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Shelby A Montague, Bruce S Baker
An animal's ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female...
2016: PloS One
Xianyu Song, Shuangliang Zhao, Shenwen Fang, Yongzhang Ma, Ming Duan
The dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method is used to investigate the adsorption behavior of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers at the liquid/solid interface. The effect of molecular architecture on the self-assembled monolayer adsorption of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers on hydrophobic surfaces is elucidated by adsorption process, film properties, adsorption morphologies, respectively. The adsorption thicknesses on hydrophobic surfaces and diffusion coefficient as well as aggregation number of Pluronic copolymers in aqueous solution observed in our simulations agree well with previous experimental and numerical observations...
October 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Sara Branco, Ke Bi, Hui-Ling Liao, Pierre Gladieux, Hélène Badouin, Christopher E Ellison, Nhu H Nguyen, Rytas Vilgalys, Kabir G Peay, John W Taylor, Thomas D Bruns
Recent advancements in sequencing technology allowed researchers to better address the patterns and mechanisms involved in microbial environmental adaptation at large spatial scales. Here we investigated the genomic basis of adaptation to climate at the continental scale in Suillus brevipes, an ectomycorrhizal fungus symbiotically associated with the roots of pine trees. We used genomic data from 55 individuals in seven locations across North America to perform genome scans to detect signatures of positive selection and assess whether temperature and precipitation were associated with genetic differentiation...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Nhu Nguyen, Else C Vellinga, Thomas D Bruns, Peter Kennedy
The genus Suillus represents one of the most recognizable groups of mushrooms in conifer forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Although for decades the genus has been relatively well defined morphologically, previous molecular phylogenetic assessments have provided important yet preliminary insights into its evolutionary history. Here we present the first large-scale phylogenetic study of the boundaries of each species in the genus Suillus based on the most current internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcode sequences available in public databases, as well as sequencing of 224 vouchered specimens and cultures, 15 of which were type specimens from North America...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Yiqin Jiang, Elise Pitmon, Jack Berry, Fred W Wolf, Zach McKenzie, Tim J Lebestky
Sleep is an essential behavioral state of rest that is regulated by homeostatic drives to ensure a balance of sleep and activity, as well as independent arousal mechanisms in the central brain. Dopamine has been identified as a critical regulator of both sleep behavior and arousal. Here we present results of a genetic screen that selectively restored the Dopamine Receptor (DopR/DopR1/dumb) to specific neuroanatomical regions of the adult Drosophila brain to assess requirements for DopR in sleep behavior. We have identified subsets of the mushroom body that utilize DopR in daytime sleep regulation...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Irene Roncero-Ramos, Mónica Mendiola-Lanao, Margarita Pérez-Clavijo, Cristina Delgado-Andrade
Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Oludemi Taofiq, Sandrina A Heleno, Ricardo C Calhelha, Maria José Alves, Lillian Barros, Maria Filomena Barreiro, Ana M González-Paramás, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The cosmetic industry is in a constant search for natural compounds or extracts with relevant bioactive properties, which became valuable ingredients to design cosmeceutical formulations. Mushrooms have been markedly studied in terms of nutritional value and medicinal properties. However, there is still slow progress in the biotechnological application of mushroom extracts in cosmetic formulations, either as antioxidants, anti-aging, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory agents or as hyperpigmentation correctors...
October 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jun Hyuk Son, Joon Hyuk Choi, Su-Ho Lim
PURPOSE: To present a rare case of a conjunctival hypertrophic scar presenting as eyelid mass after surgical treatment of a chalazion. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old man visited our clinic with severe ocular discomfort and excessive lacrimation since several months in his left eye accompanied by itching of the upper eyelid. Examination of the anterior segment revealed a 6 mm (horizontal) × 8 mm (vertical) round, immobile, hard, mushroom-shaped protruding mass on the tarsal conjunctiva of his left eye...
2016: SpringerPlus
Qunying Lin, Liangkun Long, Liangliang Wu, Fenglun Zhang, Shuling Wu, Weiming Zhang, Xiaoming Sun
BACKGROUND: In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), usually cereal grains were utilized as cultivation substrates. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Zahra Boghrati, Maryam Naseri, Mitra Rezaie, Ngoc Pham, Ronald J Quinn, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi
OBJECTIVES: In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae), a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Hanna Zwaka, Daniel Münch, Gisela Manz, Randolf Menzel, Jürgen Rybak
In the honeybee brain, two prominent tracts - the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tract - project from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes (ALs), to the central brain, the mushroom bodies (MBs), and the protocerebral lobe (PL). Intracellularly stained uniglomerular projection neurons were reconstructed, registered to the 3D honeybee standard brain atlas, and then used to derive the spatial properties and quantitative morphology of the neurons of both tracts. We evaluated putative synaptic contacts of projection neurons (PNs) using confocal microscopy...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Siti Nurjaliah Muhammad, Faradiella Mohd Kusin, Mohd Syakirin Md Zahar, Ferdaus Mohamat Yusuff, Normala Halimoon
Passive bioremediation of metal- and sulfate-containing acid mine drainage (AMD) has been investigated in a batch study. Multiple substrates were used in the AMD remediation using spent mushroom compost (SMC), limestone, activated sludge (AS), and woodchips (WC) under anoxic conditions suitable for bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). Limestones used were of crushed limestone (CLS) and uncrushed limestone, provided at two different ratios in mixed substrates treatment and varied by the proportion of SMC and limestone...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Prashant Pendyala, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Hong Nam Kim, Il-Joo Cho, Eui-Sung Yoon
Nanoscale patterns have dimensions that are comparable to the length scales affected by intermolecular and surface forces. In this study, we systematically investigated the individual roles of curvature, surface energy, lateral stiffness, material, pattern density on the characteristics of the adhesion and friction of nanopatterns. For this purpose, we used a combination of capillary force lithography and nanodrawing methods to fabricate cylindrical and mushroom-shaped pillars with flat- and round-top morphologies...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bhabatosh Banik, Brett W Askins, Shanta Dhar
The field of intracellular organelle targeting using nanoparticle (NP) is mushrooming rapidly. Thus, the area of nanotechnology-enabled targeting of mitochondrion, the cellular powerhouse, for diseases characterized by mitochondrial dysfunctions such as cancer, diseases of the central nervous system, and cardiovascular diseases is also growing at a rapid pace. Optimization of a NP's ability to target the mitochondria requires quantification of the particles in this subcellular organelle and isolation of mitochondria from the cells...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
Shaukat Ali M Shaikh, Atanu Barik, Beena G Singh, Ramani V Madukuri, Neduri V Balaji, Gottumukkal V Subbaraju, Devidas B Naik, K Indira Priyadarsini
Hispolon (HS), a natural polyphenol found in medicinal mushrooms, and its isoxazole (HI) and pyrazole (HP) derivatives have been examined for free radical reactions and in vitro antioxidant activity. Reaction of these compounds with one-electron oxidant, azide radicals (N3(•)) and trichloromethyl peroxyl radicals (CCl3O2(•)), model peroxyl radicals, studied by nanosecond pulse radiolysis technique, indicated formation of phenoxyl radicals absorbing at 420 nm with half life of few hundred microseconds (µs)...
October 13, 2016: Free Radical Research
Annewieke J W Verloop, Jean-Paul Vincken, Harry Gruppen
Formation of black tea thearubigins involves at least two of the following oxidation steps: (i) oligomerization, (ii) rearrangement, (iii) hydroxylation. The first two are mainly catalysed by polyphenol oxidase(PPO), whereas the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation has not yet been identified. Two main oxidative activities, peroxidase(POD) and PPO, occur in tea leaves. POD was hypothesized to be responsible for hydroxylation. Model systems with horseradish POD and mushroom tyrosinase were used investigating hydroxylation of theaflavins(TF)...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Namrita Lall, Elizabeth Mogapi, Marco Nuno de Canha, Bridget Crampton, Mabatho Nqephe, Ahmed A Hussein, Vivek Kumar
Greyia radlkoferi ethanol extract and its five compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity against the mushroom tyrosinase enzyme and melanin production on melanocytes. The crude extract showed significant tyrosinase inhibition with IC50 of 17.96μg/ml. This is the first report of the isolation of these 5 compounds from Greyia radlkoferi. 2',4',6'-Trihydroxydihydrochalcone showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition at 17.70μg/ml (68.48μM), with low toxicity when compared with crude extract. This compound is therefore, a key component in the crude extract, which is responsible for tyrosinase inhibitory activity...
September 22, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Renata Kasper-Pakosz, Marcin Pietras, Łukasz Łuczaj
BACKGROUND: The study of plants and fungi sold in open-air markets is an important part of ethnobotanical enquiry. Only few such studies were carried out in Europe. METHODS: Four of the largest open-air markets of south-eastern Poland were visited regularly, and the plants sold in them were recorded between 2013 and 2015. The aim of the study was to record native and/or wild species sold in the markets. All the plants sold in the markets were photographed regularly...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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