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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787546/selective-non-operative-management-of-pharyngo-esophageal-injuries-secondary-to-penetrating-neck-trauma-a-single-center-review-of-86-cases
#1
Andre S Madsen, George V Oosthuizen, John L Bruce, Wanda Bekker, Grant L Laing, Damian L Clarke
BACKGROUND: This paper describes our experience with penetrating pharyngo-esophageal injuries (PEI) in the light of a selective conservative approach, and has the objective to define criteria for non-operative management (NOM). METHODS: This retrospective single-center review of patients with penetrating neck injury (PNI) treated for confirmed PEI over a 6-year period aimed to test our proposed hypothesis that NOM is safe for hemodynamically stable patients with PEI, who have no competing indications for exploration, have no established sepsis and who have a water-soluble contrast swallow (WS-swallow) either showing no- or a contained extravasation...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787414/perioperative-peripheral-nerve-injury-after-general-anesthesia-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#2
Jason Chui, John M Murkin, Karen L Posner, Karen B Domino
Perioperative peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a well-recognized complication of general anesthesia that continues to result in patient disability and malpractice claims. However, the multifactorial etiology of PNI is often not appreciated in malpractice claims given that most PNI is alleged to be due to errors in patient positioning. New advances in monitoring may aid anesthesiologists in the early detection of PNI. This article reviews recent studies of perioperative PNI after general anesthesia and discusses the epidemiology and potential mechanisms of injury and preventive measures...
May 21, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786882/feasibility-of-assessing-prognostic-nutrition-index-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-who-receive-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy
#3
Yoshinaga Okugawa, Yuji Toiyama, Satoshi Oki, Shozo Ide, Akira Yamamoto, Takashi Ichikawa, Takahito Kitajima, Hiroyuki Fujikawa, Hiromi Yasuda, Susumu Saigusa, Junichiro Hiro, Shigeyuki Yoshiyama, Minako Kobayashi, Toshimitsu Araki, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition can adversely affect treatment responses and oncological outcomes in cancer patients. However, among patients with rectal cancer who undergo chemoradiotherapy (CRT), the significance of peri-treatment nutrition assessment as a predictor of treatment response and outcome remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Prognostic Nutrition Index (PNI) based on peri-treatment serum can be used as a predictor of treatment response and outcome in patients with rectal cancer who undergo CRT...
January 7, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761518/the-value-of-inflammation-based-prognostic-scores-in-patients-undergoing-surgical-resection-for-oesophageal-and-gastric-carcinoma
#4
Jiaxin Wen, Matthew Bedford, Ruksana Begum, Harriet Mitchell, James Hodson, John Whiting, Ewen Griffiths
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Surgical interventions for oesophagogastric cancer carry a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. A range of inflammation based prognostic scores have been proposed in an attempt to predict outcome. This study evaluated five such prognostic scores in oesophageal and gastric carcinoma patients. METHODS: The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR), Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR), Prognostic Index (PI), and Prognostic Nutrition Index (PNI) were calculated for 723 consecutive patients undergoing oesophagectomy or gastrectomy at a single center...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761515/association-of-perioperative-transfusion-with-survival-and-recurrence-after-resection-of-gallbladder-cancer-a-10-institution-study-from-the-us-extrahepatic-biliary-malignancy-consortium
#5
Alexandra G Lopez-Aguiar, Cecilia G Ethun, Mia R McInnis, Timothy M Pawlik, George Poultsides, Thuy Tran, Kamran Idrees, Chelsea A Isom, Ryan C Fields, Bradley A Krasnick, Sharon M Weber, Ahmed Salem, Robert C G Martin, Charles R Scoggins, Perry Shen, Harveshp D Mogal, Carl Schmidt, Eliza W Beal, Ioannis Hatzaras, Rivfka Shenoy, Kenneth Cardona, Shishir K Maithel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perioperative blood transfusion is associated with poor outcomes in several malignancies. Its effect in gallbladder cancer (GBC) is unknown. METHODS: All patients with GBC who underwent curative-intent resection at 10-institutions from 2000 to 2015 were included. The effect of blood transfusion on overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free (RFS) was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 262 patients with curative-intent resection for GBC, 61 patients (23%) received blood transfusions...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755671/should-reporting-of-peri-neural-invasion-and-extra-prostatic-extension-be-mandatory-in-prostate-cancer-biopsies-correlation-with-outcome-in-biopsy-cases-treated-conservatively
#6
Amar S Ahmad, Vishnu Parameshwaran, Luis Beltran, Gabrielle Fisher, Bernard V North, David Greenberg, Geraldine Soosay, Henrik Møller, Peter Scardino, Jack Cuzick, Daniel M Berney
The identification of perineural invasion (PNI) and extraprostatic extension (ECE) in prostate cancer (PC) biopsies is time consuming and can be difficult. Although this is required information in many datasets, there is little evidence on their effect on outcome in patients treated conservatively. Cases of PC were identified from three cancer registries in the UK from men with clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed by needle biopsy from 1990-2003. The endpoint was prostate cancer death (DOD). Patients treated radically within 6 months, those with objective evidence of metastases or who had prior hormone therapy were excluded...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755594/perineural-invasion-in-early-stage-cervical-cancer-and-its-relevance-following-surgery
#7
Yi Zhu, Guonan Zhang, Yan Yang, Ling Cui, Shijun Jia, Yu Shi, Shuiqin Song, Shiqiang Xu
Perineural invasion (PNI) is the neoplastic invasion of nerves by cancer cells, a process that has attracted attention as a novel prognostic factor for cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of PNI in patients with early-stage cervical cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA2-IIA). A total of 210 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy between 2007 and 2012 were included in the current study, of whom 8.57% (18/210) exhibited PNI...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753673/prevalence-and-prognostic-significance-of-malnutrition-using-3-scoring-systems-among-outpatients-with-heart-failure-a-comparison-with-body-mass-index
#8
Shirley Sze, Pierpaolo Pellicori, Syed Kazmi, Alan Rigby, John G F Cleland, Kenneth Wong, Andrew Lawrence Clark
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to report the prevalence, clinical associations, and prognostic consequences of malnutrition in outpatients with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Malnutrition may be common in HF and associated with adverse outcomes, but few data exist. METHODS: We applied the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) to consecutive patients referred with suspected HF to a clinic serving a local population (n = 550,000)...
May 2, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751848/differentiation-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-schwann-cell-like-cells-through-intermittent-induction-potential-advantage-of-cellular-transient-memory-function
#9
Xun Sun, Yun Zhu, He-Yong Yin, Zhi-Yuan Guo, Feng Xu, Bo Xiao, Wen-Li Jiang, Wei-Min Guo, Hao-Ye Meng, Shi-Bi Lu, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a worldwide issue associated with severe social and economic burden. Autologous nerve grafting, the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve defects, still has a number of technical limitations. Tissue engineering technology is a novel therapeutic strategy, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising seed cells for nerve tissue engineering. However, the efficiency of traditional methods for inducing the differentiation of MSCs to Schwann cell-like cells (SCLCs) remains unsatisfactory...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737800/prognostic-value-of-preoperative-prognostic-nutritional-index-in-stage-iii-gastric-cancer-after-curative-resection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Hua-Xi Wang, Cun-Chuan Wang, Wah Yang, Li-Lian Gao, Shu-Qing Yu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nutrition and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of cancer. The prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been confirmed in some types of human cancers. This study analyzed the prognostic significance of the preoperative PNI in patients with stage III gastric cancer after curative surgery. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 274 patients who underwent curative operation for stage III gastric cancer...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733315/an-in-vivo-murine-sciatic-nerve-model-of-perineural-invasion
#11
Sylvie Deborde, Yasong Yu, Andrea Marcadis, Chun-Hao Chen, Ning Fan, Richard L Bakst, Richard J Wong
Cancer cells invade nerves through a process termed perineural invasion (PNI), in which cancer cells proliferate and migrate in the nerve microenvironment. This type of invasion is exhibited by a variety of cancer types, and very frequently is found in pancreatic cancer. The microscopic size of nerve fibers within mouse pancreas renders the study of PNI difficult in orthotopic murine models. Here, we describe a heterotopic in vivo model of PNI, where we inject syngeneic pancreatic cancer cell line Panc02-H7 into the murine sciatic nerve...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707840/perineural-invasion-independent-prognostic-factor-in-oral-cancer-that-warrants-adjuvant-treatment
#12
Deepa Nair, Manish Mair, Hitesh Singhvi, Aseem Mishra, Sudhir Nair, Jaiprakash Agrawal, Pankaj Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding the administration of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) when perineural invasion (PNI) is the only adverse histological feature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of PNI on the survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: A retrospective study of 1524 treatment naive patients with oral cavity SCC who underwent surgery from January 2012 to March 2015 was conducted. Survival analysis was performed using Cox regression model...
April 29, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706196/peripheral-nerve-injuries-pain-and-neuroplasticity
#13
Natalie R Osborne, Dimitri J Anastakis, Karen D Davis
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) cause both structural and functional brain changes that may be associated with significant sensorimotor abnormalities and pain. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of this narrative review is to provide hand therapists an overview of PNI-induced neuroplasticity and to explain how the brain changes following PNI, repair, and during rehabilitation. METHODS: Toward this goal, we review key aspects of neuroplasticity and neuroimaging and discuss sensory testing techniques used to study neuroplasticity in PNI patients...
April 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705856/sculpting-the-sculptors-methods-for-studying-the-fetal-cholinergic-signaling-on-systems-and-cellular-scales
#14
Martin G Frasch, Patrick Burns, Javier Benito, Marina Cortes, Mingju Cao, Gilles Fecteau, André Desrochers
The non-neuronal, immunological effects of the cholinergic signaling are exerted on the system's scale of observation via the vagus nerve and on the cellular scale via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling in myeloid cells of the periphery or brain's microglia and astrocytes. The developmental effects of such multi-scale signaling can be conceived of as an example of psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) homeokinesis and, while reported in the literature, are not yet systematically well studied. To be better understood, the intricacy of the multi-scale interactions requires relevant preclinical animal models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705855/measuring-vaccine-responses-in-the-multiplex-era
#15
Kieran Ayling, Kavita Vedhara, Lucy Fairclough
Vaccine studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) provide an insight into biopsychosocial interactions and their role in infectious diseases. How to measure vaccine responses is therefore of critical importance for PNI researchers. In this chapter, traditional and modern immunoassays for the assessment of vaccine responses are discussed, highlighting how modern multiplex techniques provide researchers with greater capacity and opportunity for novel research relating to vaccine outcomes.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705851/mouse-testing-methods-in-psychoneuroimmunology-2-0-measuring-behavioral-responses
#16
Albert E Towers, Jason M York, Tracy Baynard, Stephen J Gainey, Gregory G Freund
The field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) aims to uncover the processes and consequences of nervous, immune, and endocrine system relationships. Behavior is a consequence of such interactions and manifests from a complex interweave of factors including immune-to-neural and neural-to-immune communication. Often the signaling molecules involved during a particular episode of neuroimmune activation are not known but behavioral response provides evidence that bioactives such as neurotransmitters and cytokines are perturbed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705843/neuroimmune-imbalances-and-yin-yang-dynamics-in-stress-anxiety-and-depression
#17
Qing Yan
Evidences from psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) and systems biology studies support a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics" for understanding the "whole mind-body system." The Yin-Yang dynamical balances in the stress response networks may be critical for health and diseases, especially mental health and psychiatric disorders. Specifically, the neuroimmune imbalances have been found as the important features and potential biomarkers of stress, anxiety, depression, and systemic inflammation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705842/ecological-context-and-human-variation-applying-the-principles-of-biological-anthropology-to-psychoneuroimmunology
#18
Eric C Shattuck
There is considerable research interest overlap between biological anthropology and psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), particularly given recent anthropological interest in endocrine and immune system functioning over the life span and in different environmental contexts. In this chapter, I argue that conducting research on non-WEIRD populations and applying an anthropological, evolutionary approach to PNI can greatly strengthen our understanding of immune-endocrine-behavior connections. This chapter reviews population-level variation in the human immune and endocrine systems, as well as genetic and environmental contributions to this variation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705840/intersections-between-neuroimmune-and-microbiota
#19
Colette G Ngo Ndjom, Xavier F Gonzalez, Harlan P Jones
Multidiscipline-based research holds promise toward revealing complex mechanisms that determine health and disease. For decades, scientists have conducted studies defining the relationships between neuroendocrine and immune function culminating into the discipline of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). In addition, the discipline of microbial endocrinology has similarly enhanced our understanding of disease processes. With an increase in genetic-based sequencing technologies, the convergence of neuroendocrine-immunological-microbial research is expected to significantly further such knowledge needed for medical discoveries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705839/stress-and-systemic-inflammation-yin-yang-dynamics-in-health-and-diseases
#20
Qing Yan
Studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) would provide better insights into the "whole mind-body system." Systems biology models of the complex adaptive systems (CASs), such as a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics," may be helpful for identifying systems-based biomarkers and targets for more effective prevention and treatment. The disturbances in the Yin-Yang dynamical balance may result in stress, inflammation, and various disorders including insomnia, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, skin disorders, and cancer...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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