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Motor unit

Mario Fernando, Johanna Buckland, Prashina Melwani, Vanessa Tent, Philip Preston, Sabrina Winona Pit
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes remain a significant and costly public health issue globally. Particularly young people are over-represented in these incidents. This study set out to explore the factors that influence individuals' perceptions of their safety to drive, and the factors related to a change in intention to drive. METHODS: Four hundred nine young people aged 18-40 attending an Australian multi-day music festival completed a survey measuring demographics, alcohol use, amount of sleep obtained the previous night, intention to drive, number of passengers, perceived safety to drive, estimated BAC (measured in g/210 L) and change in intention to drive following a BAC measurement via breathalysers...
June 20, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Jonathan T Delafield-Butt, Yvonne Freer, Jon Perkins, David Skulina, Ben Schögler, David N Lee
Prospective motor control moves the body into the future, from where one is to where one wants to be. It is a hallmark of intentionality. But its origin in development is uncertain. In this study, we tested whether or not the arm movements of newborn infants were prospectively controlled. We measured the spatiotemporal organization of 480 full-term neonatal arm movements and 384 arm movements of prematurely born infants at-risk for neurodevelopmental disorder. We found 75% of healthy term-birth neonatal movements and 68% of prematurely born infant movements conformed to the τG -coupling model of prospective sensorimotor control...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Science
Emily W Baker, Holly A Kinder, Jessica M Hutcheson, Kylee Jo J Duberstein, Simon R Platt, Elizabeth W Howerth, Franklin D West
A number of preclinical rodent models have been developed in an effort to recapitulate injury mechanisms and identify potential therapeutics for traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is a major cause of death and long-term disability in the United States. However, the lack of restorative treatments for TBI has led to considerable criticism of current preclinical therapeutic development strategies, namely the translatability of widely-used rodent models to human patients. The use of large animal models, such as the pig, with more comparable brain anatomy and physiology to humans may enhance the translational capacity of current preclinical animal models...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Takafumi Maeda, Masahiro Horiuchi
BACKGROUND: Energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) against speed shows U-shaped fashion in walking and linear fashion in running, indicating that there exists a specific walking speed minimizing the CoT, being defined as economical speed (ES). Another specific gait speed is the intersection speed between both fashions, being called energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS). We measured the ES, EOTS, and muscle activities during walking and running at the EOTS under hyperoxia (40% fraction of inspired oxygen) on the level and uphill gradients (+ 5%)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Timothy Henderson, Karl Vernes, Gerhard Körtner, Rajanathan Rajaratnam
The increasing kangaroo occurrence in expanding peri-urban areas can be problematic when kangaroos become aggressive towards people and present a collision risk to motor vehicles. An improved understanding on kangaroo spatial and temporal activity patterns in the peri-urban environment is essential to manage kangaroo⁻human conflict. In this study, we used GPS telemetry to determine activity patterns of male Eastern Grey Kangaroos ( Macropus giganteus ) in a peri-urban community on the north-coast of New South Wales, Australia...
June 17, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Artur Golas, Adam Maszczyk, Petr Stastny, Michal Wilk, Krzysztof Ficek, Robert George Lockie, Adam Zajac
BACKGROUND: The bench press (BP) is a complex exercise demanding high neuromuscular activity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify the patterns of muscular activity of the prime movers on both sides of an elite powerlifter. METHODS: A World Champion (RAW PR 320 kg) participated in the study (age: 34 years; body mass: 103 kg; body height 1.72 m; one-repetition maximum (1 RM) flat bench press: 220 kg). The subject performed one repetition of the flat bench press with: 70% 1 RM (150 kg) and 90% 1 RM (200 kg) in tempos: 2 s eccentric and 1 s concentric phase; 6 s eccentric and 1 s concentric phase)...
March 28, 2018: Sports
Simon Podnar, Leja Dolenc Grošelj
OBJECTIVE: Both myopathic and neuropathic tongue protruder muscle changes have been demonstrated to occur in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients using different methods. We tried to elucidate this dilemma using quantitative electromyographic (EMG) methods. METHODS: In a group of consecutive patients with suspected OSA a full overnight polysomnography (PSG) and quantitative needle EMG of the tongue protruder, biceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles were performed...
June 14, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Maoqi Chen, Xu Zhang, Zhiyuan Lu, Xiaoyan Li, Ping Zhou
This study aims to assess the accuracy of a novel high density surface electromyogram (SEMG) decomposition method, namely automatic progressive FastICA peel-off (APFP), for automatic decomposition of experimental electrode array SEMG signals. A two-source method was performed by simultaneous concentric needle EMG and electrode array SEMG recordings from the human first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle, using a protocol commonly applied in clinical EMG examination. The electrode array SEMG was automatically decomposed by the APFP while the motor unit action potential (MUAP) trains were also independently identified from the concentric needle EMG...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
Boudewijn T H M Sleutjes, Judith Drenthen, Ernest Boskovic, Leonard J van Schelven, Maria O Kovalchuk, Paul G E Lumens, Leonard H van den Berg, Hessel Franssen
OBJECTIVE: To study excitability of single motor units (MUs) using high-density surface-EMG. METHODS: Motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) were evoked by submaximal stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist and recorded with a 9 × 14 electrode grid on the skin overlying the thenar muscles. For excitability tests of single MUs, the most optimal specific single-channel surface-EMG signal was selected based on the spatiotemporal profile of single MUs. RESULTS: Axonal excitability measures were successfully obtained from 14 single MUs derived from ten healthy subjects...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Michael A Trevino, Adam J Sterczala, Jonathan D Miller, Mandy E Wray, Hannah L Dimmick, Anthony B Ciccone, Joseph P Weir, Philip M Gallagher, Andrew C Fry, Trent J Herda
AIM: To investigate the relationships between motor unit action potential amplitudes (MUAPAMP ), muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA) and composition (mEI), percent myosin heavy chain (%MHC) areas, and sex in the vastus lateralis (VL). METHODS: Ten males and 10 females performed a submaximal isometric trapezoid muscle action that included a linearly increasing, steady torque at 40% maximal voluntary contraction, and linearly decreasing segments. Surface electromyographic decomposition techniques were utilized to determine MUAPAMPS in relation to recruitment thresholds (RT)...
June 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Andrew E Federer, Joshua S Murphy, James H Calandruccio, Dennis P Devito, Scott H Kozin, Greg S Slappey, Gary M Lourie
OBJECTIVES: To describe a midshaft forearm fracture pattern that places the ulnar nerve at risk in the pediatric population and provide seven clinical case examples describing the injury pattern and treatment methods. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series, review of literature, cadaver dissection, and treatment recommendations. SETTING: Multi-institutional, Southeast United States PATIENTS:: Seven pediatric patients (5 male, 2 female) with mean age of 8...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Guadalupe Fernandez-Baca Vaca, Carlos L Mayor, Naira García Losarcos, Jun T Park, Hans O Lüders
Seizure semiology provides information about the eloquent cortex involved during a seizure and helps to generate a hypothesis regarding the localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ), a prerequisite for surgical management of epilepsy. We aimed to study the seizure semiology among all different age groups to better characterize semiological changes that occur with age. We performed a retrospective review of video-EEG data in paediatric and adult patients admitted to the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit over a three-year period...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Kylie H Kang, William Grubb, Komal Sawlani, Michael K Gibson, Christopher J Hoimes, Lisa R Rogers, Pierre Lavertu, Min Yao
BACKGROUND: We present a case of myositis and possible overlapping neuromuscular junction disorder following treatment with nivolumab for recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: We report a 75-year-old man with recurrent stage IVA, T1N2cM0 oral cavity HNSCC treated with weight-dosed nivolumab who presented three weeks later with severe fatigue, generalized weakness, and bilateral ptosis. Evaluation demonstrated elevated creatine kinase and myopathic motor units on electromyography, supporting a diagnosis of an underlying muscle disease...
June 5, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Krista R Kelly, Reed M Jost, Angie De La Cruz, Eileen E Birch
Importance: Abnormal binocular experience during infancy or childhood from strabismus and/or anisometropia results in visual acuity deficits (eg, amblyopia) and impaired stereoacuity. These pediatric eye conditions have also been linked to slow reading and fine motor impairment. Objective: To assess an academic-related fine motor outcome-multiple-choice answer form completion time-in children with amblyopia and strabismus. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study completed between May 2014 and November 2017 at a nonprofit eye research institute, 47 children with amblyopia treated for strabismus, anisometropia, or both, 18 children with nonamblyopic strabismus, and 20 normal controls were enrolled...
June 14, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Nicholas B Frisch, Brian Darrith, Dane C Hansen, Adrienne Wells, Sheila Sanders, Richard A Berger
Background: With the increasing interest in fast recovery and outpatient joint arthroplasty, short-acting local anesthetic agents and minimal narcotic use are preferred. Lidocaine is a fast-onset, short-duration local anesthetic that has been used for many years in spinal anesthesia. However, lidocaine spinal anesthesia has been reported to have a risk of transient neurologic symptoms (TNSs). The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of single-dose lidocaine spinal anesthesia in the setting of outpatient joint arthroplasty...
June 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Antonis Ekizos, Alessandro Santuz, Adamantios Arampatzis
The current study investigates an acute and a gradual transition of the point of force application (PFA) from the rearfoot towards the fore of the foot during running, on the rate of metabolic energy consumption. The participants were randomly assigned in two experimental and one control groups: a short-term intervention group (STI, N=17; two training sessions), a long-term intervention group (LTI, N=10; 14-week gradual transition) and a control group (CG, N=11). Data were collected at two running velocities (2...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Eszter Vojcek, Márta Csécsei, Edina Flach, Gábor Rudas, Rózsa Gráf, Erzsébet Princzkel
Background and purpose: We aimed to analyze patient characteristics of term neonates with the diagnosis of stroke between 2006 and 2017 at the 3rd level Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Szent János Hospital. Methods: We conducted a retrospective and prospective analysis including 18 newborns with stroke. Presentation, imaging methods, etiology and clinical context were discussed. All patients had a follow-up at 2 years of age or later. Subject of the study - In the past 10 years 17 term born and one premature neonate born at 36 weeks of age were diagnosed with stroke in our unit...
March 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Remco J Molenaar, Mohammed Khurshed, Vashendriya V V Hira, Cornelis J F Van Noorden
Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and infection. The metabolic motor units of cells are enzymes and their activity is heavily regulated at many levels, including the transcriptional, mRNA stability, translational, post-translational and functional level. This complex regulation means that conventional quantitative or imaging assays, such as quantitative mRNA experiments, Western Blots and immunohistochemistry, yield incomplete information regarding the ultimate activity of enzymes, their function and/or their subcellular localization...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ewa Zalewska, Anna Kaminska, Biruta Kierdaszuk, Elżbieta Szmidt-Salkowska, Małgorzata Gawel
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare muscle fiber diameters obtained from standard muscle biopsy and from computer simulations based on recorded motor unit potentials (MUPs). METHODS: Electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy were performed in 14 patients with a suspicion of a neuromuscular disorder. Histograms of the simulated muscle fiber diameters (SMFDs) were compared with those from the biopsy RESULTS: The values of the SMFDs were similar to those in the muscle biopsy for the same patient (p = 0...
June 2, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Daniel F Feeney, Diba Mani, Roger M Enoka
We investigated the associations between grooved pegboard times, force steadiness (coefficient of variation for force), and variability in an estimate of the common synaptic input to motor neurons innervating the wrist extensor muscles during steady contractions performed by young and older adults. The discharge times of motor units were derived from recordings obtained with high-density surface electrodes while participants performed steady isometric contractions at 10% and 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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