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Corticotropin releasing (factor OR hormone)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209423/constitutive-increases-in-amygdalar-corticotropin-releasing-factor-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-drive-an-anxious-phenotype
#1
Luis A Natividad, Matthew W Buczynski, Melissa A Herman, Dean Kirson, Christopher S Oleata, Cristina Irimia, Ilham Polis, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Marisa Roberto, Loren H Parsons
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mediates anxiogenic responses by activating CRF type 1 (CRF1) receptors in limbic brain regions. Anxiety is further modulated by the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system that attenuates the synaptic effects of stress. In the amygdala, acute stress activates the enzymatic clearance of the eCB N-arachidonoylethanolamine via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), although it is unclear whether chronic dysregulation of CRF systems induces maladaptive changes in amygdalar eCB signaling...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202248/possible-role-of-adrenoceptors-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-corticotropin-releasing-factor-induced-sympatho-adrenomedullary-outflow-in-rats
#2
Shoshiro Okada, Naoko Yamaguchi
AIMS: A functional interaction between the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system and noradrenergic neurons in the brain has been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the interrelationship between the central CRF-induced elevation of plasma catecholamines and adrenoceptor activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) using urethane-anesthetized rats. MAIN METHODS: In rats under urethane anesthesia, a femoral venous line was inserted for infusion of saline, and a femoral arterial line was inserted for collecting blood samples...
February 9, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#3
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185482/suckling-induced-activation-pattern-in-the-brain-of-rat-pups
#4
János Barna, Eva Renner, Antónia Arszovszki, Melinda Cservenák, Zsolt Kovács, Miklós Palkovits, Arpád Dobolyi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand the effects of suckling on the brain of the pups by mapping their brain activation pattern in response to suckling. METHODS: The c-fos method was applied to identify activated neurons. Fasted rat pups were returned to their mothers for suckling and sacrificed 2 hours later for Fos immunohistochemistry. Double labeling was also performed to characterize some of the activated neurons. For comparison, another group of fasted pups were given dry food before Fos mapping...
February 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183242/decoding-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-type-1-crystal-structures
#5
Andrew S Doré, Andrea Bortolato, Kaspar Hollenstein, Robert K Y Cheng, Randy J Read, Fiona H Marshall
The structural analysis of class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), cell surface proteins responding to peptide hormones, has until recently been restricted to the extracellular domain (ECD). Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1R) is a class B receptor mediating stress response and also considered a drug target for depression and anxiety. Here we report the crystal structure of the transmembrane domain of human CRF1R in complex with the small-molecule antagonist CP-376395 in a hexagonal setting with translational non-crystallographic symmetry...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179810/sex-biased-cellular-signaling-molecular-basis-for-sex-differences-in-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#6
Rita J Valentino, Debra A Bangasser
The recognition that there are fundamental biological sex differences that extend beyond those that define sexual behavior and reproductive function has inspired the drive toward inclusion of both sexes in research design. This is supported by an underlying clinical rationale that studying both sexes is necessary to elucidate pathophysiology and develop treatments for the entire population. However, at a more basic level, sex differences, like genetic differences, can be exploited to better understand biology...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174066/discovery-of-4-chloro-2-2-4-dichloro-6-methylphenoxy-1-methyl-7-pentan-3-yl-1h-benzimidazole-a-novel-crf1-receptor-antagonist
#7
Michiyo Mochizuki, Takuto Kojima, Katsumi Kobayashi, Etsuo Kotani, Yuji Ishichi, Naoyuki Kanzaki, Hideyuki Nakagawa, Teruaki Okuda, Yohei Kosugi, Takahiko Yano, Yuu Sako, Maiko Tanaka, Kazuyoshi Aso
Compound 1 exhibits potent binding inhibition activity against a corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor (IC50=9.5nM) and in vitro antagonistic activity (IC50=88nM) but is rapidly metabolized by human hepatic microsomes (182μL/min/mg). Here we identified metabolically stable compounds with potent CRF binding inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies considering in vitro metabolic stability revealed that 4-chloro-2-(2,4-dichloro-6-methylphenoxy)-1-methyl-7-(pentan-3-yl)-1H-benzimidazole 24d was more stable in human microsomes (87μL/min/mg) than compound 1...
November 8, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170426/chronic-social-stress-in-pigs-impairs-intestinal-barrier-and-nutrient-transporter-function-and-alters-neuro-immune-mediator-and-receptor-expression
#8
Yihang Li, Zehe Song, Katelyn A Kerr, Adam J Moeser
Psychosocial stress is a major factor driving gastrointestinal (GI) pathophysiology and disease susceptibility in humans and animals. The mechanisms governing susceptibility to stress-induced GI disease remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the influence of chronic social stress (CSS) in pigs, induced by 7 d of chronic mixing/crowding stress, on intestinal barrier and nutrient transport function, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling and immunological responses. Results from this study showed that CSS resulted in a significant impairment of ileal and colonic barrier function indicated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in the ileum and increased FD4 flux in the ileum (by 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167808/how-do-individuals-cope-with-stress-behavioural-physiological-and-neuronal-differences-between-proactive-and-reactive-coping-styles-in-fish
#9
Marco A Vindas, Marnix Gorissen, Erik Höglund, Gert Flik, Valentina Tronci, Børge Damsgård, Per-Ove Thörnqvist, Tom O Nilsen, Svante Winberg, Øyvind Øverli, Lars O E Ebbesson
Despite the use of fish models to study human mental disorders and dysfunctions, knowledge of regional telencephalic responses in non-mammalian vertebrates expressing alternate stress coping styles is poor. Since perception of salient stimuli associated with stress coping in mammals is mainly under forebrain limbic control, we tested region-specific forebrain neural (i.e mRNA abundance and monoamine neurochemistry) and endocrine responses at basal and acute stress conditions for previously characterised proactive and reactive Atlantic salmon...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164167/neonatal-maternal-separation-increases-susceptibility-to-experimental-colitis-and-acute-stress-exposure-in-male-mice
#10
Isabella M Fuentes, Natalie K Walker, Angela N Pierce, Briana R Holt, Elizabeth R Di Silvestro, Julie A Christianson
Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS) would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1-21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD)...
December 2016: IBRO Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162848/altered-functionality-of-the-corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-of-hyperphagic-maternally-separated-rats
#11
V Alcántara-Alonso, M I Amaya, G Matamoros-Trejo, P de Gortari
Early-life stress induces endocrine and metabolic alterations that increase food intake and overweight in adulthood. The stress response activates the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortins' (Ucns) system in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These peptides induce anorexic effects through CRH-R2 receptor activation; however, chronic stressed animals develop hyperphagia despite of high PVN CRH expression. We analyzed this paradoxical behavior in adult rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) for 180min/daily during post-natal days 2-14, evaluating their body weight gain, food intake, serum corticosterone and vasopressin concentrations, PVN mRNA expression of CRH-R1, CRH-R2, CRH, Ucn2, Ucn3, vasopressin and CRH-R2 protein levels...
February 1, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151936/promoter-methylation-pattern-controls-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-gene-activity-in-human-trophoblasts
#12
Xin Pan, Maria Bowman, Rodney J Scott, John Fitter, Roger Smith, Tamas Zakar
Placental CRH production increases with advancing pregnancy in women and its course predicts gestational length. We hypothesized that CRH gene expression in the placenta is epigenetically controlled setting gestational trajectories characteristic of normal and pathological pregnancies. Here we determined histone modification and DNA methylation levels and DNA methylation patterns at the CRH promoter in primary trophoblast cultures by chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with clonal bisulfite sequencing and identified the transcriptionally active epialleles that associate with particular histone modifications and transcription factors during syncytialisation and cAMP-stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140406/control-of-chronic-excessive-alcohol-drinking-by-genetic-manipulation-of-the-edinger-westphal-nucleus-urocortin-1-neuropeptide-system
#13
W J Giardino, E D Rodriguez, M L Smith, M M Ford, D Galili, S H Mitchell, A Chen, A E Ryabinin
Midbrain neurons of the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp) are activated by alcohol, and enriched with stress-responsive neuropeptide modulators (including the paralog of corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortin-1). Evidence suggests that EWcp neurons promote behavioral processes for alcohol-seeking and consumption, but a definitive role for these cells remains elusive. Here we combined targeted viral manipulations and gene array profiling of EWcp neurons with mass behavioral phenotyping in C57BL/6 J mice to directly define the links between EWcp-specific urocortin-1 expression and voluntary binge alcohol intake, demonstrating a specific importance for EWcp urocortin-1 activity in escalation of alcohol intake...
January 31, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137650/functional-evidence-that-the-nucleus-of-the-hippocampal-commissure-shows-an-earlier-activation-from-a-stressor-than-the-paraventricular-nucleus-implication-of-an-additional-structural-component-of-the-avian-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#14
Gurueswar Nagarajan, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Despite extensive data addressing the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in vertebrates, the neuroendocrine regulation of stress in birds remains incomplete. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contains the key neuropeptides, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasotocin (AVT), containing neurons. However, another population of CRH neurons was recently identified in a septal nucleus called the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC). Therefore, the current study investigated changes in gene expression of CRH and AVT in the PVN and CRH in the NHpC, as well as changes in plasma corticosterone concentrations following a stressor, food deprivation...
January 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137450/crf1-receptor-deficiency-increases-cocaine-reward
#15
Angelo Contarino, Pierre Kitchener, Monique Vallée, Francesco Papaleo, Pier-Vincenzo Piazza
Stimulant drugs produce reward but also activate stress-responsive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-responsive systems are activated by stimulant drugs. However, their role in stimulant drug-induced reward remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that CRF1 receptor-deficient (CRF1-/-), but not wild-type, mice show conditioned place preference (CPP) responses to a relatively low cocaine dose (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, wild-type, but not CRF1-/-, mice display CPP responses to a relatively high cocaine dose (20 mg/kg, i...
January 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135239/hypothalamic-crfr1-is-essential-for-hpa-axis-regulation-following-chronic-stress
#16
Assaf Ramot, Zhiying Jiang, Jin-Bin Tian, Tali Nahum, Yael Kuperman, Nicholas Justice, Alon Chen
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a pivotal component of an organism's response to stressful challenges, and dysfunction of this neuroendocrine axis is associated with a variety of physiological and psychological pathologies. We found that corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is an important central component of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation that prepares the organism for successive exposure to stressful stimuli.
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134998/endocannabinoid-signaling-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#17
Cecilia J Hillard, Margaret Beatka, Jenna Sarvaideo
The elucidation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the active principal of Cannabis sativa in 1963 initiated a fruitful half-century of scientific discovery, culminating in the identification of the endocannabinoid signaling system, a previously unknown neuromodulatory system. A primary function of the endocannabinoid signaling system is to maintain or recover homeostasis following psychological and physiological threats. We provide a brief introduction to the endocannabinoid signaling system and its role in synaptic plasticity...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132133/stress-response-brain-noradrenergic-system-and-cognition
#18
Pawel J Winklewski, Marek Radkowski, Magdalena Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Urszula Demkow
Locus coeruleus is a critical component of the brain noradrenergic system. The brain noradrenergic system provides the neural substrate for the architecture supporting the interaction with, and navigation through, an external world complexity. Changes in locus coeruleus tonic and phasic activity and the interplay between norepinephrine and α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the prefrontal cortex are the key elements of this sophisticated architecture. In this narrative review we discuss how the brain noradrenergic system is affected by increased exposure to corticotropin-releasing hormone triggered by stress response...
January 29, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119322/the-role-of-glucocorticoids-and-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-regulation-on-anxiety-symptoms-and-response-to-treatment
#19
Greta Bielaczyc Raglan, Louis A Schmidt, Jay Schulkin
The stress response has been linked to the expression of anxiety and depression, but the mechanisms for these connections are under continued consideration. The activation and expression of glucocorticoids and CRH are variable, and may hold important clues to individual experiences of mood disorders. This paper explores the interactions of glucocorticoids and CRH in the presentation of anxiety and depressive disorders in an effort to better describe their differing roles in each of these clinical presentations...
January 24, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117439/a-competitive-inhibitory-circuit-for-selection-of-active-and-passive-fear-responses
#20
Jonathan P Fadok, Sabine Krabbe, Milica Markovic, Julien Courtin, Chun Xu, Lema Massi, Paolo Botta, Kristine Bylund, Christian Müller, Aleksandar Kovacevic, Philip Tovote, Andreas Lüthi
When faced with threat, the survival of an organism is contingent upon the selection of appropriate active or passive behavioural responses. Freezing is an evolutionarily conserved passive fear response that has been used extensively to study the neuronal mechanisms of fear and fear conditioning in rodents. However, rodents also exhibit active responses such as flight under natural conditions. The central amygdala (CEA) is a forebrain structure vital for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear responses, and the role of specific neuronal sub-populations of the CEA in freezing behaviour is well-established...
January 25, 2017: Nature
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