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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345432/utero-placental-perfusion-doppler-indices-in-growth-restricted-fetuses-effect-of-sildenafil-citrate
#1
Mohamed Adel El-Sayed, Said Abdel-Aty Saleh, Mohammad Ahmed Maher, Asmaa Mohamed Khidre
OBJECTIVE: To assess efficacy and tolerability of sildenafil citrate on utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: From March 2015, a randomized controlled trial of 54 patients at 24 weeks or more complicated by FGR and abnormal Doppler indices were randomly allocated 1:1 into an intervention arm (receive sildenafil citrate, 50 mg) or a control arm (receive placebo). The primary outcomes were changes occurred in the Doppler parameters 2 h following drug administration...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344561/fetal-growth-restriction-induces-heterogeneous-effects-on-vascular-biomechanical-and-functional-properties-in-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#2
Daniel Cañas, Emilio A Herrera, Claudio García-Herrera, Diego Celentano, Bernardo J Krause
Aim: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with a variety of cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood which could involve remodeling processes of the vascular walls that could start in the fetal period. However, there is no consensus whether this remodeling affects in a similar way the whole vascular system. We aimed to determine the effects of FGR on the vasoactive and biomechanical properties of umbilical and systemic vessels in fetal guinea pigs. Methods: FGR was induced by implanting ameroid occluders at mid-gestation in uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs, whilst the control group was exposed to simulated surgery...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339475/correction-the-world-health-organization-fetal-growth-charts-a-multinational-longitudinal-study-of-ultrasound-biometric-measurements-and-estimated-fetal-weight
#3
Torvid Kiserud, Gilda Piaggio, Guillermo Carroli, Mariana Widmer, José Carvalho, Lisa Neerup Jensen, Daniel Giordano, José Guilherme Cecatti, Hany Abdel Aleem, Sameera A Talegawkar, Alexandra Benachi, Anke Diemert, Antoinette Tshefu Kitoto, Jadsada Thinkhamrop, Pisake Lumbiganon, Ann Tabor, Alka Kriplani, Rogelio Gonzalez, Kurt Hecher, Mark A Hanson, A Metin Gülmezoglu, Lawrence D Platt
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002220.].
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339117/intraexaminer-and-interexaminer-variability-in-3d-fetal-volume-measurements-during-the-second-and-third-trimesters-of-pregnancy
#4
Louise E Simcox, Lucy E Higgins, Jenny E Myers, Edward D Johnstone
OBJECTIVES: To assess intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability of 3-dimensional fetal sonographic measurements. METHODS: Three-dimensional fetal organ volumes (head, kidney, total thigh volume, and fractional thigh volume) were acquired during the second and third trimesters, with the addition of placental volume in the second trimester, by 2 different experienced, blinded sonographers. Fifty-eight fetuses were examined from 21 to 39 weeks' gestation. Intraexaminer and Interexaminer reliability was assessed with Bland-Altman plots, and their 95% limits of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338874/does-fetal-growth-restriction-cause-later-obesity-pitfalls-in-analyzing-causal-mediators-as-confounders
#5
Michael S Kramer, Xun Zhang, Mourad Dahhou, Seungmi Yang, Richard M Martin, Emily Oken, Robert W Platt
Recent studies finding that small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth is associated with increased adiposity in childhood and adulthood have been based on analyses "adjusting" for height, weight, or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) measured concurrently with the adiposity measurement. To assess the potential for bias due to overadjustment for a causal mediator, we compared 2 approaches to analyzing the association between SGA birth and adiposity outcomes (skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance measurement of body fat) at age 11...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337745/placental-phenotype-and-the-insulin-like-growth-factors-resource-allocation-to-fetal-growth
#6
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Ionel Sandovici, Miguel Constancia, Abigail L Fowden
The placenta is the main determinant of fetal growth and development in utero. It supplies all the nutrients and oxygen required for fetal growth and secretes hormones that facilitate maternal allocation of nutrients to the fetus. Furthermore, the placenta responds to nutritional and metabolic signals in the mother by altering its structural and functional phenotype which can lead to changes in maternal resource allocation to the fetus. The molecular mechanisms by which the placenta senses and responds to environmental cues are poorly understood...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332335/second-to-third-trimester-longitudinal-growth-assessment-for-the-prediction-of-sga-and-late-fgr
#7
J Caradeux, E Eixarch, E Mazarico, T R Basuki, E Gratacos, F Figueras
BACKGROUND: Detection of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains poor. Most screening strategies rely on a cross-sectional evaluation of fetal size at one point during the third trimester. A longitudinal and individualized approach may allow a more appropriate evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To compare second to third trimester longitudinal growth assessment with cross-sectional evaluation at third trimester in the prediction of SGA and late FGR. METHODS: A cohort of 2696 unselected singletons pregnancies scanned at 21 ± 2 and 32 ± 2 weeks was created...
March 23, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327604/chymase-producing-cells-of-the-innate-immune-system-are-required-for-decidual-vascular-remodeling-and-fetal-growth
#8
Nicole Meyer, Katja Woidacki, Martin Knöfler, Gudrun Meinhardt, Désirée Nowak, Philipp Velicky, Jürgen Pollheimer, Ana C Zenclussen
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by insufficient remodeling of spiral arteries (SAs). The mechanism underlying the relevance of natural killer cells (NKs) and mast cells (MCs) for SA remodeling and its effects on pregnancy outcome are not well understood. We show that NK depletion arrested SA remodeling without affecting pregnancy. MC depletion resulted in abnormally remodeled SAs and IUGR. Combined absence of NKs and MCs substantially affected SA remodeling and impaired fetal growth. We found that α-chymase mast cell protease (Mcpt) 5 mediates apoptosis of uterine smooth muscle cells, a key feature of SA remodeling...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324040/cord-blood-adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein-levels-correlate-with-gestational-age-and-birth-weight-in-neonates
#9
Kyoung Eun Joung, Sule Umit Cataltepe, Zoe Michael, Helen Christou, Christos S Mantzoros
Context: Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) have increased risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome in future life, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, is an adipokine that has been implicated in modulation of insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. Higher plasma AFABP levels are associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular morbidity in adults. Alterations in AFABP levels during fetal growth have not been characterized...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322267/exposure-of-pregnant-mice-to-triclosan-impairs-placental-development-and-nutrient-transport
#10
Xinyuan Cao, Xu Hua, Xiaoli Wang, Ling Chen
Triclosan (TCS) is associated with spontaneous abortions and fetal growth restriction. Here, we showed that when pregnant mice were treated with 8 mg/kg TCS (8-TCS mice) on gestational days (GD) 6-18 fetal body weights were lower than controls. Placental weights and volumes were reduced in 8-TCS mice. The placental proliferative cells and expression of PCNA and Cyclin D3 on GD13 were remarkably decreased in 8-TCS mice. The decreases in activities and expression of placental System A amino acid or glucose transporters on GD14 and GD17 were observed in 8-TCS mice...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321896/does-tea-consumption-during-early-pregnancy-have-an-adverse-effect-on-birth-outcomes
#11
Jin-Hua Lu, Jian-Rong He, Song-Ying Shen, Xue-Ling Wei, Nian-Nian Chen, Ming-Yang Yuan, Lan Qiu, Wei-Dong Li, Qiao-Zhu Chen, Cui-Yue Hu, Hui-Min Xia, Suzanne Bartington, Kar Keung Cheng, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Xiu Qiu
BACKGROUND: Tea, a common beverage, has been suggested to exhibit a number of health benefits. However, one of its active ingredients, caffeine, has been associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We investigated whether tea consumption during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and abnormal fetal growth. METHODS: A total of 8775 pregnant women were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Tea consumption (type, frequency, and strength) during their first trimester and social and demographic factors were obtained by way of questionnaires administered during pregnancy...
March 21, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320595/brain-death-during-pregnancy-and-prolonged-corporeal-support-of-the-body-a-critical-discussion
#12
Lynne Staff, Meredith Nash
AIM: To discuss corporeal support of the brain-dead pregnant woman and to critically examine important aspects of this complex situation that remain as yet unexplored. BACKGROUND: When brain death of the woman occurs during pregnancy, the fetus may be kept inside the corporeally supported body for prolonged periods to enable continued fetal growth and development. This has been increasingly reported in medical literature since 1982 and has received considerable media attention in the past few years...
March 17, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320344/risk-factors-associated-with-adverse-perinatal-outcome-in-planned-vaginal-breech-labors-at-term-a-retrospective-population-based-case-control-study
#13
Georg Macharey, Mika Gissler, Veli-Matti Ulander, Leena Rahkonen, Mervi Väisänen-Tommiska, Mika Nuutila, Seppo Heinonen
BACKGROUND: Vaginal breech delivery is associated with adverse perinatal outcome. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with adverse perinatal outcome in term breech pregnancies, and to provide clinicians an aid in selecting women for a trial of vaginal labor with the fetus in breech position. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide, Finnish population-based case-control study. All planned singleton vaginal deliveries at term with the fetus in breech position between the years 2005 and 2014 were analyzed...
March 20, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#14
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306539/three-dimensional-power-doppler-of-the-placenta-and-its-clinical-applications
#15
Kelly Yamasato, Ivica Zalud
The aim of this review is to discuss three dimensional (3D) power Doppler of the placenta and its clinical applications. There is a strong clinical need to develop noninvasive, simple and widely available methods of evaluating in vivo placental function to assess fetal wellbeing. While conventional ultrasound is a proven tool in the evaluation of fetal structural anomalies and health, its ability to assess placental function, especially prior to the onset of fetal compromise, is the subject of ongoing investigation...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303777/placental-up-regulation-of-leptin-and-arms2-is-associated-with-growth-discordance-in-monochorionic-diamniotic-twin-pregnancies
#16
Luming Sun, Jia Zhou, Kai Wang, Jian Wang, Ling Shang, Jianguang Zhang, Junqing Wu, David S Cram
Fetal growth discordance is a relatively common complication of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies and is caused by a combination of maternal and placental factors. The aim of the study was to survey placental gene expression patterns and identify genes associated with growth discordance. Clinical samples comprised eight growth-discordant MCDA twin placentas (31+3-34+4 weeks gestational age) and six growth-concordant twin placentas (31+2-37 weeks gestational age). Gene expression libraries were constructed from placental biopsy samples and analyzed by RNA-sequencing...
April 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302957/relationship-between-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-umbilical-cord-plasma-and-birth-weight-follows-a-u-shaped-curve
#17
Junji Takaya, Yuko Tanabe, Yuichi Kuroyanagi, Kazunari Kaneko
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. NO regulates placental blood flow, which plays an important role in fetal growth. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that restricted fetal growth is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We studied the relationship between ADMA in cord blood and birth size. Nine small for gestational age (SGA) and 32 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were studied...
March 7, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300070/hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-on-overweight-status-of-their-children
#18
S Zhang, L Wang, J Leng, H Liu, W Li, T Zhang, N Li, W Li, H Tian, A A Baccarelli, L Hou, G Hu
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) as a group of medical complications in pregnancy are believed to be associated with an increased risk of poor fetal growth, but the influence on offspring's body composition is not clear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between maternal HDP and overweight status in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional study among 1263 GDM mother-child pairs was performed in Tianjin, China. General linear models and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of maternal hypertension in pregnancy with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298846/menkes-disease-and-response-to-copper-histidine-an-indian-case-series
#19
Sangeetha Yoganathan, Sniya Valsa Sudhakar, Gautham Arunachal, Maya Thomas, Annadurai Subramanian, Renu George, Sumita Danda
BACKGROUND: Menkes disease (MD) is an X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ATP7A gene. Depending on the residual ATP7A activity, manifestation may be classical MD, occipital horn syndrome, or distal motor neuropathy. Neurological sparing is expected in female carriers. However, on rare occasions, females may manifest with classical clinical phenotype due to skewed X-chromosome inactivation, X-autosome translocation, and XO genotype. Here, we describe a small series of probands with MD and their response to copper histidine therapy...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298172/potential-prognostic-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-fetal-macrosomia-the-impact-of-gestational-diabetes
#20
Despina D Briana, Κleopatra Germanou, Μaria Boutsikou, Theodora Boutsikou, Νikolaos Athanasopoulos, Αntonios Μarmarinos, Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Αriadne Malamitsi-Puchner
OBJECTIVE: Fetal macrosomia is associated with cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiovascular risk. Cardiac biomarkers may play diagnostic/prognostic role in cardiovascular disease. We tested whether cardiac biomarkers are differentially expressed in cord blood samples of full-term singleton large-for-gestational-age (LGA), as compared to appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) pregnancies. METHODS: Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), Titin, pentraxin (PTX-3) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) concentrations were determined in 80 cord blood samples from a) LGA pregnancies due to maternal diabetes (n = 8), overweight/obese (n = 11), excessive weight gain (n = 7), without specific pathology (n = 14), b) AGA normal pregnancies (controls, n = 40)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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