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Hyponatremia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646130/congenital-chloride-diarrhea-ccd-a-case-report-of-ccd-suspected-by-prenatal-ultrasonography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri
#1
Takakazu Kawamura, Tomizou Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is difficult to distinguish from fetal lower intestinal obstruction. A prenatal diagnosis will make a contribution to the prognosis of the newborn. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) prenatally suspected by ultrasound and MRI. The prenatal ultrasound revealed signs of intestinal dilatation suggesting lower intestinal obstruction. MRI findings also revealed intestinal dilatation that continued from the rectum...
June 24, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642866/evaluation-of-serum-for-pathophysiological-effects-of-prolonged-low-salinity-water-exposure-in-displaced-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#2
Ruth Y Ewing, Blair Mase-Guthrie, Wayne McFee, Forrest Townsend, Charles A Manire, Michael Walsh, Rose Borkowski, Gregory D Bossart, Adam M Schaefer
We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641170/efficacy-and-safety-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-monotherapy-for-partial-onset-seizures-experience-from-a-multicenter-observational-study
#3
Rafael Toledano, Camilo Espinosa Jovel, Adolfo Jiménez-Huete, Pau Giner Bayarri, Dulce Campos, Elena López Gomariz, Beatriz González Giráldez, Irene García-Morales, Mercé Falip, Paula Martínez Agredano, Susana Palao, María José Aguilar Amat Prior, María Rosa Querol Pascual, Francisco José Navacerrada, Francisco Javier López González, Joaquín Ojeda, Aránzazu Alfaro Sáez, Pedro Emilio Bermejo, Antonio Gil-Nagel
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL, Aptiom™) is a once-daily anticonvulsant, approved as adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures (POS). Historical-controlled trials investigating the use of ESL as monotherapy have demonstrated a favorable efficacy and tolerability profile in patients with POS. This prospective, non-interventional study recruited POS patients in 17 hospitals in Spain. After a 3-month baseline period, ESL therapy was initiated as 400mg QD and up-titrated to an optimal maintenance dose based on clinical response and tolerance...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638573/acute-intermittent-porphyria-a-test-of-clinical-acumen
#4
Rashmi Dhital, Sijan Basnet, Dilli Ram Poudel, Khema Raj Bhusal
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare autosomal dominant hepatic porphyria due to deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), also known as porphobilinogen deaminase leading to accumulation of porphyrin precursors. However, gene defect alone is usually not sufficient to cause an acute attack, and many extrinsic factors play a role. Diagnostic tests are defined, but clinical suspicion is often delayed as symptoms mimic other common conditions. We report a case of a 18-year-old male with severe, persistent, and generalized abdominal pain along with marked hyponatremia, with subsequent development of altered mentation needing intensive care...
March 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631393/comparison-of-thiazide-like-diuretics-versus-thiazide-type-diuretics-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Wenjing Liang, Hui Ma, Luxi Cao, Wenjiang Yan, Jingjing Yang
Thiazide diuretics are widely used for the management of hypertension. In recent years, it has been actively debated that there is interchangeability of thiazide-type diuretics hydrochlorothiazide and thiazide-like diuretics including indapamide and chlorthalidone for the treatment of hypertension. With the purpose of seeking out the best thiazide diuretic for clinicians, we summarized the existing evidence on the two types of drugs and conducted a meta-analysis on their efficacy in lowering blood pressure and effects on blood electrolyte, glucose and total cholesterol...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625070/mckittrick-wheelock-syndrome-unusual-but-potentially-lethal
#6
María López Álvarez, Jesús Ángel Yañéz López, Aldara Naveiras Calvo
McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is characterized by extracellular volume depletion and severe fluid and electrolyte imbalance caused by secretory tumors of the rectum, usually villous adenomas. Patients usually present signs of dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and prerenal azotemia due to the chronic diarrhea, rich in ions and water. Since this is a potencially lethal entity without treatment, and a very unusual condition, we report a clinical case. Treatment consists in surgical resection of the tumor, although endoscopy polypectomy has also been reported...
June 19, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623637/pure-small-cell-recurrent-prostate-cancer-developing-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion
#7
Giorgia Peverelli, Paolo Grassi
PURPOSE: Pure small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is a rare entity characterized by a poor prognosis due to early metastatic spread as well as resistance to treatment. Considering its increasing occurrence, clinicians should be aware of its aggressive behavior, the relevance of an early diagnosis, and proper management. METHODS: A 71-year-old man treated with brachytherapy for localized low-risk prostate cancer developed widespread disease 7 years later with a prostate-specific antigen-negative neuroendocrine small cell phenotype...
June 14, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623175/elevated-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-is-associated-with-hyponatremia-in-hypertensive-patients
#8
Ariel Israel, Ehud Grossman
BACKGROUND: Recently, the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure is beneficial, but is associated with more adverse events. Hyponatremia was notably more frequent in the intensive treatment group. Investigating its risk factors is crucial for preventing this complication. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for hyponatremia in the adult population. METHODS: We investigated the baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory data from the 9,361 participants of SPRINT to identify the best predictors of hyponatremia (serum sodium ≤ 130mEq/L), and adverse events which could be attributed to hyponatremia, using machine learning and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622213/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-induced-hyponatremia-clinical-implications-and-therapeutic-alternatives
#9
María Varela Piñón, Jaime Adán-Manes
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed among the general population. Despite their benign side effect profile, these drugs can cause significant adverse effects in elderly patients, including severe hyponatremia. We report 1 case of SSRI-induced hyponatremia and review therapeutic alternatives. CASE: We present an 81-year-old male patient treated with sertraline and furosemide who presented with a recent-onset symptomatic hyponatremia...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620355/role-of-the-vasopressin-apelin-balance-and-potential-use-of-metabolically-stable-apelin-analogs-in-water-metabolism-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Adrien Flahault, Pierre Couvineau, Rodrigo Alvear-Perez, Xavier Iturrioz, Catherine Llorens-Cortes
Apelin, a (neuro)vasoactive peptide, plays a prominent role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular functions. In animal models, experimental data demonstrate that intracerebroventricular injection of apelin into lactating rats inhibits the phasic electrical activity of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. In the kidney, apelin increases diuresis by increasing the renal microcirculation and by counteracting the antidiuretic effect of AVP at the tubular level...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619670/hyponatraemia-diagnosis-and-treatment-clinical-practice-guidelines
#11
Goce Spasovski, Raymond Vanholder, Bruno Allolio, Djillali Annane, Steve Ball, Daniel Bichet, Guy Decaux, Wiebke Fenske, Ewout J Hoorn, Carole Ichai, Michael Joannidis, Alain Soupart, Robert Zietse, Maria Haller, Sabine van der Veer, Wim van Biesen, Evi Nagler, Liliana Gonzalez-Espinoza, Alberto Ortiz
Hyponatremia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135mmol/l, is the most common water-electrolyte imbalance encountered in clinical practice. It can lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from mild to severe or even life threatening, and is associated with increased mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay. Despite this, the management of hyponatremia patients remains problematic. The prevalence of hyponatremia in a wide variety of conditions and the fact that hyponatremia is managed by clinicians with a broad variety of backgrounds have fostered diverse institution- and specialty-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment...
June 12, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618404/prevalence-of-hyponatremia-and-its-associated-morbimortality-in-hospitalized-patients-receiving-parenteral-nutrition
#12
Emilia Gómez-Hoyos, Martín Cuesta, Nayade Del Prado-González, Pilar Matía, Natalia Pérez-Ferre, Daniel Antonio De Luis, Alfonso Calle-Pascual, Miguel Ángel Rubio, Isabelle Runkle-De la Vega
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia (HN) and its associated morbimortality in hospitalized patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: A retrospective study including 222 patients receiving total PN (parenteral nutrition group [PNG]) over a 7-month period in a tertiary hospital and 176 matched to 179 control subjects without PN (control subjects group [CSG]). Demographic data, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), date of HN detection-(serum sodium or SNa <135 mmol/L)-intrahospital mortality, and hospital length-of-stay (LOS) were registered...
June 16, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613005/prognostic-role-of-hypochloremia-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients
#13
H-Z Bei, S-J You, D Zheng, C-K Zhong, H-P Du, Y Zhang, T-S Lu, L-D Cao, X-F Dong, Y-J Cao, C-F Liu
OBJECTIVES: The impact of electrolyte imbalance on clinical outcomes after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is still not understood. We investigated the association between hypochloremia and hyponatremia upon hospital admission and in-hospital mortality in AIS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 3314 AIS patients enrolled from December 2013 to May 2014 across 22 hospitals in Suzhou city were included in this study. Hypochloremia was defined as having a serum chloride concentration <98 mmol/L and hyponatremia as having a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L...
June 14, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611199/u-s-food-and-drug-administration-approval-summary-atezolizumab-for-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Chana Weinstock, Sean Khozin, Daniel Suzman, Lijun Zhang, Shenghui Tang, Sakar Wahby, Kirsten B Goldberg, Geoffrey Kim, Richard Pazdur
On October 18 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved atezolizumab (TECENTRIQ®, Genentech Inc.) for treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) whose disease progressed during or following platinum-containing chemotherapy. Approval was based on demonstration of clinically meaningful improvements in overall survival (OS) and an acceptable safety profile in two randomized clinical trials (OAK and POPLAR). Median OS in OAK, a phase III trial, was 13.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11...
June 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608260/water-electrolyte-acid-base-and-trace-elements-alterations-in-cirrhotic-patients
#15
REVIEW
Carlos G Musso, Rossina Juarez, Richard J Glassock
Chronic hepatic patients, and particularly those suffering from cirrhosis, are predisposed to different sort of water, electrolyte, acid-base, and trace elements disorders due to their altered liver function, and also to their exposition to infectious, inflammatory, oncologic, and pharmacologic variables whose combination undermines their homeostatic capability. Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory, and metabolic alkalosis are the main internal milieu alterations in this group...
June 12, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605557/practice-patterns-for-neurosurgical-utilization-and-outcome-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-intensive-blood-pressure-reduction-in-acute-cerebral-hemorrhage-trials-1-and-2-studies
#16
Rui Guo, David J Blacker, Xia Wang, Hisatomi Arima, Pablo M Lavados, Richard I Lindley, John Chalmers, Craig S Anderson, Thompson Robinson
BACKGROUND: The prognosis in acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is related to hematoma volume, where >30 mL is commonly used to define large ICH as a threshold for neurosurgical decompression but without clear supporting evidence. OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with large ICH and neurosurgical intervention among participants of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trials (INTERACT). METHODS: We performed pooled analysis of the pilot INTERACT1 (n = 404) and main INTERACT2 (n = 2839) studies of ICH patients (<6 h of onset) with elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150-220 mm Hg) who were randomized to intensive (target SBP < 140 mm Hg) or contemporaneous guideline-recommended (target SBP < 180 mm Hg) management...
June 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600073/serum-sodium-correction-rate-and-the-outcome-in-severe-hyponatremia
#17
Mauro Giordano, Tiziana Ciarambino, Emanuela Lo Priore, Pietro Castellino, Lorenzo Malatino, Alessandro Cataliotti, Giuseppe Paolisso, Luigi Elio Adinolfi
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We investigated the serum sodium correction rate on length of hospitalization and survival rate, in severe chronic hyponatremic patients at the Emergency Department (ED). DESIGN: An observational study using clinical chart review. SETTING: The ED of the University Hospital of Marcianise, Caserta, Italy with approximately 30,000 patients visits a year. TYPE OF PARTICIPANTS: We reviewed sixty-seven patients with severe hyponatremia subdivided in 2 subgroups: group A consisting of 35 patients with serum sodium correction rate<0...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597041/efficacy-and-safety-of-postoperative-bio-chemoradiotherapy-using-cetuximab-and-docetaxel-for-high-risk-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-in-japan
#18
Goshi Nishimura, Osamu Shiono, Daisuke Sano, Kenichiro Yabuki, Yasuhiro Arai, Yoshihiro Chiba, Teruhiko Tanabe, Nobuhiko Oridate
PURPOSE: To confirm the efficacy and safety of cetuximab and docetaxel in postoperative radiotherapy for high-risk head and neck cancer patients who cannot to be administered high-dose cisplatin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The eligibility criteria required stage III-IVB head and neck cancer patients who had undergone total resection, and for whom pathological evaluation revealed positive or close margins in the primary site and/or extracapsular nodal extension and/or two or more nodal metastases...
June 8, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593907/opioid-induced-hyponatremia-in-a-patient-with-central-diabetes-insipidus-independence-from-adh
#19
Nandini Bhat, Erjola Balliu, Jennifer Osipoff, Andrew Lane, Thomas Wilson
Hyponatremia can be a complication of opioid therapy, which has been postulated to occur secondary to inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion [SIADH]). We report severe hyponatremia following wisdom teeth extraction with opioid analgesia in a 19-year-old female with diabetes insipidus (DI) and acquired panhypopituitarism that challenges this theory. As this patient has DI, we believe opioid treatment caused severe hyponatremia by the following mechanisms: (1) Opioids have a direct antidiuretic effect independent of changes in ADH, as demonstrated in Brattleboro rats with central DI...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593901/pseudohypoaldosteronism-types-i-and-ii-little-more-than-a-name-in-common
#20
Dídac Casas-Alba, Jordi Vila Cots, Laura Monfort Carretero, Loreto Martorell Sampol, Maria-Christina Zennaro, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Juan Antonio Camacho Díaz
Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) comprises a diverse group of rare diseases characterized by sodium and potassium imbalances incorrectly attributed to a defect in aldosterone production. Two different forms of PHA have been described, type I (PHAI) and type II (PHAII). PHAI has been subclassified into renal and systemic. Given the rarity and heterogeneity of this group of disorders we report three patients who carry PHA and a brief revision of current literature focused on the comparative analysis of PHAI and PHAII...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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