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Xia Zhang, Cuiyu Bao, Jingping Zhang
Breast cancer is amongst the most common cancers causing death of women worldwide. Breast cancer occurrence is more prominent in people with diabetes. A recent trend is management of diabetes and cancer has evolved to be natural remedy including single molecule therapy or combination. In this study, we investigated the effect of inotodiol on breast cancer growth in diabetic conditions. Inotodiol is a lanostane triterpenoid found in natural resources like edible mushroom Inonotus obliquus. We established a rat model of diabetic-breast cancer by treating female Sprague-Dawley rats with streptazotocin (STZ) at 35 mg/kg followed by induction of breast cancer by administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) at 10 mg/kg...
January 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Shota Suenami, Shiori Iino, Takeo Kubo
Although the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory in insects have been studied intensively, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in early memory formation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe), whose product is involved in calcium signaling, is almost selectively expressed in the mushroom bodies, a brain structure important for learning and memory in the honeybee. Here, we pharmacologically examined the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in learning and memory in the honeybee...
January 12, 2018: Biology Open
Zhenna Zhang, Juan Wang, Xueying Zhang, Qingli Shi, Le Xin, Hongfei Fu, Yunyang Wang
This paper is focused on the effects of radio frequency (RF) heating on the relative activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), weight loss, texture, color, and microstructure of potatoes. The results showed that pure mushroom PPO was almost completely inactivated at 80 °C by RF heating. The relative activity of potato PPO reduced to less than 10% with increasing temperature (25-85 °C). Enzyme extract showed the lowest PPO relative activity at 85 °C after RF treatment, followed by the potato cuboids and mashed potato, about 0...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Zhen Gao, Zhuoyuan Wang, Baile Zhang
It has been recently reported that the unit cell of wire media metamaterials can be tailored locally to shape the flow of electromagnetic waves at deep-subwavelength scales [Nat. Phys.9, 55 (2013)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys2480]. However, such bulk structures have a thickness of at least the order of wavelength, thus hindering their applications in the on-chip compact plasmonic integrated circuits. Here, based upon a Sievenpiper "mushroom" array [IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 2059 (1999)IETMAB0018-948010...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Yujun Xie, Wanki Kim, Yerin Kim, Sangbum Kim, Jemima Gonsalves, Matthew BrightSky, Chung Lam, Yu Zhu, Judy J Cha
Understanding and possibly recovering from the failure mechanisms of phase change memories (PCMs) are critical to improving their cycle life. Extensive electrical testing and postfailure electron microscopy analysis have shown that stuck-set failure can be recovered. Here, self-healing of novel confined PCM devices is directly shown by controlling the electromigration of the phase change material at the nanoscale. In contrast to the current mushroom PCM, the confined PCM has a metallic surfactant layer, which enables effective Joule heating to control the phase change material even in the presence of a large void...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Materials
James H Diaz
Amatoxins are produced primarily by 3 species of mushrooms: Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina. Because amatoxin poisonings are increasing, the objective of this review was to identify all amatoxin-containing mushroom species, present a toxidromic approach to earlier diagnoses, and compare the efficacies and outcomes of therapies. To meet these objectives, Internet search engines were queried with keywords to select peer-reviewed scientific articles on amatoxin-containing mushroom poisoning and management. Descriptive epidemiological analyses have documented that most mushroom poisonings are caused by unknown mushrooms, and most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by amatoxin-containing mushrooms...
January 8, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Xiaoliang Zhao, Daniela Lenek, Ugur Dag, Barry Dickson, Krystyna Keleman
Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBg), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory...
January 11, 2018: ELife
Adam David Morris, Derek Muir, Keith Solomon, Camilla Teixeira, Mark Duric, Xiaowa Wang
The trophodynamics of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative HFRs were investigated in the terrestrial, vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst Region of northern Canada. The greatest concentrations in vegetation (geometric mean of lichens, moss, grasses, willow, and mushrooms) were of the order 2,4,6-tribromophenyl allyl ether (TBP-AE) (10 ng g-1 lw) > BDE47 (5.5 ng g-1 lw) > BDE99 (3.9 ng g-1 lw) > BDE100 (0.82 ng g-1 lw) > 1,2,3,4,5-pentabromobenzene (PBBz) (0...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Laura Cornara, Giulia Pastorino, Barbara Borghesi, Annalisa Salis, Marco Clericuzio, Carla Marchetti, Gianluca Damonte, Bruno Burlando
Seagrasses are high plants sharing adaptive metabolic features with both terrestrial plants and marine algae, resulting in a phytocomplex possibly endowed with interesting biological properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro activities on skin cells of an ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, family Potamogetonaceae, herein named Posidonia ethanolic extract (PEE). PEE showed high radical scavenging activity, high phenolic content, and resulted rich in chicoric acid, as determined through HPLC-MS analysis...
January 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Quan Xiang, Zhiqin Li, Mengjie Zheng, Qing Liu, Yiqin Chen, Lan Yang, Tian Jiang, Huigao Duan
Elevated metallic nanostructures with nanogaps (<10 nm) possess advantages for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) via the synergic effects of nanogaps and efficient decoupling from the substrate through an elevated three-dimensional (3D) design. In this work, we demonstrate a pattern-transfer-free process to reliably define elevated nanometer-separated mushroom-shaped dimers directly from 3D resist patterns based on the gap-narrowing effect during the metallic film deposition. By controlling the initial size of nanogaps in resist structures and the following deposited film thickness, metallic nanogaps could be tuned at the sub-10-nm scale with single-digit nanometer precision...
January 10, 2018: Nanotechnology
Kenji Suetsugu, Masahiro Sueyoshi
The monocot genus Aspidistra comprises rhizomatous perennials that are distributed in tropical to warm temperate regions of Asia. Little is known about the pollinators of almost all the species, probably due to the inconspicuous nature of Aspidistra flowers. Nevertheless, the unusual floral morphology suggests biotic pollination, since pollen grains are hidden under each flower's stigma. Aspidistra elatior has been suspected to have a very peculiar pollination ecology. So far, pollination by mollusks, crustaceans, or collembolans has been suspected...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Makiko Orita, Yuko Kimura, Yasuyuki Taira, Toshiki Fukuda, Jumpei Takahashi, Oleksandr Gutevych, Serghii Chornyi, Takashi Kudo, Shunichi Yamashita, Noboru Takamura
Mushrooms are recognized as one of the main contributors to internal radiation exposure from the activity concentration of radiocesium released by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNNP). We evaluated the activity concentrations of the artificial radionuclides (radiocesium) in wild mushrooms collected in 2015 from Korosten and Lugine, Zhitomir region, Ukraine, located 120 km away from the CNPP. Cesium-137 was detected in 110 of 127 mushroom samples (86.6%). Based on the average mushroom consumption (5 kg per year), we calculated committed effective doses ranging from 0...
2018: PeerJ
Yuhan Ma, Huaqi He, Jingzhu Wu, Chunyang Wang, Kuanglin Chao, Qing Huang
Ganoderma lingzhi (G. lingzhi), G. sinense, G. applanatum, etc. belongs to the Ganoderma genus of polypore mushrooms which contain rich polysaccharides valuable for nutrition and positive medicinal effects. In order to evaluate polysaccharide content in Ganoderma mycelia obtained in the fermentation process quickly and accurately, in this work we employed infrared spectroscopy to examine different Ganoderma stains of samples from diversified sources. Through mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy, we could identify the most relevant spectral bands required for polysaccharide evaluation, and through near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, we could establish the quantification model for making satisfactory prediction of polysaccharide ingredient content...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thiago Inácio Barros Lopes, Roberta Gomes Coelho, Neli Kika Honda
Several applications have been proposed for tyrosinase inhibitors in the pharmaceutical, food bioprocessing, and environmental industries. However, only a few compounds are known to serve as effective tyrosinase inhibitors. This study evaluated the tyrosinase-related activity of resorcinol (1), orcinol (2) lecanoric acid (3), and derivatives of this acid (4-15). Subjected to alcoholysis, lecanoric acid (3), a depside isolated from the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum, produces orsellinic acid (2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid) (4) and orsellinates (2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl benzoates) (5-15)...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ki Wung Chung, Hyeong Oh Jeong, Eun Kyeong Lee, Su Jeong Kim, Pusoon Chun, Hae Young Chung, Hyung Ryong Moon
Abnormal pigmentation owing to excessive melanin synthesis can result in serious problems such as freckles, age-spots, and melanoma. Tyrosinase inhibitors have been an interesting target for the treatment of hyperpigmentation because tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. The screening for strong tyrosinase inhibitors led to the finding of the flavonoid galangin, which showed notable inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase. The IC50 value of galangin (3.55±0.39 µM) was lower than that of kojic acid (48...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Pengqiang Du, Xiaohu Wu, Jun Xu, Fengshou Dong, Yingchun Shi, Yuanbo Li, Xingang Liu, Yongquan Zheng
Pesticide residue in mushrooms is less known. In this study, the risks of beta-cypermethrin, pyriproxyfen, avermectin, and diflubenzuron in oyster and shiitake mushrooms were evaluated using two different treatments: substrate mixture and surface spraying. Almost all the concentrations of these pesticides at day 90 were higher than 80% of the initial concentrations, while it was less than 45% for all cases within 35 days by spraying. For surface spraying, the residues of beta-cypermethrin were 0.0843-1.22 mg kg-1 in shiitake mushrooms and below 0...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A S Axambayeva, L R Zhaparova, Zh S Shagyrova, E M Ramankulov, A V Shustov
Tyrosinases catalyze oxidation of phenols with a formation of biphenols, quinones, and highly polymerized melanins. Tyrosinases have prospects for industrial use to remove phenols, also in biosensors, in bioorganic synthesis, and for a production of biocompatible adhesives (medical glues). Despite growing fields of potential applications, a selection of commercially available tyrosinases are currently limited to a single enzyme which is isolated from fruiting bodies of mushrooms. This article describes a preparation of recombinant tyrosinase from a bacterium Verrucomicrobium spinosum using a heterologous expression in Escherichia coli...
January 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ting-Lei Tao, Feng-Jie Cui, Xiao-Xiao Chen, Wen-Jing Sun, Da-Ming Huang, Jinsong Zhang, Yan Yang, Di Wu, Wei-Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Mushroom showed pellet, clump and/or filamentous mycelial morphologies during submerged fermentation. Addition of microparticles including Talc (magnesium silicate), aluminum oxide and titanium oxide could control mycelial morphologies to improve mycelia growth and secondary metabolites production. Here, effect of microparticle Talc (45 μm) addition on the mycelial morphology, fermentation performance, monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides and enzymes activities associated with polysaccharide synthesis in G...
January 6, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Wei Gao, Jibin Qu, Jinxia Zhang, Anton Sonnenberg, Qiang Chen, Yan Zhang, Chenyang Huang
BACKGROUND: Pleurotus tuoliensis (Bailinggu) is a commercially cultivated mushroom species with an increasing popularity in China and other Asian countries. Commercial profits are now low, mainly due to a low yield, long cultivation period and sensitivity to diseases. Breeding efforts are thus required to improve agronomical important traits. Developing saturated genetic linkage and physical maps is a start for applying genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the precise breeding programs...
January 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Gyeong-A Ko, Somi Kim Cho
Ethyl linoleate is an unsaturated fatty acid used in many cosmetics for its various attributes, such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and clinically proven to be an effective anti-acne agent. In this study, we investigated the effect of ethyl linoleate on the melanogenesis and the mechanism underlying its action on melanogenesis in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Our results revealed that ethyl linoleate significantly inhibited melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-induced B16F10 cells, but it did not directly inhibit activity of mushroom tyrosinase...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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