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Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Di Wang, Qian Li, Yidi Qu, Mengya Wang, Lanzhou Li, Yang Liu, Yu Li
Gloeostereum incarnatum , a precious edible mushroom, displays anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its immunomodulatory effect has not been studied yet. The present study aimed to investigate whether polysaccharide compositions of G. incarnatum polysaccharides (GIPS) possess immunomodulatory and immuno-enhancing effects in a Cyclophosphamide monohydrate (CTX)-induced BALB/c mice model. The 28-day GIPS administration at doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 g/kg remarkably reversed the bodyweight loss, increased the thymic index and promoted T lymphocyte proliferation in CTX-induced immunosuppressed mice...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dan-Dan Wang, Qing-Xi Wu, Wen-Juan Pan, Sajid Hussain, Shomaila Mehmood, Yan Chen
Background: Polysaccharides extracted from fungus that have been used widely in the food and drugs industries due to biological activities. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumor-suppressive activity and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide (SAP) extracted from Sarcodon aspratus . Methods: The SAP was extracted and purified using Sepharose CL-4B gel from S. aspratus . The cytotoxicity of SAP on cell lines was determined by MTT method...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Dinghui Yu, Ying Tan, Molee Chakraborty, Seth Tomchik, Ronald L Davis
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that elp3 and elp1 are required for aversive long-term olfactory memory in Drosophila RNAi knockdown of elp3 in adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory (LTM) without affecting earlier forms of memory...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Himangshu Sonowal, Kirtikar Shukla, Sumedha Kota, Ashish Saxena, Kota V Ramana
Increased side toxicities and development of drug resistance are the major concern for the cancer chemotherapy using synthetic drugs. Therefore, identification of novel natural antioxidants with potential therapeutic efficacies is important. In the present study, we have examined how the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of vialinin A, a p-terphenyl compound derived from Chinese edible mushroom T. terrestris and T. vialis , prevents human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) neovascularization in vitro and in vivo models...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Kamal U Zaidi, Sharique A Ali, Ayesha S Ali
Background: Human skin exists in a wide range of different colors and gradations, ranging from white to brown to black. This is due to the presence of a chemically inert and stable pigment known as melanin, which is produced deep inside the skin but is displayed as a mosaic at the surface of the body. Methods & Materials: In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway...
2018: Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal
Chunhua Wang, Dongmei Lin, Quan Chen, Shuqian Lin, Songsheng Shi, Chunmei Chen
The Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) mushroom is one of the most extensively studied functional foods, known for its numerous health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. The present study assessed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of a novel G. lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GL-PP) in human glioma U251 cells, which was purified from grass-cultured G. lucidum . GL-PP is a glycopeptide with an average molecular weight of 42,635 Da and a polysaccharide-to-peptide ratio of 88...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Shih-Jeng Huang, Fu-Kuei Huang, Yu-Shan Li, Shu-Yao Tsai
Cordyceps militaris , a medicinal and edible mushroom, was used to ferment buckwheat and embryo rice by solid-state fermentation (SSF). Our aim was to investigate the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) light irradiation on the content of vitamin D2 and biologically effective components, and antioxidant properties of buckwheat and embryo rice in SSF with C. militaris . Irradiated samples of buckwheat and embryo rice fermented by C. militaris had significantly increased vitamin D2 content, from 0-0.3 to 1.18-16.79 μg/g, while the increase in fresh embryo rice fermented by C...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Yugal Kishore Mohanta, Debasis Nayak, Kunal Biswas, Sameer Kumar Singdevsachan, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah, Abeer Hashem, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Dhananjay Yadav, Tapan Kumar Mohanta
The present study demonstrates an economical and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the wild mushroom Ganoderma sessiliforme . The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed and the products characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis was performed to identify the viable biomolecules involved in the capping and active stabilization of AgNPs...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Darija Cör, Željko Knez, Maša Knez Hrnčič
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) is a popular medicinal mushroom and has been used in oriental medicine because of its promoting effects on health and life expectancy. G. lucidum contains various compounds with a high grade of biological activty, which increase the immunity and show antitumour, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Several of these substances belong to the triterpenoids and polysaccharides classes. Proteins, lipids, phenols, sterols, etc. are also present...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Seung-Yoon Oh, Young Woon Lim
Tricholoma matsutake (pine mushroom) (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) is a valuable edible fungal species that cannot be cultivated artificially. As an ectomycorrhizal fungus, T. matsutake interacts with trees belonging to the Pinaceae and Fagaceae, and forms fairy rings around host trees that are arc-shaped areas with dense hyphae of T. matsutake in the soil. Because the fairy rings maintain their dense hyphae for several years and form fruiting bodies, the characteristics of the fairy ring may be important in understanding the ecology of T...
March 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Runak Ghobadi, Rasoul Mohammadi, Javaher Chabavizade, Masoud Sami
Background: Ganoderma lucidum from Ganodermataceae family is a kind of mushroom known to have various therapeutic properties such as lowering high blood sugar and high blood pressure, boosting the immune system as well as its antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Materials and Methods: this study investigated the oxidative stability, microbial and sensory properties of sausage at three different treatments; (i) 1% w/w Ganoderma lucidum powder (GLP) without nitrite as a food preservative (P), (ii) 0...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Seunghyeon Kim, Michael F Fenech, Pan-Jun Kim
Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eliseo Portilla-de Buen, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, David González-Tapia, Caridad Leal-Cortés, Rodrigo Mondragón-Lozano, Stephanie Sánchez-Torres, Laura Álvarez-Mejía, Omar Fabela-Sánchez, Néstor I Martínez-Torres, Myrna M González-Ramírez, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Ignacio González-Burgos
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is highly incapacitating, and the neurobiological factors involved in an eventual functional recovery remain uncertain. Plastic changes to dendritic spines are closely related with the functional modifications of behavior. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the plastic response of dendritic spines in motoneurons after SCI. METHODS: Female rats were assigned to either of three groups: Intact (no manipulations), Sham (T9 laminectomy), and SCI (T9 laminectomy and spinal cord contusion)...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Hee Jin Jung, Min Jung Lee, Yeo Jin Park, Sang Gyun Noh, A Kyoung Lee, Kyoung Mi Moon, Eun Kyeong Lee, Eun Jin Bang, Yun Jung Park, Su Jeong Kim, Jungho Yang, Sultan Ullah, Pusoon Chun, Young Suk Jung, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung
As part of continued efforts for the development of new tyrosinase inhibitors, (Z)-5-(substituted benzylidene)-2-iminothiazolidin-4-one derivatives (1a - 1l) were rationally synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory potential in vitro. These compounds were designed and synthesized based on the structural attributes of a β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold template. Among these compounds, (Z)-5-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-iminothiazolidin-4-one (1e, MHY773) exhibited the greatest tyrosinase inhibition (IC50 = 2...
March 9, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Benjamin Mutschlechner, Bettina Rainer, Stefan Schwaiger, Hermann Stuppner
Activity guided isolation of a methanolic extract of the aerial plant parts of Wulfenia carinthiaca Jacq. (Plantaginaceae), using a mushroom tyrosinase assay, resulted in the isolation of five phenylethanoid glucosides and four iridoid glycosides. Two of those, 2'-O-acetylisoplantamajoside and 2',6''-O-diacetylisoplantamajoside, represent new natural products. Evaluation of the inhibitory activity of all isolated compounds revealed that the observed activity is not related to the isolated phenylethanoid glycosides but mainly due to the presence of the iridoid glycoside globularin (IC50 41...
March 9, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Oleg B Shevelev, Alisa A Seryapina, Evgenii L Zavjalov, Lyudmila A Gerlinskaya, Tatiana N Goryachkovskaya, Nikolay M Slynko, Leonid V Kuibida, Sergey E Peltek, Arcady L Markel, Mikhail P Moshkin
BACKGROUND: As the standard clinically used hypotensive medicines have many undesirable side effects, there is a need for new therapeutic agents, especially ones of a natural origin. PURPOSE: One possible candidate is extract from the mushroom Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), which is used in the treatment and prevention of many chronic diseases. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To study the effectiveness of Reishi, which grows in the Altai Mountains, as an antihypertensive agent, we intragastrically administered Reishi water extract to adult male hypertensive ISIAH (inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension) rats...
March 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Xiaobo Peng, Chunyan Wang, Lili Bai, Jianguang Dong, Xiaoxia Lu, Yanqing Liu, Zewu Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical manifestation and therapeutic method in patients with acute mushroom poisoning. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of 48 patients with acute mushroom poisoning admitted to Department of Poisoning Treatment of the 307th Hospital of PLA from January 2016 to May 2017 were analyzed. The clinical data including gender, age, clinical symptoms, onset season, initial symptoms, incubation time, the length of hospital stay, treatment, and prognosis...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Martin F Strube-Bloss, Wolfgang Rössler
Flowers attract pollinating insects like honeybees by sophisticated compositions of olfactory and visual cues. Using honeybees as a model to study olfactory-visual integration at the neuronal level, we focused on mushroom body (MB) output neurons (MBON). From a neuronal circuit perspective, MBONs represent a prominent level of sensory-modality convergence in the insect brain. We established an experimental design allowing electrophysiological characterization of olfactory, visual, as well as olfactory-visual induced activation of individual MBONs...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Shad Uddin Mahfuz, Hui Song, Zhongjun Liu, Xinyu Liu, Zipeng Diao, Guihong Ren, Zhixin Guo, Yan Cui
Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stem waste (FVW), on organic eggs production, calcium utilization, antibody response, serum immunoglobulin, and serum cytokine concentration at early phase of production in laying hens. Methods: A total 210, 19 weeks old aged ISA Brown layers were randomly assigned into 5 equal treatment groups, with 7 replications of 6 hens each. Dietary treatment includes a standard basal diet as control; antibiotic (0...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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