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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911073/reducing-risky-alcohol-use-what-health-care-systems-can-do
#1
Amity E Quinn, Mary Brolin, Maureen T Stewart, Brooke Evans, Constance Horgan
Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al...
April 27, 2016: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909370/development-of-a-telephone-interview-version-of-the-chedoke-mcmaster-stroke-assessment-activity-inventory
#2
Ruth Barclay, Patricia A Miller, Sepideh Pooyania, Paul Stratford
Purpose: To develop a telephone version of the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment Activity Inventory (CMSA-AI) and estimate the test-retest reliability, interrater reliability (between participant and proxy), and construct validity of the scores for individuals with stroke. Methods: Adults with stroke and their caregivers or proxies were included. Participants were assessed with the CMSA-AI at discharge from a stroke rehabilitation unit and interviewed using the telephone version (TCMSA-AI). Two months after discharge, participants were evaluated with the CMSA-AI and interviewed over the phone using the TCMSA-AI on two occasions 2-3 days apart...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906083/neonatal-diffusion-tensor-brain-imaging-predicts-later-motor-outcome-in-preterm-neonates-with-white-matter-abnormalities
#3
Do-Yeon Kim, Hyun-Kyung Park, Nam-Su Kim, Se-Jin Hwang, Hyun Ju Lee
BACKGROUND: White matter (WM) abnormalities associated with prematurity are one of the most important causes of neurological disability that involves spastic motor deficits in preterm newborns. This study aimed to evaluate regional microstructural changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) associated with WM abnormalities. METHODS: We prospectively studied extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) preterm infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hanyang University Hospital between February 2011 and February 2014...
December 1, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891608/compensatory-axon-sprouting-for-very-slow-axonal-die-back-in-a-transgenic-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy-type-iii
#4
Esther Udina, Charles Putman, Luke Harris, N Tyreman, Victoria Cook, Tessa Gordon
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common autosomal recessive disorder in humans and is the leading genetic cause of infantile death. Patients lack the SMN1 gene with the severity of the disease depending on the number of copies of the highly homologous SMN2 gene. Although motoneuron death in the Smn+/- transgenic mouse model of mildest form of SMA, SMA type III, has been reported, we have used retrograde tracing of sciatic and femoral motoneurons in the hindlimb with recording of muscle and motor unit isometric forces to count the number of motoneurons with intact neuromuscular connections...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891518/size-and-proportions-of-slow-twitch-and-fast-twitch-muscle-fibers-in-human-costal-diaphragm
#5
Marija Meznaric, Erika Cvetko
Smaller diaphragmatic motor unit potentials (MUPs) compared to MUPs of limb muscles lead to the hypothesis that diaphragmatic muscle fibers, being the generators of MUPs, might be also smaller. We compared autopsy samples of costal diaphragm and vastus lateralis of healthy men with respect to fibers' size and expression of slow myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC-1) and fast 2A isoform (MyHC-2A). Diaphragmatic fibers were smaller than fibers in vastus lateralis with regard to the mean minimal fiber diameter of slow-twitch (46...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881723/intraspinal-microstimulation-and-diaphragm-activation-following-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Lynne M Mercier, Elisa J Gonzalez-Rothi, Kristi A Streeter, Savannah S Posgai, Alexander S Poirier, David D Fuller, Paul J Reier, David M Baekey
Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS), using implanted electrodes, can evoke locomotor movements after spinal cord injury (SCI), but has not been explored in the context of respiratory motor output. An advantage over epidural and direct muscle stimulation is the potential of ISMS to selectively stimulate components of the spinal respiratory network. The present study tested the hypothesis that medullary respiratory activity could be used to trigger mid-cervical ISMS and diaphragm motor unit activation in rats with cervical SCI...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879251/altered-smooth-muscle-cell-force-generation-as-a-driver-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-and-dissections
#7
REVIEW
Dianna M Milewicz, Kathleen M Trybus, Dongchuan Guo, H Lee Sweeney, Ellen Regalado, Kristine Kamm, James T Stull
The importance of maintaining contractile function in aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is evident by the fact that heterozygous mutations in the major structural proteins or kinases controlling contraction lead to the formation of aneurysms of the ascending thoracic aorta that predispose to life-threatening aortic dissections. Force generation by SMC requires ATP-dependent cyclic interactions between filaments composed of SMC-specific isoforms of α-actin (encoded by ACTA2) and myosin heavy chain (MYH11). ACTA2 and MYH11 mutations shown to disrupt this cyclic interaction predispose to thoracic aortic disease...
November 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877098/accidental-epidural-injection-of-rocuronium-in-a-pediatric-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Ting-Ting Wu, David S Hoff
Accidental administration of non-epidural drugs into the epidural or subarachnoid spaces may be associated with unexpected pain, morbidity, adverse effects, increased level of care, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality. We describe a 12-month-old admitted for secondary-stage hypospadias reconstruction. General anesthesia was induced with sevofiurane and a peripheral catheter was placed. Instead of ropivacaine, rocuronium (80 mg; 6.3 mg/kg) was injected into the epidural space by the caudal route. Surgery was uneventful and was completed 160 minutes after rocuronium was given...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876573/stem-cell-therapies-in-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stroke
#9
REVIEW
Yuan Wang, Xunming Ji, Rehana K Leak, Fenghua Chen, Guodong Cao
Aging, a complex process associated with various structural, functional and metabolic changes in the brain, is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. These diseases share similar neuropathological changes, such as the formation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, loss of neurons and synapses, dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU), reduction of self-repair capacity, and motor and/or cognitive deficiencies. In addition to gray matter dysfunction, the plasticity and repair capacity of white matter also decrease with aging and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases...
November 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875227/a-stretchable-microneedle-electrode-array-for-stimulating-and-measuring-intramuscular-electromyographic-activity
#10
Gareth S Guvanasen, Liang Guo, Ricardo J Aguilar, Ashton L Cheek, Chancellor S Shafor, Swaminathan Rajaraman, T Richard Nichols, Stephen P DeWeerth
We have developed a stretchable microneedle electrode array (sMEA) to stimulate and measure the electrical activity of muscle across multiple sites. The technology provides the signal fidelity and spatial resolution of intramuscular electrodes across a large area of tissue. Our sMEA is composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, conductive-PDMS traces, and stainless-steel penetrating electrodes. The traces and microneedles maintain a resistance of less than 10 kΩ when stretched up to a ~63% tensile strain, which allows for the full range of physiological motion of feline muscle...
November 16, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874270/neurodevelopmental-disorders-are-highly-over-represented-in-children-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Elisabet Wentz, Anna Björk, Jovanna Dahlgren
OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children with obesity and to compare body mass index (BMI) and metabolic profile in the children. METHODS: Seventy-six children (37 girls, 39 boys) were consecutively recruited from a university outpatient clinic specialized in severe obesity. Neurodevelopmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were assessed using interviews and questionnaires...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873233/four-score-predicts-early-outcome-in-patients-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Tee-Tau Eric Nyam, Kam-Hou Ao, Shu-Yu Hung, Mei-Li Shen, Tzu-Chieh Yu, Jinn-Rung Kuo
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine whether the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score, which includes eyes opening (E), motor function (M), brainstem reflex (B), and respiratory pattern (R), can be used as an alternate method to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. METHODS: From January 2015 to June 2015, patients with isolated TBI admitted to the ICU were enrolled...
November 21, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870893/activin-receptor-type-iib-inhibition-improves-muscle-phenotype-and-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#13
Min Liu, David W Hammers, Elisabeth R Barton, H Lee Sweeney
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive muscle atrophy and weakness. Using adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer, we evaluated the potential to improve skeletal muscle weakness via systemic, postnatal inhibition of either myostatin or all signaling via the activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB). After demonstrating elevated p-SMAD3 content and differential content of ActRIIB ligands, 4-week-old male C/C SMA model mice were treated intraperitoneally with 1x1012 genome copies of pseudotype 2/8 virus encoding a soluble form of the ActRIIB extracellular domain (sActRIIB) or protease-resistant myostatin propeptide (dnMstn) driven by a liver specific promoter...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868167/the-role-of-ugandan-district-hospital-orthopedic-units-in-the-care-of-vulnerable-road-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Dan K Kisitu, Lauren E Eyler, Isaac Kajja, Gonzaga Waiswa, Titus Beyeza, David R Ragland, Isabelle Feldhaus, Catherine Juillard, Rochelle A Dicker
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are a common cause of morbidity after road traffic injury (RTI) in motorizing countries. District hospitals provide front-line orthopedic care in Uganda and other sub-Saharan African nations. Improving care at the district hospital level is an important component of the World Health Organization's strategy for surgical and trauma systems strengthening, but the data necessary to inform RTI safety and care initiatives has previously been insufficient at the district hospital level...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862979/cerebral-tissue-oxygenation-index-and-lactate-at-24-hours-postoperative-predict-survival-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-after-neonatal-cardiac-surgery
#15
Safwat A Aly, David Zurakowski, Penny Glass, Kami Skurow-Todd, Richard A Jonas, Mary T Donofrio
IMPORTANCE: There are no well-established noninvasive biomarkers for identifying patients at risk for poor outcome after surgery for congenital heart disease. Few studies have assessed prognostic accuracy of cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of noninvasive NIRS monitoring as a predictor of outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery through measurement of cTOI. To examine the utility of noninvasive NIRS monitoring in combination with lactate concentration and inotropic score in prediction of outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery...
November 10, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862023/fatigue-reduction-during-aggregated-and-distributed-sequential-stimulation
#16
Austin J Bergquist, Vishvek Babbar, Saima Ali, Milos R Popovic, Masani Kei
INTRODUCTION: Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can generate muscle contractions for rehabilitation and exercise. However, NMES-evoked contractions are limited by fatigue when they are delivered "conventionally" (CONV) using a single active electrode. Researchers developed "sequential" (SEQ) stimulation, involving rotation of pulses between multiple "aggregated" (AGGR-SEQ) or "distributed" (DISTR-SEQ) active electrodes, to reduce fatigue (torque-decline) by reducing motor unit discharge rates...
November 11, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857684/spatial-localization-of-sources-in-the-rat-subthalamic-motor-region-using-an-inverse-current-source-density-method
#17
Kees J van Dijk, Marcus L F Janssen, Daphne G M Zwartjes, Yasin Temel, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Peter H Veltink, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Tjitske Heida
Objective: In this study we introduce the use of the current source density (CSD) method as a way to visualize the spatial organization of evoked responses in the rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) at fixed time stamps resulting from motor cortex stimulation. This method offers opportunities to visualize neuronal input and study the relation between the synaptic input and the neural output of neural populations. Approach: Motor cortex evoked local field potentials and unit activity were measured in the subthalamic region, with a 3D measurement grid consisting of 320 measurement points and high spatial resolution...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855312/age-related-differences-in-fatal-intersection-crashes-in-the-united-states
#18
David A Lombardi, William J Horrey, Theodore K Courtney
OBJECTIVE: Given the aging U.S. population and resulting number of older drivers in the coming years, it is important to understand the factors leading to their involvement in vehicle crashes and develop counter-measures to reduce their frequency and severity. This is also useful for helping older adults "age in place" in terms of accessibility, mobility, quality of life and safety. Thus, the objective of this study was to provide up-to-date data on differences in age-related risks and rates for involvement in fatal intersection motor-vehicle crashes in the US...
November 14, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852734/increases-in-human-motoneuron-excitability-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-depend-on-the-level-of-injury
#19
Christine K Thomas, Charlotte K Hager, Cliff S Klein
After human spinal cord injury (SCI), motoneuron recruitment and firing rate during voluntary and involuntary contractions may be altered by changes in motoneuron excitability. Our aim was to compare F-waves in single thenar motor units paralyzed by cervical SCI to those in uninjured controls because at the single unit level, F-waves primarily reflect the intrinsic properties of the motoneuron and its initial segment. With intraneural motor axon stimulation, F-waves were evident in all four participants with C4-level SCI, absent in eight with C5 or C6 injury, and present in six of 12 Uninjured participants (p<0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849233/characterization-of-the-motor-performance-of-newborns-in-a-neonatal-unit-of-tertiary-level
#20
Luciana Giachetta, Carla Marques Nicolau, Regina Célia Turola Passos Juliani, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs
Objective: To characterize the motor performance of newborns in a neonatal unit of tertiary level and compare the results to the values recommended by the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP). Method: Newborns between 34 and 416/7 weeks of corrected gestational age, breathing spontaneously and presenting state of consciousness 4 or 5, according to Brazelton, were included. TIMP was used to evaluate the motor performance. Results: The age groups of 34-35 and 36-37 weeks showed on average TIMP scores similar to the reference values (p>0...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
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