rapid mass spectrometry-based assay utilising a universal calibration curve. For the first time we analyse clinical samples using the HeavyPeptide IGNIS kit which establishes a 6-point calibration curve and determines the biomarker concentration in a single LC-MS acquisition...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935842/the-paralogs-to-the-c-terminal-domain-of-the-cyanobacterial-ocp-are-carotenoid-donors-to-hcps
#16
Fernando Muzzopappa, Adjélé Wilson, Vinosa Yogarajah, Sandrine Cot, François Perreau, Cédric Montigny, Céline Bourcier de Carbon, Diana Kirilovsky
The photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein photoprotects cyanobacteria cells by quenching singlet oxygen and excess excitation energy. Its N-terminal domain (NTD) is the active part of the protein and the C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates the activity. Recently, the characteristics of a family of soluble carotenoid-binding proteins (Helical Carotenoid Proteins or HCPs), paralogs of NTD-OCP, were described. Bioinformatics studies also revealed the existence of genes coding for homologs of CTD. Here, we show that the latter genes encode carotenoid proteins (CTDHs)...
September 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935809/intake-of-chocolate-liquor-increases-vascular-lesions-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#17
Narges Yazdekhasti, Corinna Brandsch, Frank Hirche, Julia Kühn, Anke Schloesser, Tuba Esatbeygolu, Patricia Huebbe, Sigfried Wolffram, Gerald Rimbach, Gabriele I Stangl
Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935758/scavenger-receptor-cd36-directs-nonclassical-monocyte-patrolling-along-the-endothelium-during-early-atherogenesis
#18
Paola M Marcovecchio, Graham D Thomas, Zbigniew Mikulski, Erik Ehinger, Karin A L Mueller, Amy Blatchley, Runpei Wu, Yury I Miller, Anh Tram Nguyen, Angela M Taylor, Coleen A McNamara, Klaus Ley, Catherine C Hedrick
OBJECTIVE: Nonclassical monocytes (NCM) function to maintain vascular homeostasis by crawling or patrolling along the vessel wall. This subset of monocytes responds to viruses, tumor cells, and other pathogens to aid in protection of the host. In this study, we wished to determine how early atherogenesis impacts NCM patrolling in the vasculature. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To study the role of NCM in early atherogenesis, we quantified the patrolling behaviors of NCM in ApoE(-/-) (apolipoprotein E) and C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet...
September 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935757/resveratrol-inhibits-growth-of-experimental-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-associated-with-upregulation-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2
#19
Corey S Moran, Erik Biros, Smriti M Krishna, Yutang Wang, Chris Tikellis, Joseph V Moxon, Mark E Cooper, Paul E Norman, Louise M Burrell, Merlin C Thomas, Jonathan Golledge
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests an important role for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in limiting abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study examined the effect of ACE2 deficiency on AAA development and the efficacy of resveratrol to upregulate ACE2 in experimental AAA. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Ace2 deletion in apolipoprotein-deficient mice (ApoE(-/)(-)Ace2(-/y) ) resulted in increased aortic diameter and spontaneous aneurysm of the suprarenal aorta associated with increased expression of inflammation and proteolytic enzyme markers...
September 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935403/suppression-of-progesterone-synthesis-in-human-trophoblast-cells-by-fine-particulate-matter-primarily-derived-from-industry
#20
Cui Wang, Jinhuan Yang, Zhengliang Hao, Chenxue Gong, Lihua Tang, Yingling Xu, Dezhao Lu, Zhuoyu Li, Meirong Zhao
Epidemiological studies have exhibited a positive association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). However, source-related effect and the potential mechanism have not been thoroughly elucidated in toxicology. In this study, PM2.5 was collected during a severe winter haze episode in an energy-base city of China. We coupled this approach with the source appointment by applying the Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory and Concentration Weighted Trajectory model. We observed that the primary trajectory with high polluted air mass came from the northwest of the sampling site...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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