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MRI focal cortical dysplasia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445916/bottom-of-sulcus-focal-cortical-dysplasia-presenting-as-epilepsia-partialis-continua-multimodality-characterization-including-7t-mri
#1
Sarah A Kelley, Shenandoah Robinson, Nathan E Crone, Bruno P Soares
INTRODUCTION: Bottom-of-sulcus focal cortical dysplasias are an under recognized, surgically treatable cause of focal epilepsy. Resection can dramatically reduce the seizure burden for children with refractory epilepsy, or eliminate seizures altogether. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report the case and present the results of multimodality evaluation of a 15-year-old young man who presented with long-standing partial epilepsy affecting his right leg, which over the years became refractory to therapy...
February 14, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422363/histopathology-of-3%C3%A2-tesla-mri-negative-extratemporal-focal-epilepsies
#2
Evangelos Kogias, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Jan-Helge Klingler, Barbara Schmeiser, Horst Urbach, Soroush Doostkam
BACKGROUND: Information about the histopathology in 3 Tesla MRI negative extratemporal epilepsies is relatively limited. Most common histopathological findings in earlier (mixed 1.5 or 3 Tesla) MRI-negative series are focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), gliosis or normal findings. These series mostly use the older Palmini criteria for classification and grading. We focus on histopathology of only 3 Tesla MRI-negative extratemporal epilepsies according to the current ILAE criteria and investigate potential correlation to seizure outcome 1 year postoperatively...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414526/morphometric-analysis-on-t1-weighted-mri-complements-visual-mri-review-in-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#3
Lily C Wong-Kisiel, Diego F Tovar Quiroga, Daniel L Kenney-Jung, Robert J Witte, Alexandra Santana-Almansa, Gregory A Worrell, Jeffrey Britton, Benjamin H Brinkmann
OBJECTIVE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common pathology in focal drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). Voxel based morphometric MRI analysis has been proposed as an adjunct to visual detection of FCD, which remains challenging given the subtle radiographic appearance of FCD. This study evaluates the diagnostic value of morphometric analysis program (MAP) in focal DRE with pathology-confirmed FCD. METHODS: Automated morphometric analysis program analysis generated z-score maps derived from T1 images, referenced to healthy adult or pediatric controls for each of 39 cases with pathology-confirmed FCD...
January 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398181/utility-of-additional-dedicated-high-resolution-3t-mri-in-children-with-medically-refractory-focal-epilepsy
#4
Raheel Ahmed, Luc Rubinger, Cristina Go, James M Drake, James T Rutka, O Carter Snead, Elysa Widjaja
PURPOSE: In patients with medically refractory epilepsy and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution dedicated MRI may identify cryptic lesions. The aim of this study was to assess improvement in lesion detection and its impact on clinical management, using additional high-resolution dedicated 3T MRI in children with medically refractory epilepsy who had normal 3T epilepsy protocol MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children who had resective epilepsy surgery and suspected focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) or normal 3T epilepsy protocol MRI were included...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334038/robotic-assisted-and-image-guided-mri-compatible-stereoelectroencephalography
#5
Jeffery A Hall, Hui Ming Khoo
BACKGROUND: Stereoelectroencephalography has been in regular use at the Montreal Neurological Institute since 1972. The technique has been in constant evolution to incorporate advances in materials, imaging, and robotics technology. MRI-compatible electrodes were introduced in 2007 and robotics in 2011. Here we report on the technique, safety, and advantages of our current method of stereoelectroencephalography implantation. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent stereoelectroencephalography by the senior author...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331846/functional-neuroimaging-in-rasmussen-syndrome
#6
Ichiro Kuki, Kazumi Matsuda, Yuko Kubota, Tetsuhiro Fukuyama, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Yushi Inoue, Haruo Shintaku
PURPOSE: For a diagnosis of Rasmussen syndrome (RS), clinical course together with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are considered important, but there are few reports on functional neuroimaging. This study investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR)-SPECT, and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxy glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in RS patients, and correlated neuroimaging results with MRI and pathological findings...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227798/histological-and-mri-markers-of-white-matter-damage-in-focal-epilepsy
#7
REVIEW
Francesco Deleo, Maria Thom, Luis Concha, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Neda Bernasconi
Growing evidence highlights the importance of white matter in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsy. Ex vivo and post-mortem studies show pathological changes in epileptic patients in white matter myelination, axonal integrity, and cellular composition. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its analytical extensions, particularly diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have been the most widely used technique to image the white matter in vivo for the last two decades, and have shown microstructural alterations in multiple tracts both in the vicinity and at distance from the epileptogenic focus...
November 23, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219786/periinsular-anterior-quadrantotomy-technical-note
#8
Giulia Cossu, Sebastien Lebon, Margitta Seeck, Etienne Pralong, Mahmoud Messerer, Eliane Roulet-Perez, Roy Thomas Daniel
Refractory frontal lobe epilepsy has been traditionally treated through a frontal lobectomy. A disconnective technique may allow similar seizure outcomes while avoiding the complications associated with large brain resections. The aim of this study was to describe a new technique of selective disconnection of the frontal lobe that can be performed in cases of refractory epilepsy due to epileptogenic foci involving 1 frontal lobe (anterior to the motor cortex), with preservation of motor function. In addition to the description of the technique, an illustrative case is also presented...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197666/surgical-outcome-and-predictive-factors-of-epilepsy-surgery-in-pediatric-isolated-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#9
Sun Ah Choi, Soo Yeon Kim, Hyuna Kim, Woo Joong Kim, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang, Ji Eun Choi, Byung Chan Lim, Jong-Hee Chae, Sangjoon Chong, Ji Yeoun Lee, Ji Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Ki Joong Kim
OBJECTIVE: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a common cause of medically intractable epilepsy in children. Epilepsy surgery has been a valuable treatment option to achieve seizure freedom in these intractable epilepsy patients. We aimed to present long-term surgical outcome, in relation to pathological severity, and to assess predictive factors of epilepsy surgery in pediatric isolated FCD. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 58 children and adolescents, with FCD International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force classification types I and II, who underwent resective epilepsy surgery and were followed for at least 2 years after surgery...
November 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137921/intraoperative-definition-of-bottom-of-sulcus-dysplasia-using-intraoperative-ultrasound-and-single-depth-electrode-recording-a-technical-note
#10
Dorothea Miller, Patrick Carney, John S Archer, Gregory J Fitt, Graeme D Jackson, Kristian J Bulluss
Bottom of sulcus dysplasias (BOSDs) are localized focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) centred on the bottom of a sulcus that can be highly epileptogenic, but difficult to delineate intraoperatively. We report on a patient with refractory epilepsy due to a BOSD, successfully resected with the aid of a multimodal surgical approach using neuronavigation based on MRI and PET, intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) and electrocorticography (ECoG) using depth electrodes. The lesion could be visualized on iUS showing an increase in echogenicity at the grey-white matter junction...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125946/a-stereo-eeg-study-in-a-patient-with-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-due-to-depdc5-mutation
#11
Lorenzo Ferri, Francesca Bisulli, Roberto Mai, Laura Licchetta, Chiara Leta, Lino Nobili, Barbara Mostacci, Tommaso Pippucci, Paolo Tinuper
PURPOSE: Dishevelled EGL-10 and pleckstrin domain-containing protein 5 (DEPDC5) mutations are found in a wide spectrum of focal epilepsies ranging from epilepsy caused by malformation of cortical development to non-lesional epilepsy, including sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE). A surgical approach has been anecdotally reported in patients with DEPDC5 mutations, but most of these cases had a lesional etiology. METHODS: We describe a stereo-EEG (SEEG) study in a patient with drug-resistant/non-lesional SHE...
November 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097316/quantitative-surface-analysis-of-combined-mri-and-pet-enhances-detection-of-focal-cortical-dysplasias
#12
Yee-Leng Tan, Hosung Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Tarik Tihan, Lawrence Ver Hoef, Susanne G Mueller, Anthony James Barkovich, Duan Xu, Robert Knowlton
OBJECTIVE: Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) often cause pharmacoresistant epilepsy, and surgical resection can lead to seizure-freedom. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) play complementary roles in FCD identification/localization; nevertheless, many FCDs are small or subtle, and difficult to find on routine radiological inspection. We aimed to automatically detect subtle or visually-unidentifiable FCDs by building a classifier based on an optimized cortical surface sampling of combined MRI and PET features...
October 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074057/magnetoencephalographic-characteristics-of-cortical-dysplasia-in-children
#13
Nitin Agarwal, Balu Krishnan, Richard C Burgess, Richard A Prayson, Andreas V Alexopoulos, Ajay Gupta
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Magnetoencephalography has emerged as a tool for preoperative evaluation in children. We aimed to study magnetoencephalography characteristics in subtypes of focal cortical dysplasia and correlate with postoperative seizure outcome. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were children ≤18 years who had magnetoencephalography during preoperative workup followed by epilepsy surgery and a histopathologic diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia between February 2008 and February 2013...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042148/histopathology-of-3%C3%A2-tesla-mri-negative-temporal-lobe-epilepsies
#14
Evangelos Kogias, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Jan-Helge Klingler, Barbara Schmeiser, Horst Urbach, Soroush Doostkam
INTRODUCTION: Histopathology of MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) shows heterogeneous findings. The use of either 1.5 or 3 Tesla MRI for the selection of MRI-negative cases and use of older classification systems instead of the current ILAE classification system may account for this heterogeneity. We focus on histopathology of 3 Tesla MRI-negative TLE according to ILAE criteria and investigate potential correlation to seizure outcome 1 year postoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty specimens (9 neocortical, 11 hippocampal) from eleven 3 Tesla MRI-negative patients with TLE were examined in two steps...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040640/pathology-mri-correlations-in-diffuse-low-grade-epilepsy-associated-tumors
#15
Aliya Al-Hajri, Salim Al-Mughairi, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Joan Liu, Anna Miserocchi, Andrew W McEvoy, Tarek Yousry, Chandrashekar Hoskote, Maria Thom
It is recognized that IDH mutation negative, low-grade epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) can show diffuse growth patterns and lack the diagnostic hallmarks of either classical dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) or typical ganglioglioma. "Nonspecific or diffuse DNT" and more recently "polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young" have been terms used for these entities. There are few reports on the MRI recognition of these diffuse glioneuronal tumors (dGNT), which is important in planning the extent of surgical resection...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034618/altered-electroencephalography-spectral-profiles-in-rats-with-different-patterns-of-experimental-brain-dysplasia
#16
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Władysław Węglarz, Krzysztof Janeczko
BACKGROUND: Malformations of cortical development, such as focal cortical dysplasia, are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy. Multiple animal models were created in attempts to recapitulate features of human malformations of cortical development. These manipulations give rise to various focal or diffuse anatomical abnormalities, accompanied by altered susceptibility to epileptic seizures. Both in humans and in models of dysplasia, the question of timing of the initiating insult is important...
October 16, 2017: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950221/spontaneous-seizure-remission-following-status-epilepticus-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-due-to-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#17
Nadine Girard, Eric Guedj, Patrick Chauvel, Fabrice Bartolomei, Aileen McGonigal
We describe a patient with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy related to right parietal focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), who became seizure-free following an episode of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) were performed before and after SE. Longitudinal MRI scans showed a stable appearance of the FCD with no new signal change. However, diffusion tensor imaging showed altered white matter fiber tract orientation in posterior cortices, especially in proximity to the lesion, at 3 years post-SE...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919879/automated-online-quantification-method-for-18-f-fdg-positron-emission-tomography-ct-improves-detection-of-the-epileptogenic-zone-in-patients-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#18
Vanessa Cristina Mendes Coelho, Marcia E Morita, Barbara J Amorim, Celso Darío Ramos, Clarissa L Yasuda, Helder Tedeschi, Enrico Ghizoni, Fernando Cendes
AIMS: To assess the validity of an online method to quantitatively evaluate cerebral hypometabolism in patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy as a complement to the visual analysis of the 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT exam. METHODS: A total of 39 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy and probable focal cortical dysplasia [22 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and 17 with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)] underwent a presurgical evaluation including EEG, video-EEG, MRI, and 18 F-FDG PET/CT...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833756/multinodular-and-vacuolating-neuronal-tumors-in-epilepsy-dysplasia-or-neoplasia
#19
Maria Thom, Joan Liu, Anika Bongaarts, Roy J Reinten, Beatrice Paradiso, Hans Rolf Jäger, Cheryl Reeves, Alyma Somani, Shu An, Derek Marsdon, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Lewis Thorne, Fay Newman, Sorin Bucur, Mrinalini Honavar, Tom Jacques, Eleonora Aronica
Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT) is a new pattern of neuronal tumour included in the recently revised WHO 2016 classification of tumors of the CNS. There are 15 reports in the literature to date. They are typically associated with late onset epilepsy and a neoplastic vs. malformative biology has been questioned. We present a series of ten cases and compare their pathological and genetic features to better characterized epilepsy-associated malformations including focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) and low-grade epilepsy-associated tumors (LEAT)...
August 19, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833053/a-distinct-clinicopathological-variant-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-iiid-characterized-by-loss-of-layer-4-in-the-occipital-lobe-in-12-children-with-remote-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#20
Dan-Dan Wang, Yue-Shan Piao, Ingmar Blumcke, Roland Coras, Wen-Jing Zhou, Qiu-Ping Gui, Cui-Cui Liu, Jing-Xia Hu, Li-Zhen Cao, Guo-Jun Zhang, De-Hong Lu
OBJECTIVE: In 2011, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a consensus classification system of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) to distinguish clinicopathological subtypes, for example, "isolated" FCD type Ia-c and IIa-b, versus "associated" FCD type IIIa-d. The histopathological differentiation of FCD type I and III variants remains, however, a challenging issue in everyday practice. We present a unique histopathological pattern in patients with difficult-to-diagnose FCD, which highlights this dilemma, but also helps to refine the current ILAE classification scheme of FCD...
October 2017: Epilepsia
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